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Corbett Alexandra J AJ 1] Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia - - 2014
T cells discriminate between foreign and host molecules by recognizing distinct microbial molecules, predominantly peptides and lipids. Riboflavin precursors found in many bacteria and yeast also selectively activate mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, an abundant population of innate-like T cells in humans. However, the genesis of these small organic molecules ...
Ingber Donald E DE Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University, Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, and Boston Children's Hospital, 3 Blackfan Circle, CLSB5, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2014
The recent convergence between physics and biology has led many physicists to enter the fields of cell and developmental biology. One of the most exciting areas of interest has been the emerging field of mechanobiology that centers on how cells control their mechanical properties, and how physical forces regulate cellular ...
Tang Zhi - - 2014
mTor plays a central role in controlling protein homeostasis and cell survival. Recently, we have demonstrated that perturbations of mTor signaling are implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and that mTor complex 1 (mTorC1) is involved in the formation of toxic phospho-tau. Therefore, we employed mass spectrometry- based proteomics to identify ...
Savaiano Dennis A DA Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, - - 2014
Yogurt is traditionally consumed throughout the world among populations who are seemingly unable to digest lactose. This review provides a historical overview of the studies that show lactose digestion and tolerance from yogurt by lactose-intolerant people. The lactose in yogurt is digested more efficiently than other dairy sources of lactose ...
Hosseinimehr Seyed Jalal - - 2014
Abstract Natural products like vegetables, fruits, and herbs are widely consumed by humans on a daily basis. These natural products have many biologic and pharmacologic properties. Ionizing radiation (IR) can interact with macromolecules like DNA, which induces serious side effects on cells and tissues. Natural products can directly scavenge free ...
Gonzalez-Hernandez Mariam B MB Department of Microbiology and - - 2014
Microfold (M) cells are specialized intestinal epithelial cells that internalize particulate antigens and aid in the establishment of immune responses to enteric pathogens. M cells have also been suggested as a portal for pathogen entry into the host. While virus particles have been observed in M cells, it is not ...
Wen Xiaoyun X Department of Pediatrics, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA - - 2014
The assembly and release of retroviruses from the host cells requires dynamic interactions between viral structural proteins and a variety of cellular factors. It has been long speculated that the actin cytoskeleton is involved in retrovirus production, and actin and actin-related proteins are enriched in HIV-1 virions. However, the specific ...
Ramakrishna Suresh S Hanyang - - 2014
RNA-guided endonucleases (RGENs) derived from the CRISPR/Cas system represent an efficient tool for genome editing. RGENs consist of two components: Cas9 protein and guide RNA. Plasmid-mediated delivery of these components into cells can result in uncontrolled integration of the plasmid sequence into the host genome and unwanted immune responses and ...
Zuo Zhenghong - - 2014
It has been reported that organotin compounds such as triphenyltin or tributyltin (TBT) induce diabetes and insulin resistance. However, histopathological effects of organotin compounds on the Islets of Langerhans and exocrine pancreas are still unclear. In the present study, male KM mice were orally administered with TBT (0.5, 5 and ...
Bernstein Michael B MB 1 Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center , Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New - - 2014
Abstract We sought to determine if single-dose external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) could modulate the expression signature of T-cell costimulatory and coinhibitory molecules in human prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines in vitro. We investigated the functional impact of irradiated PCa cells with a modulated costimulatory profile on responder T-cell activity. ...
Guinn Michael - - 2014
Decoders are combinational circuits that convert information from n-inputs to a maximum of 2n outputs. This operation is of major importance in computing systems yet it is vastly underexplored in synthetic biology. Here, we present a synthetic gene network architecture that operates as a biological decoder in human cells, converting ...
Hartley Tom T Department of Psychology, University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
In this issue of Neuron,Bjerknes et al. (2014) show that cells responding to environmental boundaries (border/boundary cells) are present as soon as rat pups can independently explore their environment. These boundary-based representations may thus provide a scaffold for other, later emerging, spatial representations.
Gabrielse Kari K Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Minnesota, 308 Harvard Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 - - 2014
The ability to engineer and re-program the surfaces of cells would provide an enabling synthetic biological method for the design of cell- and tissue-based therapies. A new cell surface-engineering strategy is described that uses lipid-chemically self-assembled nanorings (lipid-CSANs) that can be used for the stable and reversible modification of any ...
Leroy Bernard B Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris, 6 75005, Paris, - - 2014
Tumor-derived cell lines play an important role in the investigation of tumor biology and genetics. Across a wide array of studies, they have been tools of choice for the discovery of important genes involved in cancer and for the analysis of the cellular pathways that are impaired by diverse oncogenic ...
