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Mo Wei-Chuan - - 2011
The hypogeomagnetic field (HGMF; magnetic fields <200 nT) is one of the fundamental environmental factors of space. However, the effect of HGMF exposure on living systems remains unclear. In this article, we examine the biological effects of HGMF on the embryonic development of Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog). A decrease in ...
Cuervo Patricia - - 2011
Protozoan parasites are responsible for an impressive disease burden in developing and less-developed countries. The development of vaccines and effective new therapies for dealing with these organisms are among the main gaps to be filled in the control of protozoan parasite diseases. Programmed cell death (PCD) pathways have gained attention ...
Pu Yunqiao - - 2011
Diminishing fossil fuel resources as well as growing environmental and energy security concerns, in parallel with growing demands on raw materials and energy, have intensified global efforts to utilize wood biopolymers as a renewable resource to produce biofuels and biomaterials. Wood is one of the most abundant biopolymer composites on ...
Gribbins Kevin - - 2011
Sceloporus bicanthalis is a viviparous lizard that lives at higher elevations in Mexico. Adult male S. bicanthalis were collected (n = 36) from the Nevado de Toluca, Mexico (elevation is 4200 m) during August to December, 2007 and January to July, 2008. Testes were extracted, fixed in Trumps, and dehydrated ...
Rao Mahendra S - - 2011
The cell therapy branch of the regenerative medicine field has been innovative in developing new models of delivery and development and identifying alternative sources of funding. We discuss the implications of these changes for pharmaceutical companies and the opportunities they offer to a new entrepreneur.
Yu Tian - - 2011
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and regulators of the FGF signalling pathway are expressed in several cell types within the cerebellum throughout its development. Although much is known about the function of this pathway during the establishment of the cerebellar territory during early embryogenesis, the role of this pathway during later ...
Moawad Adel R - - 2011
Abstract The development of embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using vitrified oocytes as cytoplast recipients has been reported in cattle but not in sheep. This study investigated the parthenogenetic development of ovine oocytes vitrified and thawed at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage, matured in vitro, and then ...
He Hong-Juan - - 2011
The programmed cell death (PCD) is important in maintaining the cell number homoeostasis of tissues and organs in metazoan. This process is regulated by the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). The function and mechanism of IAPs have been well studied in animal embryonic development and human cancers. However, the roles ...
Zhao Fan - - 2011
Here we report the first example of using β-galactosidase to trigger the formation of cell compatible, supramolecular nanofibers, which ultimately may lead to a new approach for the development of soft nanotechnology.
Polosukhin Vasiliy V - - 2011
Goblet cell hyperplasia is a common feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) airways, but the mechanisms that underlie this epithelial remodelling in COPD are not understood. Based on our previous finding of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) nuclear localization in large airways from patients with COPD, we investigated whether hypoxia-inducible signalling ...
Maldonado C A - - 2011
Bronchiolar Clara cells are integral components of lung homeostasis, predominantly distributed in distal airways. In addition to the 16 kDa Clara cell protein, a major secretory product with anti-inflammatory effects, rat Clara cells express the glycan-binding protein galectin-3 and secrete it into the airways. Given the essential role of galectin-3 ...
Cheung Napo K M - - 2011
Embryos of aquatic animal model fish have proven to be useful organisms for developmental biology and for early life stage toxicity tests. By virtue of their transparent chorions, imaging of normal and abnormal development can be detected and related to exposure or to alterations due to environmental factors. However, the ...
Hamdaoui Nabila - - 2011
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-dependent chloride channel in the plasma membrane of epithelia whose mutation is the cause of the genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). The most frequent CFTR mutation is deletion of Phe(508) and this mutant protein (delF508CFTR) does not readily translocate to the ...
Giangreco Adam - - 2011
Tracheal epithelial remodelling, excess mucus production, and submucosal gland hyperplasia are features of numerous lung diseases, yet their origins remain poorly understood. Previous studies have suggested that NF-κB signalling may regulate airway epithelial homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether deletion of the NF-κB signalling pathway protein ...
Suzuki Daniela E - - 2011
In the developing cerebellum, proliferation of granular neuroprogenitor (GNP) cells lasts until the early postnatal stages when terminal maturation of the cerebellar cortex occurs. GNPs are considered cell targets for neoplastic transformation, and disturbances in cerebellar GNP cell proliferation may contribute to the development of pediatric medulloblastoma. At the molecular ...
Pan Lin - - 2011
The let-7 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are known to act as tumor suppressors and down-regulated in lung cancer. Recently, the RNA-binding protein Lin-28 was demonstrated to inhibit biogenesis of let-7 miRNAs by blocking both Drosha- and Dicer-mediated cleavage and accelerating decay of let-7 precursors. We selected NCI-H446 lung small cell ...
Roberge-White Emily - - 2011
Dictyostelium discoideum has served as a model for development and differentiation for over 70 years. Also regulated in Dictyostelium is the process of dedifferentiation, which consists of multiple cellular events that are separately regulated, providing an excellent model system for studying the return of partially differentiated cells to a more pluripotent ...
