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Gannon Nicholas P NP Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM, - - 2014
Exercise has been shown to reduce risk and improve prognosis of several types of cancers. Irisin is a myokine linked to exercise and lean body mass, which is thought to favorably alter metabolism systemically, potentially providing benefit for metabolic disease (including cancer). We evaluated the effects of various concentrations of ...
- - 2014
The year 2014 marks Cell's 40th anniversary, and we are looking back at how discoveries over the last four decades have molded our understanding of biology, as well as considering which areas of inquiry are yielding the most exciting discoveries. Please join us and scroll along as we revisit a ...
Cahan Patrick P Stem Cell Transplantation Program, Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston Children's Hospital and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, MA 02138, - - 2014
Somatic cell reprogramming, directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, and direct conversions between differentiated cell lineages represent powerful approaches to engineer cells for research and regenerative medicine. We have developed CellNet, a network biology platform that more accurately assesses the fidelity of cellular engineering than existing methodologies and generates hypotheses for ...
Homem Catarina C F CC Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (IMBA), 1030 Vienna, - - 2014
Stem cells are highly abundant during early development but become a rare population in most adult organs. The molecular mechanisms causing stem cells to exit proliferation at a specific time are not well understood. Here, we show that changes in energy metabolism induced by the steroid hormone ecdysone and the Mediator ...
Zhao Bin B Life Sciences Institute and Innovation Center for Cell Biology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, - - 2014
Tetraploid cells generated by abnormal cell division are often arrested during the cell cycle or cleared by apoptosis. Evasion of these defense mechanisms leads to genomic instability and tumorigenesis. In this issue, Ganem et al. report that extra centrosome-induced activation of the Hippo pathway kinase LATS2 is a key mechanism of ...
Morris Samantha A SA Stem Cell Transplantation Program, Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston Children's Hospital and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, MA 02138, - - 2014
Engineering clinically relevant cells in vitro holds promise for regenerative medicine, but most protocols fail to faithfully recapitulate target cell properties. To address this, we developed CellNet, a network biology platform that determines whether engineered cells are equivalent to their target tissues, diagnoses aberrant gene regulatory networks, and prioritizes candidate transcriptional ...
Wu Xin-Lin XL Xin-Lin Wu, Wan-Xiang Wang, Xing-Kai Meng, Ming-Xing Hou, Pei-De Dong, Jun-Jing Zhang, Zhao-Yang Wang, Department of General Surgery, the Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Huhhot 010059, Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, - - 2014
To investigate the effects of osteopontin (OPN) gene expression knockdown on colon cancer Lovo cells in vitro. Four candidate small interfering RNA (siRNA) constructs targeting the OPN gene and a scrambled control sequence (NC-siRNA) were synthesized and inserted into a pGPU6/GFP/Neo expression vector. After confirmation by restriction enzyme digestion and ...
Luckie Douglas B DB Cystic Fibrosis Research Laboratory, Department of Physiology and Lyman Briggs College, 2100 Biomedical Sciences Bldg., Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824. Electronic address: - - 2014
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene for CFTR, a cAMP-activated anion channel expessed in apical membranes of wet epithelia. Since CFTR is permeable to HCO3-, and may regulate bicarbonate exchangers, it is not surprising evidence of changes in extracellular pH (pHo) have been found in CF. ...
Zhang Li-Guang LG Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of the State Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, PR - - 2014
We have developed a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pattern with arrays of microwells for the formation of multicellular aggregates by C17.2 neural stem cells. Upon interfacing with the patterns, the neural stem cells would firstly attach to the microwell sidewalls, forming cellular strips on day 1 after plating. For channel connected microwells, ...
Jeong Dayeong D School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, POSTECH, 77 Cheongam-Ro, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784, Republic of - - 2014
Extracellular vesicles (Exosomes and microvesicles) have drawn wide attentions in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications, since they are considered to shuttle biological signals intercellularly. However, further research on exosomes is limited by their rarity and heterogeneity even after lengthy isolation processes. In particular, these limitations are challenging in therapeutic applications. ...
Swierzy Izabela J IJ Institute for Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center, Georg-August-University, Kreuzbergring 57, D-37075 Göttingen, - - 2014
Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread intracellular parasite of mammals and birds and an important opportunistic pathogen of humans. Following primary infection, fast replicating tachyzoites disseminate within the host and are subsequently either eliminated by the immune system or transform to latent bradyzoites which preferentially persist in brain and muscle tissues. ...
