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Results 251 - 300 of 29388
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Ohba Shigeo S Neurological Surgery, Hellen Diller family Comprehensive Cancer - - 2014
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutations occur in most lower-grade glioma, and not only drive gliomagenesis but are associated with longer patient survival and improved response to temozolomide (TMZ). To investigate the possible causative relationship between these events, we introduced wild-type (WT) or mutant IDH1 into immortalized, untransformed human astrocytes, then ...
Okoye Isobel S IS Division of Molecular Immunology, MRC, National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, - - 2014
Foxp3(+) T regulatory (Treg) cells prevent inflammatory disease but the mechanistic basis of suppression is not understood completely. Gene silencing by RNA interference can act in a cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous manner, providing mechanisms of intercellular regulation. Here, we demonstrate that non-cell-autonomous gene silencing, mediated by miRNA-containing exosomes, is a mechanism ...
Rescigno Maria M Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, 20139 Milan, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
How diversity of the microbiota is generated and maintained is an open question. In this issue of Immunity, Kawamoto et al. show that T follicular regulatory cells foster microbiota diversity via the regulation of IgA selection.
Weinberg Samuel E SE Department of Medicine, The Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, - - 2014
Memory T cells display a distinct metabolic profile compared to effector T cells. In this issue of Immunity, O'Sullivan et al. (2014) report that memory T cells activate a "futile cycle" of de novo fatty-acid synthesis and concurrent fatty-acid oxidation to generate ATP for cell survival.
Cabral Marisol M Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de - - 2014
Cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases (LOXs) are important enzymes that metabolize arachidonic and linoleic acids. Various metabolites generated by the arachidonic acid cascade regulate cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and senescence. Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs) are synthesized from linoleic acid, giving two enantiomeric forms for each metabolite. The aim was to investigate the ...
Basavarajappa Devaraj D Division of Physiological Chemistry II, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden - - 2014
5-Lipoxygenase (5LO) is a key enzyme in leukotriene (LT) biosynthesis. Two accessory proteins, coactosin-like protein (CLP) and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP), can support 5LO activity. To study the roles of CLP and FLAP, we knocked down these proteins in the human monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6 (MM6). Expression of CLP ...
Klettner Alexa A Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kiel, University Medical Center, Kiel, - - 2014
Anti-VEGF treatment is the therapy of choice in age-related macular degeneration, and is also applied in diabetic macular oedema or retinal vein occlusion. Recently, the fusion protein, aflibercept, has been approved for therapeutic use. In this study, we investigate the effects of aflibercept on primary RPE cells. Primary RPE cells ...
Kumpf Robert R University of - - 2014
The stem cell niche (SCN) of the Arabidopsis thaliana primary root apical meristem is composed of the quiescent (or organising) centre (QC) surrounded by stem (initial) cells for the different tissues. Initial cells generate a population of transit amplifying cells that undergo a limited number of cell divisions before elongating ...
Ach Thomas T Dept of Ophthalmology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 Univ Blvd, VH 360, Birmingham, AL, 35233, United - - 2014
Purpose: Lipofuscin (LF) accumulation within retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells is considered pathogenic in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To test whether LF contributes to RPE cell loss in aging and to provide a cellular basis for fundus autofluorescence (AF) we created maps of human RPE cell number and histological AF. ...
Gonzalez-Muñoz Elena E LARCEL, Laboratorio Andaluz de Reprogramación Celular, BIONAND, Andalucía, 29590, - - 2014
Unfertilized oocytes have the intrinsic capacity to remodel sperm and the nuclei of somatic cells. The discoveries that cells can change their phenotype from differentiated to embryonic state using oocytes or specific transcription factors have been recognized as two major breakthroughs in the biomedical field. Here, we show that ASF1A, ...
Maddocks Oliver D K OD Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, Switchback Road, Glasgow G61 1BD, - - 2014
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Lewis et al. (2014) describe a new method to determine where in the cell NADPH is produced, contributing to a growing appreciation that the THF cycle is an important source of mitochondrial NADPH.