Moser Sandra C - - 2011
[This corrects the article on p. e1000451 in vol. 5.].
Wu Lingyan - - 2011
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is an anti-inflammatory molecule. To assess its biological function in lung alveolar epithelial cells, a CCSP-rtTA/(tetO)(7)-dnPPARγ bitransgenic mouse model was generated. In this model, a dominant negative (dn) PPARγ-Flag fusion protein was overexpressed in lung alveolar type II (AT II) epithelial cells in an inducible manner ...
Eneling Kristina - - 2011
Salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) in epithelial cells mediates the increases in active sodium transport (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase-mediated) in response to elevations in the intracellular concentration of sodium. In lung alveolar epithelial cells increases in active sodium transport in response to β-adrenergic stimulation increases pulmonary edema clearance. Therefore, we sought to determine ...
Feng Shipeng - - 2011
microRNAs play an important roles in cell growth, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. They can function either as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. We found that the overexpression of miR-192 inhibited cell proliferation in A549, H460 and 95D cells, and inhibited tumorigenesis in a nude mouse model. Both caspase-7 and the PARP ...
Park Je Won - - 2011
A new reduced hydroxamate, 2,3-dihydrotrichostatin A, was created from trichostatin A by employing a recombinant strain of Streptomyces venezuelae as a microbial catalyst. Compared with trichostatin A, 2,3-dihydrotrichostatin A showed similar antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but, interestingly, approximately twice the cytostatic activity against human small-cell lung cancer cells. The ...
Marmai Cecilia - - 2011
Prior work has shown that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) can mediate transition of alveolar type II cells into mesenchymal cells in mice. Evidence this occurs in humans is limited to immunohistochemical studies colocalizing epithelial and mesenchymal proteins in sections of fibrotic lungs. To acquire further evidence that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition occurs ...
Hsu Yu-Chih - - 2011
The Nuclear factor I (NFI) transcription factor family consists of four genes (Nfia, Nfib, Nfic and Nfix) that regulate the development of multiple organ systems in mice and humans. Nfib is expressed in both lung mesenchyme and epithelium and mice lacking Nfib have severe lung maturation defects and die at ...
Morello V - - 2011
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) represents the main target for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapy, as its overexpression or constitutive activation contributes to malignancy and correlates with poor prognosis. Our previous work demonstrated that in epithelial cells β1 ...
Kuo Curtis - - 2011
Airway remodelling which includes increases in extracellular matrix (ECM) is characteristic feature of asthma, and is correlated to disease severity. Rhinovirus infections are associated with increased risk of asthma development in young children and are the most common cause of asthma exacerbations. In this paper we examined whether viral infections ...
Han Rong - - 2011
Ethnopharmaocological relevance: Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL) is a traditional Chinese formula and has been used for the treatment of respiratory tract infections by inhalation. However, the pulmonary toxicity via inhalation is largely uninvestigated. AIM OF STUDY: : To evaluate the pulmonary toxicity of SHL following in vivo intratracheal spray to rats and ...
Cao Yuan-Dong - - 2011
The high mobility group A1 (HMGA1) proteins are architectural transcription factors found to be overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) technology is a powerful tool for silencing endogenous or exogenous genes in human cancer cells. Our preliminary study shows that gemcitabine inhibits growth of the human lung cancer ...
El-Hashash Ahmed H K - - 2011
Cell polarity, mitotic spindle orientation and asymmetric division play a crucial role in the self-renewal/differentiation of epithelial cells, yet little is known about these processes and the molecular programs that control them in embryonic lung distal epithelium. Herein, we provide the first evidence that embryonic lung distal epithelium is polarized ...
Prota Lucia - - 2011
The effect of different amino acids (AAs) on the aerosol performance of N spray-dried powders were studied. Morphology, size distribution, density, dissolution rate were evaluated and correlated to process parameters. The aerosol performance were analyzed by both Single Stage Glass Impinger and Andersen Cascade Impactor. Results indicated that powders containing ...
Kuipers Ine - - 2011
It is established that cigarette smoke (CS) causes irreversible oxidations in lung epithelial cells, and can lead to their death. However, its impact on reversible and physiologically relevant redox-dependent protein modifications remains to be investigated. Glutathione is an important antioxidant against inhaled reactive oxygen species as a direct scavenger, but ...
Sasai Ken - - 2011
It has been challenging to engineer lung adenocarcinoma models via oncogene-mediated transformation of primary cultured normal human cells. Although viral oncoprotein-mediated malignant transformation has been reported, xenografts derived from such transformed cells generally represent poorly differentiated cancers. Here, we demonstrate that the combined expression of multiple cellular factors induces malignant ...
Vo Nam - - 2011
Tobacco smoking increases the risk of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) and back pain, but the mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of smoking are largely unknown. Current hypotheses predict that smoking contributes to IDD indirectly through nicotine-mediated vasoconstriction which limits the exchange of nutrients between the discs and their surroundings. We ...
Scherließ Regina - - 2011
There are not many excipients already approved in drug products for the use in the respiratory tract. In this study, a rapid in vitro screening procedure to assess and compare acute toxicity of soluble excipient substances on respiratory epithelial cells utilising the Calu-3 cell line is presented. The test substances ...