Sharaby Yaara Y The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290002, Israel; Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Institute, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290002, - - 2014
Growth arrest-specific 2-like 3 (Gas2l3) is a newly discovered cell cycle protein and a cytoskeleton orchestrator that binds both actin filament and microtubule networks. Studies of cultured mammalian cells established Gas2l3 as a regulator of the cell division process, in particular cytokinesis and cell abscission. Thus far, the role of ...
Wang Ning N Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Medicinal Resource and Natural Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, - - 2014
This study was to investigate the anticancer effects of baicalein (Bai) and its two sulfated derivatives, namely baicalein-7-O-sulfate (BoS) and baicalein-8-sodium sulfonate (BcS). BcS was shown to exhibit stronger growth inhibition against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, compared with structurally related Bai and BoS, where IC50 values of BoS, Bai ...
Chanput Wasaporn W Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University, 50 Ngamwongwan Rd., Lad Yao, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900 Thailand. Electronic address: - - 2014
THP-1 is a human leukemia monocytic cell line, which has been extensively used to study monocyte/macrophage functions, mechanisms, signaling pathways, and nutrient and drug transport. This cell line has become a common model to estimate modulation of monocyte and macrophage activities. This review attempts to summarize and discuss recent publications ...
Bely Alexandra E AE Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA - - 2014
The ability to regenerate extensive portions of the body is widespread among the phylum Annelida and this group includes some of the most highly regenerative animals known. Knowledge of the cellular and molecular basis of regeneration in this group is thus important for understanding how regenerative processes have evolved both ...
Febles Nicole - - 2014
This article reports label-free, real-time, and single cell quantification of the invasion of spheroidal colon cancer cells through three-dimensional (3D) Matrigel using a resonant waveguide grating (RWG) imager. This imager employs a time-resolved swept wavelength interrogation scheme to monitor cell invasion and adhesion with a temporal resolution up to 3sec ...
Zhang Hongyi H Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Air Force General Hospital, Beijing 100142, P.R. - - 2014
MicroRNA (miRNA or miR) inhibition of oncogenic related pathways has been shown to be a promising therapeutic approach for cancer. SIRT1 might be a promoter factor on tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanism is unknown. We investigated whether miRNAs regulate the SIRT1 and its downstream SREBP-lipogenesis-cholesterogenesis metabolic pathway ...
Feihl Sebastian S Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy & Interdisciplinary Center for Molecular Materials, Egerlandstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen, Germany. ruben.costa@fau.de - - 2014
In the current work, we have explored a novel synthetic route towards metalated porphycenes and their use in p-type NiO-based dye-sensitized solar cells. Particular emphasis is placed on the influence that the relative positioning of the anchoring group exerts on the DSSC performance.
Zhu Daqiang D Department of Oncology, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of - - 2014
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mainly induces apoptosis through the extrinsic death receptor-induced pathway by ligation with death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5). On the basis of the antitumor activity to cancer cells and no cytotoxity to normal cells of TRAIL and the target of the ...
Knox Aaron J - - 2014
IntroductionMany Luminal breast cancers are heterogeneous, containing substantial numbers of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor-negative cells among the ER¿+¿PR¿+¿ones. One such subpopulation we call ¿Luminobasal¿ is ER-, PR- and cytokeratin 5 (CK5)-positive. It is not targeted for treatment.MethodsTo address the relationships between ER¿+¿PR¿+¿CK5- and ER-PR-CK5+ cells in Luminal cancers ...
Li Na N Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences/Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025, - - 2014
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subset of cancer cells that play key roles in metastasis and cancer relapse. The elimination of CSCs is very important during cancer therapy. To develop drugs that target CSCs, the isolation and identification of putative CSCs are required. Some of the characteristics of CSCs ...
Setua Sonali S Nanoscience Centre, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FF, UK. - - 2014
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains the most aggressive and challenging brain tumour to treat. We report the first successful chemo-radiotherapy on patient derived treatment resistant GBM cells using a cisplatin-tethered gold nanosphere. After intracellular uptake, the nanosphere effects DNA damage which initiates caspase-mediated apoptosis in those cells. In the presence of ...
Di Kaijun K Department of Neurological Surgery, UC Irvine School of Medicine, Sprague Hall, Irvine, CA, 92697, - - 2014
Retaspimycin hydrochloride (IPI-504), an Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) inhibitor, has shown activity in multiple preclinical cancer models, such as lung, breast and ovarian cancers. However, its biological effects in gliomas and normal brain derived cellular populations remain unknown. In this study, we profiled the expression pattern of Hsp90α/β mRNA ...
Yin Ling L Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China. - - 2014
Two-dimensional graphene has tremendous potential to be used as a transparent conducting electrode (TCE), owing to its high transparency and conductivity. To date graphene films have been applied to several kinds of solar cells except the Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cell. In this work, we present a novel TCE structure ...