Vigetti Davide D Department of Surgical and Morphological Sciences, University of Insubria, Varese, - - 2014
Cell behavior is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Cell microenvironment is not only a scene where different actors play a role, but it is himself an active participant in the scenario, able to influence many cellular responses by binding signaling molecules or by modulating intracellular signaling cascades. Further, ...
Lin Shan S The Second Ward of Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150001, - - 2014
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in tumorigenesis and maintenance of cancers, making it a possible therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Nimotuzumab (h-R3), a humanised monoclonal antibody against EGFR, sensitises human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to radiotherapy. We have investigated the underlying molecular mechanism by treating ...
Ru Ning-Yu NY Cell Engineering Research Center and Department of Cell Biology, State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710032,, China; Department of Aerospace Physiology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710032,, - - 2014
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is involved in hepatocarcinogenesis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis. HAb18G/CD147, a member of the immunoglobulin family, plays an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. HAb18G/CD147 promotes EMT of hepatocytes through TGF-β signaling and is transcriptionally regulated by Slug. ...
Zhou Yao Y Key Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Ministry of Education, College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, P.R. China; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Industry Microbiology, College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, P.R. - - 2014
Our previous study successfully identified that the novel isatin derivative (E)-methyl 3-(1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2,3-dioxoindolin-5-yl) acrylate (HKL 2H) acts as an anticancer agent at an inhibitory concentration (IC50) level of 3 nM. In this study, the molecular mechanism how HKL 2H induces cytotoxic activity in the human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells was ...
Garcia Tarcyane Barata TB Paul Flechsig Institute of Brain Research, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, - - 2014
Osmotic swelling of neurons and glial cells contributes to the development of retinal edema and neurodegeneration. We show that nerve growth factor (NGF) inhibits the swelling of glial (Müller) and bipolar cells in rat retinal slices induced by barium-containing hypoosmotic solution. NGF also reduced Müller and bipolar cell swelling in ...
Maes Hannelore H Laboratory of Cell Death and Therapy, Department Cellular and Molecular Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven B-3000, - - 2014
Autophagy, or self-eating, is the most extensively studied lysosomal degradation pathway for the recycling of obsolete or damaged cytoplasmic materials, including proteins and organelles. Although this pathway was initially thought to function as trafficking system for 'in bulk' degradation by the lysosomes of cytoplasmic material, it is now widely appreciated ...
Qaiser Fatima F Cellular and Molecular Biochemistry Research Laboratory (151), Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Minneapolis, MN 55417; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan; Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, - - 2014
CK2 (official acronym for casein kinase 2 or II) is a potent suppressor of apoptosis in response to diverse apoptotic stimuli -thus its molecular downregulation or activity inhibition results in potent induction of cell death. CK2 downregulation is known to impact mitochondrial apoptotic circuitry but the underlying mechanism(s) remain unclear. ...
Ohata Shinya S Department of Neurological Surgery and Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA 94143, - - 2014
Defects in ependymal (E) cells, which line the ventricle and generate cerebrospinal fluid flow through ciliary beating, can cause hydrocephalus. Dishevelled genes (Dvls) are essential for Wnt signaling, and Dvl2 has been shown to localize to the rootlet of motile cilia. Using the hGFAP-Cre;Dvl1(-/-);2(flox/flox);3(+/-) mouse, we show that compound genetic ...
Wu Yan Y Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100044, China; State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS Nanjing, 210008, - - 2014
This article reports the results of a pilot project using Synchrotron Radiation µCT (computer-aided tomography) to examine the distribution of silica within phytoliths from rice husks. Experiments indicate that computed tomography can be used to show how silica accumulates and is distributed in a distinctive zigzag pattern of long epidermal ...
Lush Mark E ME Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, - - 2014
Damage or destruction of sensory hair cells in the inner ear leads to hearing or balance deficits that can be debilitating, especially in older adults. Unfortunately, the damage is permanent, as regeneration of the inner ear sensory epithelia does not occur in mammals. Zebrafish and other non-mammalian vertebrates have the ...
