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Kovacs-Simon Andrea A Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4QD, - - 2014
Clostridium difficile is a cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) and colitis, a healthcare-associated intestinal disease. Colonisation of the gut is a critical step in the course of infection. The C. difficile lipoprotein CD0873 was identified as a putative adhesin through a bioinformatics approach. Surface exposure of CD0873 was confirmed and ...
Chen Chao C Antimicrobial Discovery Center, Department of Biology, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2013
Current antibiotics for treating Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), that is, metronidazole, vancomycin and more recently fidaxomicin, are mostly effective but treatment failure and disease relapse remain as significant clinical problems. The shortcomings of these agents are attributed to their low selectivity for C. difficile over normal gut microflora and their ...
Kasendra Magdalena - - 2013
The contribution of Clostridium difficile toxins to cellular intoxication has been extensively studied, but their impact on colonization remains unclear. By setting-up two- and three-dimensional in vitro models of polarized gut epithelium, we investigated how C. difficile infection is affected by host cell polarity and whether TcdA and TcdB contribute ...
Chumbler Nicole M - - 2012
[This corrects the article on p. e1003072 in vol. 8.].
Messier Elise M - - 2012
ABSTRACT The alveolar surface is covered by an epithelium composed of 2 main cell types: type I and type II cells. Alveolar type II (ATII) cells have a distinct morphology with apical microvilli and characteristic lamellar bodies, which are the intracellular storage form of pulmonary surfactant. ATII cells play an ...
Cinti Saverio - - 2012
The main parenchymal cells of the adipose organ are adipocytes. White adipocytes store energy, whereas brown adipocytes dissipate energy for thermogenesis. These two cell types with opposing functions can both originate from endothelial cells, and co-exist in the multiple fat depots of the adipose organ - a feature that I ...
Nateewattana Jintapat - - 2012
Topoisomerase II α enzyme plays a critical role in DNA replication process. It controls the topologic states of DNA during transcription and is essential for cell proliferation. Human DNA topoisomerase II α (hTopo II α) is a promising chemotherapeutic target for anticancer agents against a variety of cancer types. In ...
Troshin Pavel A - - 2012
Conjugated PPV-PPE copolymer has been investigated in organic solar cells in combination with twelve different fullerene derivatives. It was shown that the length of solubilizing alkyl chains in the fullerene derivative structures correlates well with the performance of photovoltaic cells.
Asami Yukihiro - - 2012
Violaceol-I and -II were isolated from a fractionated library of marine-derived fungal metabolites. These compounds increased the calcium ion concentration inside the cell and caused F-actin aggregation in rat fibroblast 3Y1 cells within 3 h resulting in cell shape elongation. Calcium chelator BAPTA-AM (1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxymethyl ester) inhibited violaceol-I- ...
Gyenge Emina Besic - - 2012
The aim of this study was to elucidate photodynamic therapy (PDT) effects mediated by hypericin and a liposomal meso-tetrahydroxyphenyl chlorin (mTHPC) derivative, with focus on their 1:1 mixture, on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Absorption, excitation and photobleaching were monitored with fluorescence spectrometry, showing the same spectral ...
Leliège Antoine - - 2012
Donor-acceptor molecules with small chain extension have been synthesized and used as active material in organic solar cells. The effect of fusion of a phenyl group on the end dicyanovinylene acceptor is discussed.
Herrero-Hernandez E - - 2012
Microbial fuel cells represent a new method for producing electricity from the oxidation of organic matter. A mediatorless microbial fuel cell was developed using Escherichia coli as the active bacterial component with synthetic wastewater of potato extract as the energy source. The two-chamber fuel cell, with a relation of volume ...
Grasman Jonathan M - - 2012
A significant challenge in the design of biomimetic scaffolds is combining morphologic, mechanical, and biochemical cues into a single construct to promote tissue regeneration. In this study, we analyzed the effects of different crosslinking conditions on fibrin biopolymer microthreads to create morphologic scaffolds with tunable mechanical properties that are designed ...
