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Zhu Hui H Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, - - 2014
In mammalian embryos, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent cells, a shortened G1 phase is correlated with the pluripotent state. To molecularly define this phase, we compared transcripts from the shortened G1 of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) with those from the longer G1 of derived endoderm. We identified JMJD5, ...
Enangue Njembele Annick N - - 2014
Leydig cell steroidogenesis is mainly regulated by LH via increased cAMP production leading to STAR protein activation. STAR is essential for cholesterol shuttling inside mitochondria where steroidogenesis is initiated. Accumulating evidence suggest that persistent organochlorine compounds disrupt testicular function but the mechanism of action remains poorly characterized. Here we report ...
Chen Jin-Cherng JC a Department of Neurosurgery, Dalin Tzu Chi Hospital, Dalin, Chiayi, Taiwan and School of Medicine , Tzu Chi University , Hualien , - - 2014
Viability, cell cycle distribution, and expressions of eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α (eIF-2α), cyclin D1, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) of RT-2 glioma cells were assayed under treatment of tetrandrine and caffeine for 48 h. The results showed that cell viability decreased significantly under treatment with tetrandrine (5 μM) alone ...
Wang Rui - - 2014
Human trophoblast syncytialization, a process of cell-cell fusion, is one of the most important, yet least understood, events during placental development. Investigating the fusion process in a placenta in vivo is very challenging given the complexity of this process. Application of primary cultured cytotrophoblast cells isolated from term placentas and ...
Wang Xiaoming X Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA - - 2014
Integrin-ligand interactions between germinal center (GC) B cells and Ag-presenting follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) have been suggested to play central roles during GC responses, but their in vivo requirement has not been directly tested. In this study, we show that, whereas integrins αLβ2 and α4β1 are highly expressed and functional ...
Antignani Antonella A Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, - - 2014
Impaired apoptosis is often a key element in tumor development. Therefore, drugs mimicking prosurvival antagonists offer promise as cancer therapeutics. When ABT-737, a BH3-only mimetic, was added to KB3-1 human cervical adenocarcinoma cells we noted an induction of an Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress response and the dislocation of ER luminal ...
Rawat S S a Department of Environmental Science , Baylor University , Waco , TX , - - 2014
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are known as effective flame retardants and have vast industrial application in products like plastics, building materials and textiles. They are found to be structurally similar to thyroid hormones that are responsible for regulating metabolism in the body. Structural similarity with the hormones poses a threat ...
Smith Peter Raymond PR P Smith, Animal Reproduction, AgResearch Invermay, Mosgiel, New - - 2014
Prenatal and early postnatal ovarian development has assumed increasing importance over recent years. The full effects of perturbations to ovarian development on adult fertility, through environmental changes or genetic anomalies, is only now being truly appreciated. Mitigation of these perturbations requires an understanding of the processes involved in the development ...
Takeuchi Takashi T School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, 683-8503, - - 2014
The regulation of cardiomyocyte proliferation is important for heart development and regeneration. The proliferation patterns of cardiomyocytes are closely related to heart morphogenesis, size, and functions. The proliferation levels are high during early embryogenesis; however, mammalian cardiomyocytes exit the cell cycle irreversibly soon after birth. The cell cycle exit inhibits ...
Nishimura Yuka Y Department of Life Science, Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashiosaka 577-8502, - - 2014
This study examined the effects of exposure to low concentrations (0.1-100nM) of bisphenol A (BPA) or nonylphenol (NP) on neuronal differentiation in pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Pre-exposure to BPA for a week or a month, but not for a day, decreased neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells. Likewise, one week's pre-exposure to ...
Tian Le L Qingdao University, Qingdao, China; State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Shandong Eye Institute, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, 5 Yan'erdao Road, Qingdao 266071, - - 2014
γ-Secretase inhibitor has been shown to promote intestinal goblet cell differentiation. We now demonstrated that the in vitro addition of γ-secretase inhibitor in the culture of human conjunctival epithelial cells significantly promoted the differentiation of conjunctival goblet cells with typical droplet-like phenotype, positive periodic acid-Schiff and goblet cell-specific Muc5Ac, cytokeratin 7 ...