Li Xiaochen X Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, P.R. - - 2014
Transcription factor Krüppel-like factors 5 (KLF5) is overexpressed in a wide range of tumor tissues and acts as a prognostic factor in cancer. However, the role of KLF5 in non-small cell lung cancer is not clear. Hypoxia plays a vital part in the development of cancer via hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Our ...
Chaudhuri Suhnrita S Department of Laboratory Medicine, School of Tropical Medicine, Cellular and Molecular Immunology Lab, 108, C. R. Avenue, Kolkata, 700073, West Bengal, - - 2014
T-cell-mediated immune responses are typically low in conditions of malignant glioma which has been known to cause marked immunesuppression and dysregulate major T-cell signaling molecules. Thus, T-cell-based immunotherapies are currently in vogue in the treatment of malignant glioma. The novel glycopeptide, T11TS/S-LFA-3/S-CD58 has previously been shown by our group to ...
Hescot Ségolène S Inserm U693, Fac Med Paris Sud, 63 rue Gabriel Péri, 94276, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre Cedex, - - 2014
Mitotane (o,p'DDD) is the most effective treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) but its mechanism of action remains unknown. Previous studies suggested that o,p'DDA may represent the active metabolite of mitotane. We aimed at reevaluating the potential role and pharmacological effects of o,p'DDA. Functional consequences of o,p'DDA exposure were studied ...
Chen Jiao - - 2014
Nanomaterial-based photothermal therapy has shown great potential for efficient cancer treatment. Here, we report a new hyperthermia agent, Au-silica nanowire nanohybrid (Au-SiNW nanohybrid) with tunable optical properties, for photothermal therapy. The unique feature of the synthetic method is no need of surface modification of SiNWs for the direct deposition of ...
Abramov Vyacheslav V Institute of Immunological Engineering, Lyubuchany, 142380, - - 2014
Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 isolated upon investigation of vaginal lactobacilli of healthy women of reproductive age was selected as a probiotic candidate. The aim of the present study was elucidation of the role of L. crispatus 2029 in resistance of the female reproductive tract to genitourinary pathogens using cervicovaginal epithelial model. ...
Vicente M Graca Henriques - - 2014
A series of tri[(p-carboranylmethylthio)tetrafluorophenyl]porphyrin conjugates of linear and branched polyamines, glucose, arginine, tri(ethylene glycol), and peptide Tyr-D-Arg-Phe-β-Ala (TAPA) were synthesized. These conjugates were investigated for their BBB permeability in human hCMEC/D3 brain endothelial cells as model, and their cytotoxicity and uptake in human glioma T98G cells. For comparison purposes, a ...
Walczak Elisabeth M EM Cellular and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2014
Wnt/beta-catenin (βcat) signaling is critical for adrenal homeostasis. To elucidate how Wnt/βcat signaling elicits homeostatic maintenance of the adrenal cortex, we characterized the identity of the adrenocortical Wnt-responsive population. We find that Wnt-responsive cells consist of Sonic Hedgehog-producing (Shh) adrenocortical progenitors and differentiated, steroidogenic cells of the zona glomerulosa, but ...
Yang Zhen Z Department of Physics and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5002;School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, - - 2014
Extraction of intracellular molecules is crucial to the study of cellular signal pathways. Disruption of the cellular membrane remains the established method to release intracellular contents, which inevitably terminates the time course of biological processes. Also, conventional laboratory extractions mostly use bulky materials that ignore the heterogeneity of each cell. ...
Chlon Timothy M TM Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Cincinnati, - - 2014
DNA repair plays a crucial role in embryonic and somatic stem cell biology and cell reprogramming. The Fanconi Anemia pathway, which promotes error-free repair of DNA double strand breaks, is required for somatic cell reprogramming to iPSC. Thus, cells from Fanconi Anemia patients, which lack this critical pathway, fail to ...