Lee Seon-Jin - - 2011
Autophagy, an autodigestive process that degrades cellular organelles and protein, plays an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis during environmental stress. Carbon monoxide (CO), a toxic gas and candidate therapeutic molecule, confers cytoprotection in animal models of acute lung injury. The mechanisms underlying CO-dependent lung cell protection and the role ...
Li Shengguo - - 2011
The terminal stage of lung development begins with the formation of the terminal sacs followed by subdivision of these sacs by septa into numerous alveoli to maximize the gas-exchange surface. This process requires coordinated action of various intrinsic and extrinsic factors as well as interaction of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. ...
St Hill Catherine A - - 2011
The carbohydrate sialyl Lewis X (sLeX) is expressed on leukocytes and carcinoma cells and binds to selectins during inflammatory processes and early metastasis. Synthesis of sLeX depends on activity of enzymes, including α(1,3/1,4) fucosyltransferase (FucT-III). Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) up-regulates FucT-III, resulting in increased sLeX in the airways of patients ...
Min Lingfeng - - 2011
This work aimed to investigate the cellular response of human airway epithelial cells (A549) to oxidative stress induced by benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]. Levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation were investigated in A549 cells treated with varying concentrations of B(a)P. A comparative proteomic analysis of total proteins was ...
Plantier Laurent L Section of Neonatology, Perinatal and Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Perinatal Institute, MLC7029, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039, - - 2011
Bronchiolisation of distal airspaces is an unexplained feature of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The authors sought to identify mechanisms driving the differentiation of mucus cells during the bronchiolisation process. Pathways governing airway mucus cell differentiation include SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2), Notch, forkhead box A3(FOXA3)/SAM pointed domain containing ...
Jin Hyeon-Ok - - 2011
Redd1 acts as a negative regulator of mTOR in response to various stress conditions, but its specific physiological role is currently unclear. In the present study, we showed that Redd1 inhibits the invasive activity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Interestingly, expression of Redd1 was extremely low in H1299 ...
Pizanis Nikolaus - - 2011
Objectives: Hypothermia has been shown to lead to cell death via an iron-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diverse cell types. The susceptibility of lung cells to this injury is unknown - but is of great interest as oxygen is used in lung preservation. Therefore, we studied whether ...
Newland Nik - - 2011
Background: The respiratory tract is the primary route of exposure to inhaled toxicants such as environmental pollutants and tobacco smoke. Metabolic activation of xenobiotics is a contributor to the onset of lung diseases. Enzymes such as CYP1A1/1B1 and CYP2A6/2A13 activate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrosamines respectively. Yet, few in vitro ...
Breuer Julia - - 2011
Proinflammatoric cytokines are released extracellularly during necrosis. These lead to inflammation and destruction of surrounding tissues. The aim of this study was to compare the number of viable, apoptotic and necrotic cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of normal horses and horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) and to ...
Moir Lyn M - - 2011
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signal transduction pathway is implicated in the airway remodelling associated with asthma. The class IA PI3K isoforms are known to be activated by growth factors and cytokines. Since this pathway is a possible site of pharmacological intervention to treat the disease it is important to know ...
Thomas Karen C - - 2011
Activation of intracellular transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) in human lung cells causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, increased expression of proapoptotic GADD153 (growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible transcript 3), and cytotoxicity. However, in cells with low TRPV1 expression, cell death is not inhibited by TRPV1 antagonists, despite preventing GADD153 induction. ...
Onuma Kunishige - - 2011
Reducing cancer incidence and mortality by use of cancer-chemopreventive agents is an important goal. We have established an in vitro bioassay that is able to screen large numbers of candidate chemicals that are positive for prevention of inflammation-related carcinogenesis. To accomplish this we have added candidate chemicals or vehicles and ...
Musumeci Giuseppe - - 2011
Several asbestos-like mineral fibres, including fluoro-edenite, may cause lung cancer and/or other lung diseases. However, biological and molecular mechanisms linked to cancer development after mineral fibre exposure have not been fully investigated. In the present study, human non-malignant mesothelial (MeT-5A) and human bronchoalveolar alveolar epithelial (A549) cell lines were incubated ...
Ao Xiaoxiao - - 2011
Oxidative stress injury and death in alveolar epithelial cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of prolonged hyperoxia-induced lung impairment. A reduced survival of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECIIs) may lead to abnormal repair, resulting in acute and chronic pulmonary diseases. Hyperoxia lung injury is associated with the ...
Farkas Arpád - - 2011
Inhaled short-lived radon progenies may deposit in bronchial airways and interact with the epithelium by the emission of alpha particles. Simulation of the related radiobiological effects requires the knowledge of space and time distributions of alpha particle hits and biological endpoints. Present modelling efforts include simulation of radioaerosol deposition patterns ...
Kunii Takao - - 2011
We applied Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment using Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) cells. A DNA aptamer was identified and evaluated by fluorescent confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Our results showed that the DNA aptamer binds to molecules that exist predominantly on target SCLC cell surfaces compared with ...
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