Oike Takahiro T Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan; Division of Genome Biology, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Chuo-ku, - - 2014
Chromatin remodeling through histone modifications, including acetylation, plays an important role in the appropriate response to DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation (IR). Here we investigated the radiosensitizing effect of C646, a selective small molecule inhibitor of p300 histone acetyltransferase, and explored the underlying mechanisms. A549, H157 and H460 human ...
Hosoi Toru T Department of Pharmacotherapy, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Tumor cells are frequently encountered in nutrient-deprived areas, though the mechanisms underlying their survival are unclear. In the present study, we found that depriving cells of glucose caused endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) in a breast cancer cells line, MCF-7, and that specific activation of ER stress increased telomerase reverse ...
Liu Weili W Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, No. 2094 Xie-Tu Road, Shanghai 200032, - - 2014
Since the wide usage of ionizing radiation, the cancer risk of low dose radiation (LDR) (<0.1Gy) has become attractive for a long time. However, most results are derived from epidemiologic studies on atomic-bomb survivors and nuclear accidents surrounding population, and the molecular mechanism of this risk is elusive. To explore ...
Golomb Lior L Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, - - 2014
Cell proliferation and cell growth are two tightly linked processes, as the proliferation program cannot be executed without proper accumulation of cell mass, otherwise endangering the fate of the two daughter cells. It is therefore not surprising that ribosome biogenesis, a key element in cell growth, is regulated by many ...
Laberge Rémi-Martin RM Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue (Montréal), Québec, - - 2014
The overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) in cancer cells often leads to multidrug resistance (MDR) through reduced drug accumulation. However, certain P-gp-positive cells display hypersensitivity, or collateral sensitivity, to certain compounds that are believed to induce Pgp-dependent oxidative stress. We have previously reported that MDR P-gp-positive CHO cells are collaterally ...
Foroutannejad Sahar S Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Illinois University School of Pharmacy, Edwardsville, IL 62026, - - 2014
IQGAP1 has emerged as a key component in the regulation of cytoskeleton dynamics during cell migration, maintenance of adherens junctions, microbial pathogenesis and intracellular trafficking. IQGAP1 is known to localize to the protruding edge of lamellipodia in a variety of cell types and interact with regulators of actin dynamics. Here, ...
Schuerch David - - 2014
Many advances have been made in recent years in cell culture models of the epithelial barrier of the lung from simple monolayers to complex 3-D systems employing different cell types. However, the vast majority of these models still present a static air-liquid interface which is unrealistic given the dynamic nature ...
Khoshgard Karim K Department of Medical Physics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, - - 2014
Due to the high atomic number of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), they are known as new radiosensitizer agents for enhancing the efficiency of superficial radiotherapy techniques by increasing the dose absorbed in tumor cells wherein they can be accumulated selectively. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ...
Beneyton Thomas T Laboratoire de Biologie Chimique, Institut de Science et d'Ingénierie Supramoléculaires (ISIS), CNRS UMR 7006, 8 allée Gaspard Monge, F-67083 Strasbourg, - - 2014
We present a high-throughput droplet-based microfluidic analysis/screening platform for directed evolution of CotA laccase: droplet-based microfluidic modules were combined to develop an efficient system that allows cell detection and sorting based on the enzymatic activity. This platform was run on two different operating modes: the "analysis" mode allowing the analysis ...
Hou Yan-Jun YJ College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing, 210095, - - 2014
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a metabolite of Fusarium and is a common contaminant of grains and foodstuffs. ZEN acts as a xenoestrogen and is considered to be cytotoxic, tissue toxic, and genotoxic, which causes abortions and stillbirths in humans and animals. Since estrogens affect oocyte maturation during meiosis, in this study ...