Schutte Stacey C SC Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA - - 2014
Endometrial stromal and epithelial cell cross talk is known to influence many of the dynamic changes that occur during the menstrual cycle. We modified our previous model and embedded telomerase-immortalized human endometrial stromal cells and Ishikawa adenocarcinoma epithelial cells in a collagen-Matrigel hydrogel to create a tissue-engineered model of the ...
Gauglhofer Christine C Department of Medicine I, Division: Institute of Cancer Research, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Vienna Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, A-1090 Vienna, - - 2014
Recently, we found upregulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) in a subset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we provide mechanistic insight into the role of FGFR4-mediated signalling for the aggressive behaviour of HCC cells. To overexpress FGFR4, hepatoma/hepatocarcinoma cells were transfected with a construct coding for FGFR4. For ...
Bhatia Sangeeta N SN Institute for Medical Engineering & Science at MIT, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, David H. Koch Institute at MIT, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Division of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. - - 2014
Despite the tremendous hurdles presented by the complexity of the liver's structure and function, advances in liver physiology, stem cell biology and reprogramming, and the engineering of tissues and devices are accelerating the development of cell-based therapies for treating liver disease and liver failure. This State of the Art Review ...
Eastburn Dennis J DJ Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, - - 2014
Cell sorting is a central tool in life science research for analyzing cellular heterogeneity or enriching rare cells out of large populations. Although methods like FACS and FISH-FC can characterize and isolate cells from heterogeneous populations, they are limited by their reliance on antibodies, or the requirement to chemically fix ...
Giffin Jennifer L JL Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G - - 2014
The onset of spermatogenesis during prepubertal development is accompanied by dynamic changes in testicular microstructure. Computer-assisted analysis of scrotal ultrasonograms may allow us to track these changes in a noninvasive manner; however, the echotextural characteristics of different histomorphological variables remain unclear. Hence the objective of this study was to compare ...
Kamishibahara Yu Y Graduate School of Life Sciences, Toyo University, 1-1-1 Izumino, Itakura-machi, Ora-gun, Gunma 374-0193, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Rho kinase (ROCK) is one of the major downstream mediators of Rho. Rho plays crucial regulatory roles in the cellular proliferation and differentiation. Because a ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, is known to inhibit the dissociation-induced cell death in human embryonic stem (ES) cells, we investigated the effects of this ROCK inhibitor ...
Coelho Ribas João Luiz JL Department of Pharmacology, Federal University of Parana 81531-990, Curitiba-Paraná, - - 2014
The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are emerging contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. This study aimed to evaluate toxic effects of some representative drugs of this pharmaceutical group on primary culture of monocytic lineage of Hoplias malabaricus anterior kidney. The effects of diclofenac, acetaminophen and ibuprofen in cell viability, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production ...
Kurz David J DJ Center for Molecular Cardiology, Institute of Physiology, University of Zurich, Switzerland; Cardiology, Triemli Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Cellular senescence, a programmed state induced by multiple deleterious triggers, is characterised by permanent cell-cycle exit and altered gene expression and cell morphology. In humans it is considered a tumor suppressor mechanism, mediating removal of damaged or mutated cells from the cell-cycle pool, and may also contribute to the ageing ...
Shoshani Ofer O Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, - - 2014
Over a decade of intensive investigation of the possible plasticity of mammalian cells has eventually substantiated that mammalian species are endowed with a remarkable capacity to change mature cell fates. We review below the evidence for the occurrence of processes such as dedifferentiation and transdifferentiation within mammalian tissues in vivo, ...
Moreau Patrice L PL Laboratoire de Chimie Bactérienne, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, - - 2014
The viability of Escherichia coli starved of nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) decreased by up to 7 orders of magnitude during prolonged incubation under aerobic conditions when exposed to high levels of the antibiotic gentamicin, whereas viability of cells starved of carbon (C) was barely affected. However, the initial rate ...