Smith Nathaniel E NE Departments of *Pathology ∥Urology ¶Oncology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD †Department of Pathology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine-Greenville, Greenville, SC ‡Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA §Departments of Pathology/Microbiology, Pediatrics and Orthopedic Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, - - 2014
We report the third case of a renal cell carcinoma bearing a fusion of the vinculin (VCL) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genes. Like the 2 other reported cases, this neoplasm occurred in a young patient (6 y old) with sickle-cell trait and demonstrated distinctive morphologic features including medullary epicenter, ...
Wu Wen-Rui WR Department of Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Surgery, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510120, P.R. - - 2014
The Notch signaling pathway has been reported to play crucial roles in inhibiting hepatocyte differentiation and allowing formation of intrahepatic bile ducts. However, little is known about its significance in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Notch1 expression in ICC tissues ...
Yang Ning N Department of Otorhinolaryngology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, P.R. - - 2014
SOX2 is a high mobility group box containing transcription factor that has been reported to be aberrantly overexpressed in various human malignancies, including laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). However, the potential role of SOX2 in LSCC migration and invasion remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we generated stable ...
Tan Shihjye S Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Keck Medical School, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, - - 2014
Cells respond to various chemical signals as well as environmental aspects of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that may alter cellular structures and functions. Hence, better understanding of the mechanical stimuli of the matrix is essential for creating an adjuvant material that mimics the physiological environment to support cell growth and ...
Kim Jae Eun JE Oncology Research, Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Pearl River, NY 10965, - - 2014
While cancer cell mitochondria mediate actions of many successful chemotherapeutics, little is known about mitochondrial response in mTOR-targeted anticancer therapy. We have studied mitochondrial dynamics in relation to growth suppression employing an allosteric inhibitor rapalog, a highly selective mTOR kinase inhibitor (mTOR-KI) and mTOR-ShRNA. Global targeting of mTOR increased mitochondrial ...
Newman Stuart A SA Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595 USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
A description and update of the "egg-as-novelty" hypothesis is presented. It is proposed that the major animal phylum-characteristic suites of morphological motifs first emerged more than a half-billion years ago in multicellular aggregates and clusters that did not exhibit an egg-soma divergence. These pre-metazoan bodies were organized by "dynamical patterning ...
Liu Fang F Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research/Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Propofol is a widely used general anesthetic. A growing body of data suggests that perinatal exposure to general anesthetics can result in long-term deleterious effects on brain function. In the developing brain there is evidence that general anesthetics can cause cell death, synaptic remodeling, and altered brain cell morphology. Acetyl-L-carnitine ...
Kawai Yoshikazu Y Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Medical School, Newcastle University, Richardson Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Morphogenesis, the development of shape or form in cells or organisms, is a fundamental but poorly understood process throughout biology. In the bacterial domain, cells have a wide range of characteristic shapes, including rods, cocci, and spirals. The cell wall, composed of a simple meshwork of long glycan strands crosslinked ...
Cheng Meichu M Department of Nephrology, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; Institute of Nephrology, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, - - 2014
To construct a connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and red fluorescent protein (RFP)-coexpressed renal tubular epithelial cell that can be used to quantitatively evaluate the CTGF-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The CTGF and RFP coding sequences were linked with a "2A" peptide, cloned into an expressing vector, and the HK-C2AR cell ...
Huang Er-Wen EW Guangzhou Institute of Forensic Science, Guangzhou, China; Department of Forensic Pathology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, - - 2014
The molecular mechanisms of multiple myeloma are not well defined. EEN is an endocytosis-regulating molecule. Here we report that EEN regulates the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells, by regulating IGF-1 secretion. In the present study, we observed that EEN expression paralleled with cell proliferation, EEN accelerated cell proliferation, ...
Williams Margot M Department of Cell Biology; University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, - - 2014
The mechanisms of tissue convergence and extension (CE) driving axial elongation in mammalian embryos, and in particular, the cellular behaviors underlying CE in the epithelial neural tissue, have not been identified. Here we show that mouse neural cells undergo mediolaterally biased cell intercalation and exhibit both apical boundary rearrangement and ...
Lubkov Veronica V Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, - - 2014
Apoptotic extrusion is a multicellular process utilized by live cells to remove neighboring apoptotic cells. In epithelial tissues, this process has been shown to be critical for the preservation of tissue integrity and barrier function [1, 2]. Here we demonstrate that extrusion is driven by the retraction of the apoptotic ...