Aguirre Adam - - 2012
Fas ligation via the ligand FasL activates the caspase-8/caspase-3-dependent extrinsic death pathway. In so-called type II cells, an additional mechanism involving tBid-mediated caspase-9 activation is required to efficiently trigger cell death. Other pathways linking FasL-Fas interaction to activation of the intrinsic cell death pathway remain unknown. However, ATP release and ...
Chu Zhiqin - - 2012
We disclosed a specific biological pathway for the observed cell damage when stimulated by the crystalline SiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs), i.e., both mitochondrion multiplication and DNA fragmentation occur upon the initial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, with the former causing further increases of the ROS level in the cell, and eventually ...
Pehar Mariana - - 2012
One of the main functions of the unfolded protein response is to ensure disposal of large protein aggregates that accumulate in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) whereas avoiding, at least under nonlethal levels of ER stress, cell death. When tightly controlled, autophagy-dependent ER-associated degradation (ERAD(II)) allows the cell ...
Argasinski Krzysztof - - 2012
Metal toxicokinetics in invertebrates are usually described by one-compartment first-order kinetic model. Although the model gives an adequate description of the toxicokinetics in certain cases, it has been shown to fail in some situations. It also does not seem acceptable on purely theoretical grounds as accumulation and excretion rates may ...
Yang Dong - - 2012
We demonstrate O(2) plasma treated graphene oxides with a work function of 5.2 eV as a high performance hole transport layer in organic solar cells. The high transparency and high work function simultaneously increase short circuit current, threshold voltage and fill factor, resulting in a 30% increase in cell efficiency.
Costa P M - - 2012
A histopathological screening was performed on juvenile Senegalese soles exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of waterborne Cd (0.5, 5 and 10 μg L(-1)) for 28 days. The severity and dissemination of histopathological changes were variable and limited to the kidney, liver, spleen, gills and skin goblet cells. Contradicting available literature that refers the ...
Schiffner Susanne - - 2012
Murine model systems are critically required tools for the investigation of unknown mechanisms of melanoma development and metastasis and for developing more efficient therapies. The Tg(Grm1)EPv melanoma mouse model is characterized by spontaneous development of pigmented cutaneous melanomas at hairless skin regions, with a short latency and 100% penetrance. Local ...
Quinn Amy R - - 2012
Erratic regulation of glucose metabolism including hyperglycemia is a common condition in premature infants and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to examine histological and ultrastructural differences in the endocrine pancreas in fetal (throughout gestation) and neonatal baboons. Twelve fetal baboons were delivered ...
Bueno-Carrazco José - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: In order to evaluate the improvement of the photodynamic therapy (PDT) due to sodium butyrate (NaBu), its effectiveness in U373-MG and D54-MG astrocytoma cell lines was evaluated. METHODS: Cells were exposed to delta-aminolevulinic acid (δ-ALA) as a precursor to endogenous photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). In both astrocytoma cells, an ...
Shen Haitao - - 2012
Our previous studies showed intragastric administration of Aflatoxin G(1) (AFG(1)) could induce lung adenocarcinoma, which derived from alveolar type II cells (AT-II cells). AT-II cells contribute to Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) metabolism and also serve as the potential progenitor cells for AFB(1)-induced tumorigenesis. Thus, AT-II cells may constitute a target for ...
Sugioka Kenji - - 2012
Although microtubules are known to be essential for chromosome segregation during cell division, they also play important roles in the regulation and function of cell polarity. Cell polarization is fundamental to appropriate tissue patterning and the regulation of cellular diversity during animal development. In polarized cells, microtubules are often organized ...
McCarthy Nicola - - 2012
Michael Yaffe and colleagues show that pretreatment with one targeted drug for a specific period of time can increase the sensitivity of triple-negative breast cancer cells to standard chemotherapy.
Smani Younes - - 2012
Adhesion is an initial and important step in Acinetobacter baumannii causing infections. However, the exact molecular mechanism of such a step between A. baumannii and the host cells remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that the phosphorylcholine (ChoP)-containing outer membrane protein of A. baumannii binds to A549 cells through platelet-activating factor ...