Pitchai Daisy D Holy Cross College, PG & Research Department of Biotechnology, Trichy, Tamil Nadu, - - 2014
Costunolide, a sesquiterpene lactone is a plant-derived secondary metabolite found to be present in most of the pharmacologically active herbs, being the cause for their medicinal values. The present study aims to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of costunolide isolated from Costus speciosus rhizome extract on MDA-MB-231 cells and explore its ...
Gomillion Cheryl T CT Center for Biomaterials, Department of Reconstructive Sciences, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, - - 2014
End-capping by covalently binding functional groups to the ends of polymer chains offers potential advantages for tissue engineering scaffolds, but the ability of such polymers to influence cell behavior has not been studied. As a demonstration, polylactide (PLA) was end-capped with lithium carboxylate ionic groups (hPLA13kLi) and evaluated. Thin films ...
Segota Igor I Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, - - 2014
Unicellular eukaryotic amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum are generally believed to grow in their vegetative state as single cells until starvation, when their collective aspect emerges and they differentiate to form a multicellular slime mold. While major efforts continue to be aimed at their starvation-induced social aspect, our understanding of population dynamics ...
Shin Meong Cheol MC Tianjin Key Laboratory on Technologies Enabling Development of Clinical Therapeutics and Diagnosis, School of Pharmacy, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070, China; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, 428 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, - - 2014
Protein toxins, such as gelonin, are highly desirable anti-cancer drug candidates due to their unparalleled potency and repetitive reaction mechanism in inhibiting protein translation. However, for its potential application in cancer therapy, there remains the cell membrane barrier that allows permeation of only small molecules, which must be overcome. To ...
Lai Min M Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, United States; College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China; College of Life Science, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, - - 2014
Surface microroughness plays an important role in determining osteoblast behavior on titanium. Previous studies have shown that osteoblast differentiation on microtextured titanium substrates is dependent on alpha-2 beta-1 (α2β1) integrin signaling. This study used focused ion beam (FIB) milling and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), combined with 3D image reconstruction, to ...
Fridman Yulia Y Faculty of Biology, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3200003, - - 2014
Coherent plant growth requires spatial integration of hormonal pathways and cell wall remodeling activities. However, the mechanisms governing sensitivity to hormones and how cell wall structure integrates with hormonal effects are poorly understood. We found that coordination between two types of epidermal root cells, hair and nonhair cells, establishes root ...
Ledoux Quentin Q Département Valorisation des Productions Agricoles; Centre Wallon de Recherches Agronomiques; Gembloux, Belgium; Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Médicinale; Université Catholique de Louvain; Louvain-la-Neuve, - - 2014
H 2O 2 acts as an important signaling molecule during plant/pathogen interactions but its study remains a challenge due to the current shortcomings in H 2O 2-responsive probes. In this work, ContPY1, a new molecular probe developed to specifically detect H 2O 2 was used to study the elicitation of ...
Corbin Elise A - - 2014
Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) resonant sensors provide a high degree of accuracy for measuring the physical properties of chemical and biological samples. These sensors enable the investigation of cellular mass and growth rate, though previous sensor designs have been limited to the study of homogeneous cell populations. Population heterogeneity, as is ...
Surguchenko Valentina A VA Laboratory of Tissue Engineering and Delivery Systems, Department of Biomedical Technologies and Tissue Engineering, Academician V.I. Shumakov Federal Research Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Shchukinskaya 1, Moscow, Russia, 123182; Institute of Biomedical Research and Technology (ANO), B.Tishinsky, 43/20, building 2, Moscow, Russia, - - 2014
The study results of in vitro formation of tissue-engineered cartilage construct on the basis of cell-engineered construct composed of biopolymer hydrogel matrix and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hADSCs) are presented. It was revealed that hADSCs in biopolymer hydrogel matrix Sphero®GEL under chondrogenic conditions generate three-dimensional structures and produce ...