Buzgariu Wanda W Department of Genetics and Evolution, University of Geneva, Sciences III, 30 Quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4, - - 2014
Hydra is a freshwater hydrozoan polyp that constantly renews its two tissue layers thanks to three distinct stem cell populations that cannot replace each other, epithelial ectodermal, epithelial endodermal, and multipotent interstitial. These adult stem cells, located in the central body column, exhibit different cycling paces, slow for the epithelial, ...
Chai Jingwen - - 2014
Cell population represent an intrinsically heterogeneous and stochastic system, in which individual cells often behave very differently in molecular content, functions and even genotypes from the population average in response to uniform physiological stimuli. The traditional bulk cellular analysis often overlooks cellular heterogeneity and does not provide information on cell-cell ...
Luo Y M YM Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, P.R. - - 2014
Melanoma has traditionally been viewed as a radioresistant cancer. However, recent studies suggest that under certain clinical circumstances, radiotherapy may play a significant role in the treatment of melanoma. Previous studies have demonstrated that telomere length is a hallmark of radiosensitivity. The newly discovered mammalian CTC1‑STN1-TEN1 (CST) complex has been ...
Xie Bu-Shan BS Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, P.R. - - 2014
Matrine, one of the main components extracted from Sophora flavescens, has exhibited pharmacological effects on the differentiation in rat liver oval cells. However, its function and mechanism have not yet been fully elucidated. To further investigate them, an in vitro model was established using a rat liver oval cell line called ...
Xu Xiaoyan X Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191, P.R. China; Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Inner Monglia Medical College, Huhhot, 010059, P.R. China; Department of Pathology, The Affiliated Hospital of Inner Monglia Medical College, Huhhot, 010059, P.R. - - 2014
Homo sapiens longevity assurance homolog 2 of yeast LAG1 (LASS2), also known as tumor metastasis suppressor gene 1 (TMSG1), was firstly cloned by our laboratory in 1999. However, its antitumor molecular mechanisms are still unclear. LASS2/TMSG-1 could directly interact with the C subunit of Vacuolar H(+) ATPase (V-ATPase), which suggested ...
Rakshit Kuntol K Larry L. Hillblom Islet Research Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of California Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, 900A Weyburn Place, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, - - 2014
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex metabolic disease characterized by the loss of beta-cell secretory function and mass. The pathophysiology of beta-cell failure in T2DM involves a complex interaction between genetic susceptibilities and environmental risk factors. One environmental condition that is gaining greater appreciation as a risk factor ...
Jurczyk Agata A University of Massachusetts Medical School, Diabetes Center of Excellence, Worcester, Massachusetts, - - 2014
Therapies that increase functional β-cell mass may be the best long-term treatment for diabetes. Significant resources are devoted toward this goal, and progress is occurring at a rapid pace. Here, we summarize recent advances relevant to human β-cell regeneration. New β-cells arise from proliferation of pre-existing β-cells or transdifferentiation from ...
Lee Sang Hoon SH 1Department of Anatomy, Korea University College of Medicine , Inchonro, Seoul , - - 2014
ABSTRACT Adipose stem cells (ASCs) are detectable in the parenchyma and large airways of lungs after systemic administration, and ameliorate inflammatory infiltration and cell death in animal models of emphysema. We evaluated whether ASC treatment could attenuate lung fibrosis induced by repetitive intratracheal bleomycin administration. Male 8-week-old C57BL/6J mice (control ...
Foley Kate S KS *School of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, University College Cork, Cork, - - 2014
α-Actinins are a major class of actin filament cross-linking proteins expressed in virtually all cells. In muscle, actinins cross-link thin filaments from adjacent sarcomeres. In non-muscle cells, different actinin isoforms play analogous roles in cross-linking actin filaments and anchoring them to structures such as cell-cell and cell-matrix junctions. Although actinins ...
Zhang J J Department of Plastic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, - - 2014
Metastatic melanoma is a disease with high mortality and limited therapeutic options. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can be used to classify melanoma stage. Expression of the miRNA miR-125b and serine/threonine kinase mixed lineage kinase (MLK)3 was assessed in primary malignant melanoma tissues and several melanoma cell lines by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. ...
Wutz Anton A Institute of Molecular Health Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Hoenggerberg, Schafmattstrasse 22, 8049 Zurich, - - 2014
Haploid genetics holds great promise for understanding genome evolution and function. Much of the work on haploid genetics has previously been limited to microbes, but possibilities now extend to animal species, including mammals. Whereas haploid animals were described decades ago, only very recent advances in culture techniques have facilitated haploid ...