Sen Nandini N Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94025, - - 2014
Although pathogens must infect differentiated host cells that exhibit substantial diversity, documenting the consequences of infection against this heterogeneity is challenging. Single-cell mass cytometry permits deep profiling based on combinatorial expression of surface and intracellular proteins. We used this method to investigate varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection of tonsil T cells, which ...
Astorgues-Xerri Lucile L INSERM U728 and Medical Oncology Department, Beaujon University Hospital (AP-HP - PRES Paris 7 Diderot), 100 bd du Général Leclerc, 92110 Clichy, - - 2014
Galectin-1 (Gal1), a carbohydrate-binding protein is implicated in cancer cell proliferation, invasion and tumour angiogenesis. Several Gal1-targeting compounds have recently emerged. OTX008 is a calixarene derivative designed to bind the Gal1 amphipathic β-sheet conformation. Our study contributes to the current understanding of the role of Gal1 in cancer progression, providing ...
Reyes Juan F JF Neuronal Survival Unit, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Wallenberg Neuroscience Center, Lund University, - - 2014
The transfer of α-synuclein (α-syn) between cells has been proposed to be the primary mechanism of disease spreading in Parkinson's disease. Several cellular models exist that monitor the uptake of recombinant α-syn from the culture medium. Here we established a more physiologically relevant model system in which α-syn is produced ...
Porcù Elena E Department of Woman's and Child's Health, Laboratory of Oncohematology, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani 2, Padova 35128, - - 2014
Tubulin is a major molecular target for anticancer drugs. The dynamic process of microtubule assembly and disassembly can be blocked by various agents that bind to distinct sites on tubulin, usually its β-subunit. Among the antimitotic agents that perturb microtubule dynamics, noscapinoids represent an emerging class of agents. In particular, ...
Nishibuchi Ikuno I Department of Cellular Biology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; Department of Radiation Oncology, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima, - - 2014
The reorganization of damaged chromatin plays an important role in the regulation of the DNA damage response. A recent study revealed the presence of 2 vertebrate H2A.Z isoforms, H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2. However, the roles of the vertebrate H2A.Z isoforms are still unclear. Thus, in this study we examined the roles of ...
Henderson D J DJ Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United - - 2014
Malformations affecting the outflow of the heart are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. While many of these malformations occur sporadically, studies of families with congenital heart defects, alongside animal studies, have revealed that phenotypically discrete heart malformations can have diverse causes, resulting from disruption of a ...
Cacchioli Antonio - - 2014
First evidence of in vitro cytocompatibility of SiC/SiO2 core shell nanowires is reported. Different internalization mechanisms by adenocarcinomic alveolar basal epithelial cells, monocytic cell line derived from an acute monocytic leukemia, breast cancer cells and normal human-derma fibroblasts are shown. The internalization occurs mainly for macropinocytosis and sporadically by direct ...
Zheng Jie - - 2014
Malignant gliomas represent the most common primary brain tumors. The prognosis of patients with malignant gliomas is poor in spite of current intensive therapy and novel therapeutic modalities are needed. Here we report that norcantharidin is effective in growth inhibition of glioma cell lines in vitro. Glioma cell lines (U87 ...
Breit Megan N - - 2014
Exportin 1 (XPO1, also known as CRM1), is a chaperone protein responsible for the export of over 200 target proteins out of the nucleus. The expression and activity of XPO1 is upregulated in several human cancers and its expression is also linked to the development of chemotherapy resistance. Recent studies ...
Miragoli M M Clinical Institute Humanitas IRCCS, Rozzano, - - 2014
Infarct borderzone (BZ) expansion following myocardial infarction is accompanied by ventricular dilatation, remodeling, and heart failure. We showed that myofibroblasts (MFBs), which are present in the BZ, tend to form functional gap junctions with adjacent cardiomyocytes (CMs) in-vitro and such heterocellular pairing depolarizes CMs, induces discontinuity in conduction, and slows ...
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