Kami Daisuke D Department of Regenerative Medicine; Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine; Kyoto, - - 2014
Epigenetic interventions are required to induce reprogramming from one cell type to another. At present, various cellular reprogramming methods such as somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion, and direct reprogramming using transcription factors have been reported. In particular, direct reprogramming from somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has ...
Qin Xiaodong - - 2014
PKM2 is an attractive target for cancer therapy, however, for many cancer cells, PKM2 knockdown only leads to a modest impairment of survival and proliferation. It is not known whether PKM2 knockdown rewires cell signaling pathways in these "PKM2 knockdown resistant" cells, and whether the rewired pathways are needed for ...
Cho S I SI Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chosun University School of Medicine, Gwangju, South - - 2014
Objective: Ototoxicity due to cisplatin therapy interferes with treatment and often forces a reduction in the dosage, duration and frequency of the cisplatin therapy. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is known to have the highest antioxidant potency among all tea catechins. This study aimed to investigate the effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on cisplatin ototoxicity in ...
Wu Deyao D Department of Urology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Nantong Medical College, Yancheng City No. 1 People's Hospital, Yancheng, Jiangsu 224001, P.R. - - 2014
microRNA‑145 (miR‑145) has been reported to be frequently downregulated in various types of cancer, including renal, prostate, bladder, lung and colon cancer, as well as B‑cell malignancies. The present study examined the effects of miR‑145 on the cell proliferation, migration and invasion of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Following transfection of ...
Paleos Constantinos M CM National Center For Scientific Research "Demokritos" , 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Attiki, - - 2014
Conspectus Researchers have become increasingly interested in the preparation and characterization of artificial cells based on amphiphilic molecules. In particular, artificial cells with multiple compartments are primitive mimics of the structure of eukaryotic cells. Endosymbiotic theory, widely accepted among biologists, states that eukaryotic cells arose from the assembly of prokaryotic ...
Bo Tao - - 2014
ε-Poly-L-Lysine (ε-PL), a naturally occurring amino-acid homopolymer, has been widely used as a food preservative. However, its antimicrobial mechanism has not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial mode of action of ε-PL on a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When treated with ε-PL at the concentration of 500 ...
Lu Ko-Hsiu KH a Department of Orthopedics, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan and School of Medicine , Chung Shan Medical University , Taichung , - - 2014
Flavanones demonstrate a propensity to antiproliferation and induce apoptosis of malignant cells. Among the 4 flavanones under study, 2'-hydroxyflavanone exhibited the greatest potency to reduce the cell viability of 143 B cells in 4 osteosarcoma cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed that 2'-hydroxyflavanone increased the hypodiploid cells in the sub-G1 phase ...
Yao Min M Department of Pathology, Jilin University Bethune Second Hospital, Changchun, Jilin 130041, P.R. - - 2014
Saikosaponin‑d (SSd), a triterpene saponin compound derived from Bupleurum radix, has been shown to have a cytotoxic effect on various cancer cell lines. However, its effect on prostate cancer cells has remained unexplored. The present study reports the apoptosis‑inducing effect of SSd on the DU145 human prostate carcinoma cell line. ...
Malucelli Emil - - 2014
We report a method which allows a complete quantitative characterization of whole single cells assessing the total amount of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sodium and magnesium and providing sub-micrometer maps of element molar concentration, cell density, mass and volume. This approach allows quantifying elements down to 10(6) atoms/μm(3). This result was ...
Ding Keshuo K USTC, - - 2014
Previous studies have demonstrated that ARTEMIN (ARTN) functions as a cancer stem cell (CSC) and metastatic factor in mammary carcinoma. Herein, we report that ARTN mediates acquired resistance to Trastuzumab in HER2 positive mammary carcinoma cells. Ligands which increase HER2 activity increased ARTN expression in HER2 positive mammary carcinoma cells, ...