Lituiev Dmytro S DS *Institute of Plant Biology and Zürich-Basel Plant Science Centre, University of Zürich, CH-8008 Zürich, - - 2014
The FG (female gametophyte) of flowering plants (angiosperms) is a simple highly polar structure composed of only a few cell types. The FG develops from a single cell through mitotic divisions to generate, depending on the species, four to 16 nuclei in a syncytium. These nuclei are then partitioned into ...
Shaheen Fozia F *Clinical Sciences Research Laboratories, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, University Hospital, Coventry CV2 2DX, - - 2014
MG (methylglyoxal) is a potent glycating agent and an endogenous reactive dicarbonyl metabolite formed in all live cells and organisms. It is an important precursor of AGEs (advanced glycation end-products) and is implicated in aging and disease. MG is assayed by derivatization by 1,2-diaminobenzene derivatives in cell extracts. Such assays ...
Ståhlberg Anders A 1Department of Pathology, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, University of Gothenburg, Box 425, 40530 Gothenburg, - - 2014
Biological material is heterogeneous and when exposed to stimuli the various cells present respond differently. Much of the complexity can be eliminated by disintegrating the sample, studying the cells one by one. Single-cell profiling reveals responses that go unnoticed when classical samples are studied. New cell types and cell subtypes ...
Atchison Nicole N Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, - - 2014
Islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes, but despite the successes, existing challenges prevent widespread application. Ischemia, occurring during pancreas preservation and isolation, as well as after islet transplantation, decreases islet viability and function. We hypothesized that the liposomal delivery of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) could prevent the ...
Tsai Chia-Hung Dylan - - 2014
This paper proposes a new index for evaluating the stiffness-based deformability of a cell using a microchannel. In conventional approaches, the transit time of a cell through a microchannel is often utilized for the evaluation of cell deformability. However, such time includes both the information of cell stiffness and viscosity. ...
Ben Qiwen Q Department of Gastroenterology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, P.R. - - 2014
The aim of the present study was to establish the effect of silencing L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) on the proliferation, invasion, cell cycle progression and apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells, and to determine the potential molecular mechanisms that are involved. The human Capan-2 pancreatic cancer cell line was infected ...
Lee Jong Cheol JC Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, Republic of Korea; Department of Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, Republic of - - 2014
There are limited therapeutic options for patients with recurrent head and neck cancer after radiation therapy failure. To assess the use of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) as a salvage chemotherapeutic agent for recurrent cancer after radiation failure, we investigated the effect of clinically relevant cumulative irradiation on TRAIL-induced ...
Falci Saulo Gabriel Moreira SG Department of Dentistry, College of Basic Sciences and Health, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Diamantina, MG, - - 2014
Central giant cell lesion (CGCL) and peripheral giant cell lesion (PGCL) are non-neoplastic proliferative processes of the jaws. PGCL is a reactive process induced by irritant local factors and CGCL is an intra-osseous lesion of unknown etiology. Both lesions exhibit similar histologic features showing abundant mononuclear cells, admixed with a ...
Ohki Takeshi T Department of Surgery, Institute of Gastroenterology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666, Japan; Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University (TWIns), 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have captured the world's attention and directed an unprecedented focus on regenerative medicine. The potential of iPS cells to aid in the development of new treatments for various diseases is exciting, and researchers are only beginning to discover their potential benefits for humans. iPS cells ...
Yu Jun J Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Key Laboratory of Multi-Organ Transplantation of Ministry of Public Health, Hangzhou 310003, China. - - 2014
FBW7 is a tumor suppressor which regulates a network of proteins with central roles in cell division, cell growth and differentiation. This study aimed to evaluate the role of FBW7 in chemosensitivity and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in different hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and to investigate the relevant underlying mechanisms. ...
Abdemur Abraham A Cleveland Clinic Florida, Weston, - - 2014
The role of the hormone ghrelin in the pathogenesis of morbid obesity is unclear. Researchers have identified its involvement in multifunctional activities that include appetite regulation, intestinal motility, release of growth hormone, and cell proliferation. The purpose of this study is to investigate and distinguish a pattern, if present, in ...
Laffers Wiebke W Department of Otorhinolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105, Bonn, Germany, - - 2014
Clinical outcome of patients suffering from head neck squamous cell carcinomas is still poor due to recurrent disease and surgical limitations. There is still a demand for multimodality approaches and new therapeutic options. Hypericin is a promising phototoxic drug which was investigated for its effects on head neck squamous cell ...
Londono Camila C Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S - - 2014
In many tissues, cells must be aligned for proper function. This alignment can occur at the cellular and/or subcellular (protein/molecular) level. The alignment of cytoskeletal components, in fact, precedes whole cell alignment. A variety of methods exist to manipulate cytoskeletal and whole cell alignment; one of the simplest and most ...
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