Tellez Noelia N N Tellez, Diabetes, Nutrition and Endocrine Diseases, CIBER of Diabetes and metabolic diseases, CIBERDEM, Barcelona, Spain - - 2014
Induction of β-cell mass regeneration is a potentially curative treatment of diabetes. We have recently found that long-term gastrin treatment results in improved metabolic control and β-cell mass expansion in 95% pancreatectomised (Px) rats. In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of gastrin-induced β-cell mass expansion after pancreatectomy. ...
ZajÄ…czkowska Urszula U Department of Forest Botany, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS), 159 Nowoursynowska Str, 02-776, Warsaw, Poland, - - 2014
Stump overgrowth may serve as a unique model for studying cellular reorganization and mechanisms responsible for cell polarity changes during the process of vascular tissue differentiation from initially unorganized parenchymatous cells. Cellular ordering and tissue reorganization during the overgrowth process of the transverse surfaces of Douglas fir stumps in forest ...
Turner David A - - 2014
BackgroundThe formation of the Primitive Streak is the first visible sign of gastrulation, the process by which the three germ layers are formed from a single epithelium during early development. Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) provide a good system to understand the molecular and cellular events associated with these processes. Previous ...
Tian Dan - - 2014
BackgroundThe insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system impacts cell proliferation and is highly activated in ovarian cancer. While an attractive therapeutic target, the IGF system is complex with two receptors (IGF1R, IGF2R), two ligands (IGF1, IGF2), and at least six high affinity IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) that regulate the bioavailability of IGF ...
Marjanovic Ana Marija AM Radiation Dosimetry and Radiobiology Unit, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health , Zagreb , - - 2014
Abstract Aim of this study was to evaluate an influence of modulated radiofrequency field (RF) of 1800 MHz, strength of 30 V/m on oxidation-reduction processes within the cell. The assigned RF field was generated within Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic Mode cell equipped by signal generator, modulator, and amplifier. Cell line V79, was irradiated ...
Jang Won-Jun WJ College of Pharmacy, Keimyung University, Daegu, 704-701, South - - 2014
Although epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have been introduced for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the emergence of secondary T790M mutation in EGFR or amplification of the Met proto-oncogene restrain the clinical success of EGFR-TKIs. Since heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90) stabilizes various oncoproteins including EGFR ...
Castilla Carolina C Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla - - 2014
PTTG1 protein, the human securin, has a central role in sister chromatid separation during mitosis and its altered expression has been reported in many tumor types. Paclitaxel is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug, whose mechanism of action is related to its ability to arrest cells in mitosis and the subsequent ...
Wilson S S SS Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, - - 2014
Organoids mirror in vivo tissue organization and are powerful tools to investigate the development and cell biology of the small intestine. However, their application for the study of host-pathogen interactions has been largely unexplored. We have established a model using microinjection of organoids to mimic enteric infection, allowing for direct ...
Nistal Manuel M a Hospital La Paz, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, - - 2014
Abstract 1.INTRODUCTION 2.DEVELOPMENT OF THE BIPOTENTIAL GONAD 2 a. Formation of gonadal ridge 2 b. Primordial germ cells. Origin, migration and formation of gonadal blastema 2 c. Male-female determination 3.TESTIS DIFFERENTIATION. DEVELOPMENT OF SEMINIFEROUS CORDS 3 a. Early organization of gonadal blastema 3 b. Migration of mesonephric elements 3 c. ...
Sharp Thad T The University of Iowa, United - - 2014
Pitx2, Wnt/β-catenin signaling and microRNAs (miRs) play a critical role in the regulation of dental stem cells during embryonic development. In this report, we have identified a novel Pitx2:β-catenin regulatory pathway involved in epithelial cell differentiation and conversion of mesenchyme cells to amelogenin expressing epithelial cells via miR-200a. Pitx2 and ...
Xia Lijie L Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Biological Resources and Genetic Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, - - 2014
Antimicrobial peptides exist in the non-specific immune system of organism and participate in the innate host defense of each species. CecropinXJ, a cationic antimicrobial peptide, possesses potent anticancer activity and acts preferentially on cancer cells instead of normal cells, but the mechanism of cancer cell death induced by cecropinXJ remains ...
Messa Mirko M Department of Cell Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, United - - 2014
Epsin is an evolutionarily conserved endocytic clathrin adaptor whose most critical function(s) in clathrin coat dynamics remain(s) elusive. To elucidate such function(s), we generated embryonic fibroblasts from conditional epsin triple KO mice. Triple KO cells displayed a dramatic cell division defect. Additionally, a robust impairment in clathrin-mediated endocytosis was observed, ...