Hansen Louise L Cardiology Stem Cell Centre, The Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital Copenhagen , Copenhagen , - - 2014
Introduction. To evaluate survival and engraftment of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in vivo, it is necessary to track implanted cells non-invasively with a method, which does not influence cellular ultrastructure and functional characteristics. Iron-oxide particles have been applied for cell tracking for years, but knowledge regarding possible cytotoxic ultrastructural changes ...
Preidl Johannes J JJ Medicinal Chemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Königin-Luise-Strasse 2+4, 14195 Berlin (Germany) http://www.bcp.fu-berlin.de/ag-rademann; Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Leibniz Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP), Robert-Rössle-Strasse 10, 13125 Berlin - - 2014
Oligosaccharides of the glycolipids and glycoproteins at the outer membranes of human cells carry terminal neuraminic acids, which are responsible for recognition events and adhesion of cells, bacteria, and virus particles. The synthesis of neuraminic acid containing glycosides is accomplished by intracellular sialyl transferases. Therefore, the chemical manipulation of cellular ...
Yang Li-Xia LX Department of Cardiology, Kunming General Hospital of Chengdu Military Area, - - 2014
MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is a multifunctional signal microRNA that participates in a variety of cardiovascular diseases and is involved in physiological and pathological processes in different cell types. The objective of this article is to examine the effect of miR-155 on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced primary mice vascular smooth muscle cell ...
Niewerth Denise D VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The - - 2014
Salinosporamide A (NPI-0052, marizomib) is a naturally-occurring proteasome inhibitor derived from the marine actinobacterium Salinispora tropica and represents a promising clinical agent in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Recently, these actinobacteria were shown to harbor self-resistance properties to salinosporamide A by expressing redundant catalytically-active mutants of the 20S proteasome β-subunit, ...
Phuan Puay-Wah PW - - 2014
The most prevalent CFTR mutation causing cystic fibrosis, ΔF508, impairs folding of nucleotide binding domain 1 (NBD1) and stability of the interface between NBD1 and the membrane spanning domains (MSDs). The interfacial stability defect can be partially corrected by the investigational drug VX-809 or the R1070W mutation. 'Second-generation' ΔF508-CFTR correctors ...
Veeraraghavan Rengasayee R Center for Cardiovascular and Regenerative Biology, Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute , Roanoke, VA , - - 2014
Cardiac conduction is the propagation of electrical excitation through the heart and is responsible for triggering individual myocytes to contract in synchrony. Canonically, this process has been thought to occur electrotonically, by means of direct flow of ions from cell to cell. The intercalated disk (ID), the site of contact ...
Tay Chor Yong - - 2014
Nanomaterials (NMs) such as titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) and hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) are widely used in food, personal care and many household products. Due to their extensive usage, the risk of human exposure is increased and may trigger NMs specific biological outcomes as the NMs interface with the cells. However, the interaction ...
Porteus Cosima S CS Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, V6T - - 2014
Serotonin containing neuroepithelial cells (NECs) are putative oxygen sensing cells found in different locations within the gills of fish. In this study we wished to determine the effect of sustained internal (blood) hypoxaemia versus external (aquatic) hypoxia on the size and density of NECs in the first gill arch of ...
Roa Jinae N JN Marine Biology Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego. 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 93092-0202, - - 2014
In this study we characterized mitochondrion-rich (MR) cells and regulation of acid/base (A/B) relevant ion-transporting proteins in leopard shark (Triakis semifasciata) gills. Immunohistochemistry revealed that leopard shark gills posses two separate cell populations that abundantly express either Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) or V-H(+)-ATPase (VHA), but not both ATPases together. Co-immunolocalization with mitochondrial ...
Savolainen Mari H MH Division of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, University of Helsinki, 00014, Finland; Optogenetics and Transgenic Technology Core, National Institute of Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD, - - 2014
The misfolding and aggregation of α-synuclein (aSyn) eventually leads to an accumulation of toxic forms that disturb normal neuronal function and result in cell death. aSyn rich inclusions are seen in Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and other synucleinopathies. Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) can accelerate the aggregation process of aSyn ...
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