Qu Sanyin - - 2012
A novel D-A-π-A type organic dye () incorporating a diketopyrrolopyrrole unit with a branched alkyl chain was synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells. YCD01 showed a high conversion efficiency of 7.43% (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm(-2)) with a J(sc) of 13.40 mA cm(-2), a V(oc) of 0.76 V, a FF of ...
Messner Barbara - - 2012
Cadmium is a highly toxic, carcinogenic, and atherogenic element. A central principle in many Cd-induced pathophysiologies is the induction of cell death. In past studies Cd was shown to cause apoptosis, necrosis, programmed necrosis, or autophagy. This study was conducted to precisely define the end stage processes and outcome of ...
Das Gautam G Department of Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, 01605, - - 2012
Autophagy is an important catabolic process that delivers cytoplasmic material to the lysosome for degradation. Autophagy promotes cell survival by elimination of damaged organelles and proteins aggregates, as well as by facilitating bioenergetic homeostasis. Although autophagy has been considered a cell survival mechanism, recent studies have shown that autophagy can ...
Lau Janet T F - - 2012
A novel zinc(II) phthalocyanine substituted with an oxaliplatin derivative via a triethylene glycol linker has been synthesized. The two components work in a cooperative manner in the antitumor action. The conjugate shows a cytotoxic effect in the dark due to the cytostatic oxaliplatin moiety and an enhanced cytotoxicity upon illumination ...
Kukushkin Nikolay V - - 2012
Removal of α-glucose residues from nascent glycoproteins in the early secretory pathway is a requirement for further N-glycan maturation. While for most glycoproteins deglucosylation is a stepwise process mediated by endoplasmic reticulum-associated glucosidases I and II, Golgi endo-α-mannosidase provides a backup mechanism for glycoprotein deglucosylation. Although conserved in mammals, in ...
Zong Xueping - - 2012
Two new truxene-based organic sensitizers (M15 and M16) featuring high extinction coefficients were synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells employing cobalt electrolyte. The M16-sensitized device displays a 7.6% efficiency at an irradiation of AM1.5 full sunlight.
Hu Huiqing - - 2012
Microtubules are a vital part of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells and are involved in various cellular processes. The cytoskeleton of Trypanosoma brucei is characterized by an array of subpellicular microtubules and is essential for maintenance of cell shape and polarity, but little is known about the regulation of the ...
Willinger Tim - - 2012
The homeostasis of naive T cells is essential for protective immunity against infection, but the cell-intrinsic molecular mechanisms that control naïve T-cell homeostasis are poorly understood. Genetic ablation in lower organisms has revealed a critical role for Vps34, an evolutionary conserved class III phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), in regulating endocytosis and ...
Deng Jiehui - - 2012
Recent studies underscore the importance of myeloid cells in rendering distant organs hospitable for disseminating tumor cells to colonize. However, what enables myeloid cells to have an apparently superior capacity to colonize distant organs is unclear. Here, we show that S1PR1-STAT3 upregulation in tumor cells induces factors that activate S1PR1-STAT3 ...
Weng Tingting - - 2012
P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a purinergic ion-channel receptor. We have previously shown that the activation of P2X7R in alveolar type I cells stimulates surfactant secretion in alveolar type II cells. In this study, we determined whether miR-150 regulates P2X7R-mediated surfactant secretion. The miR-150 expression level in alveolar type II cells ...
Cao Yiming - - 2012
Through elongating the end or side alkyl chains of dye molecules, we decorate anatase nanocrystals with a thicker organic assembly featuring a smaller tilt angle of the D-π-A backbone with respect to the surface normal, which retards the interfacial charge recombination and confers a higher photovoltage output on mesoscopic cobalt ...
Qin Chuanjiang - - 2012
A novel donor-π-acceptor organic dye (HIQ7) was used in dye-sensitized solar cells with a cobalt redox shuttle. The cells showed broad incident monochromatic photon-to-current conversion efficiency spectra covering the entire visible range and extending into the near-infrared region.