Singh Nimisha N Division of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South - - 2014
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis. These cancers are deficient in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression, and therefore, resistant to glucocorticoids. Overexpression of the GR both in vivo and in vitro leads to apoptotic cell death suggesting that loss of GR is favorable for ...
Chen Yu-Chih YC Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2122, USA. - - 2014
Cancer-stromal interaction is a critical process in tumorigenesis. Conventional dish-based co-culture assays simply mix two cell types in the same dish; thus, they are deficient in controlling cell locations and precisely tracking single cell behavior from heterogeneous cell populations. Microfluidic technology can provide a good spatial-temporal control of microenvironments, but ...
Lin Rong R Division of Gastroenterology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gut microbiota on autophagy activation in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). In addition, the IEC autophagy response to different types of bacteria was also evaluated. IEC-18 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) O127:B8 and ...
Hagl Stephanie S Goethe-University, Frankfurt, - - 2014
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in brain aging and has emerged to be an early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD), contributing to neurodegeneration and the loss of physical abilities seen in patients suffering from this disease. We examined mitochondrial dysfunction in a cell culture model of AD (PC12APPsw cells) ...
Zhang Chen - - 2014
PPM1D (protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1D) has been reported to be involved in multiple human tumors. This study was designed to investigate the functional role of PPM1D in lung cancer cells. Expression levels of PPM1D were analyzed in A549 and H1299 cells by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Lentivirus-mediated short ...
Owonikoko Taofeek K TK Department of Hematology & Medical Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia; Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, - - 2014
Poly (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) plays a key role in DNA repair and is highly expressed in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We investigated the therapeutic impact of PARP inhibition in SCLC. In vitro cytotoxicity of veliparib, cisplatin, carboplatin, and etoposide singly and combined was determined by MTS in 9 ...
Vorhagen Susanne S Department of Dermatology, Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, Cologne Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD), University of - - 2014
Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to ...
Goehring Nathan W NW Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3LY, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
The par-titioning-defective or PAR proteins comprise the core of an essential cell polarity network that underlies polarization in a wide variety of cell types and developmental contexts. The output of this network in nearly every case is the establishment of opposing and complementary membrane domains that define a cell's polarity ...
Máté Gábor G Department of General and Environmental Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Pécs, Pécs, - - 2014
In this study, the citrinin (CTN)-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the regulation of the activities of antioxidant enzymes were investigated in acute toxicity tests in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. 30% of the CTN was accumulated by the cells in 1000 μM CTN solution. In comparison with the control, exposure ...
Unterlauft Jan Darius JD Department of Ophthalmology and Eye Hospital, University of Leipzig, - - 2014
The death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) leads to visual impairment and blindness in ocular neurodegenerative diseases, primarily in glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy; hence, mechanisms that contribute to protecting RGC from ischemia/hypoxia are of great interest. We here address the role of retinal glial (Müller) cells and of pigment-epithelium-derived factor ...
Franke Jana J Institute of Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Toxicology, University of Leipzig, An den Tierkliniken 15, 04103 Leipzig, - - 2014
Altered airway cell proliferation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of human bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as the equine recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) with consistent changes, i.e. narrowing the airway wall, explained by proliferation and differentiation of fibroblasts. In permanent cell lines, it ...
Lee Do-Hyun DH Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of - - 2014
By virtue of the biocompatibility and physical properties of hydrogel, picoliter-sized hydrogel microcapsules have been considered as a biometric signature that contains several features that are similar to that of the encapsulated single cells, including phenotype, viability, and intracellular content. To maximize the experimental potential of encapsulating cells in hydrogel ...
Chen Yi-Hsin YH Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, - - 2014
In this study, we compared the detachment ratio of HaCaT and Hs68 cells from pH-responsive chitosan surface by raising medium pH from 7.20 to 7.65 for 60 min. The detachment ratio of elongated Hs68 cells was over 75%, but that of round-shaped HaCaT cells was less than 50%, even extending the incubation time ...
Ni Xi-Lu XL School of Life Science, Northwest University, Xi'an, 710069, China; State Key Laboratory of Seedling Bioengineering, Ningxia Forestry Institute, Yinchuan, 750004, - - 2014
Some species of Allium in Liliaceae have fistular leaves. The fistular lamina of A. fistulosum undergoes a process from solid to hollow during development. The aims were to reveal the process of fistular leaf formation was involved in programmed cell death (PCD), and to compare the cytological events in the ...
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