Lee Jianyi - - 2012
Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling is a key regulator of epithelial morphogenesis, including neural tube closure and the orientation of inner ear sensory hair cells, and is mediated by a conserved noncanonical Wnt pathway. Ptk7 is a novel vertebrate-specific regulator of PCP, yet the mechanisms by which Ptk7 regulates mammalian ...
Zec Manja - - 2012
Our previous studies showed that zinc (II), cadmium (II) and nickel (II) complexes with 2-formylpyridine selenosemicarbazone induce apoptosis in cancer cells via activation of mitochondrial pathway. Herein, we reported their antimetastatic properties. Nickel (II), and zinc (II) complexes exhibited the strongest inhibitory potential towards MMP-2/9, while all investigated compounds significantly ...
Aueviriyavit Sasitorn - - 2012
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2)NPs) are increasingly being used in various industrial applications including the production of paper, plastics, cosmetics and paints. With the increasing number of nano-related products, the concern of governments and the general public about the health and environmental risks, especially with regard to occupational and other environmental ...
Du XinXin - - 2012
Cell motility is driven primarily by the dynamics of the cell cytoskeleton, a system of filamentous proteins and molecular motors. It has been proposed that cell motility is a self-organized process, that is, local short-range interactions determine much of the dynamics that are required for the whole-cell organization that leads ...
Acunzo Julie - - 2012
Hsp27, αB-crystallin and HSP22 are ubiquitous small heat shock proteins (sHsp) whose expression is induced in response to a wide variety of unfavorable physiological and environmental conditions. These sHsp protect cells from otherwise lethal conditions mainly by their involvement in cell death pathways such as necrosis, apoptosis or autophagy. At ...
Huang Zheping - - 2012
Stretch-induced differentiation of lung fetal type II epithelial cells is mediated through EGFR (ErbB1) via release of HB-EGF and TGF-α ligands. Employing an EGFR knock-out mice model, we further investigated the role of the ErbB family of receptors in mechanotranduction during lung development. Deletion of EGFR prevented endogenous and mechanical ...
Crawford Jeffrey R - - 2012
Fibrotic diseases, such as cardiac and pulmonary fibrosis, have a poor prognosis with no FDA approved therapies. Monocyte-derived, fibroblast-like cells, called fibrocytes, participate in the formation of fibrotic lesions. The conserved pentraxin protein SAP inhibits fibrocyte differentiation in cell culture, and injections of SAP significantly reduce fibrosis in several animal ...
Zhang Tiejun - - 2012
Targeted disruption of STAT3 function has been proved to be a useful cancer therapeutic approach by inducing apoptotic cell death. Cucurbitacin is currently under development as a small molecule of STAT3 inhibitor to trigger cell death in many cancers. Here, we systematically studied the molecular mechanisms underlying cucurbitacin-induced cell death, ...
Li Feng-Jun - - 2012
The early branching eukaryote Trypanosoma brucei contains functional autophagy machinery that allows regulated degradation of its own cellular components. In this study, we examined the function of two Atg8 genes, TbAtg8.1 and TbAtg8.2, in starvation-induced autophagosome formation and cell death in procyclic T. brucei. Upon starvation, both TbAtg8.1 and TbAtg8.2 ...
Chaudhry S I - - 2013
The invasion of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Here, we identify an E3 ligase, Traf6 and a de-ubiquitinating enzyme, Cezanne/ZA20D1, as important regulators of this process in organotypic models. Traf6 can promote the formation of Cdc42-dependent F-actin microspikes. Furthermore, Traf6 has a key ...
Gkigkitzis Ioannis - - 2012
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) provides an effective option for treatment of tumors and other diseases in superficial tissues and attracts attention for in vitro study with cells. In this study we present a significantly improved model of in vitro cell killing through type II PDT for simulation of the molecular interactions ...
Buschke David G - - 2012
Continued advances in stem cell biology and stem cell transplantation rely on non-invasive biomarkers to characterise cells and stem cell aggregates. The non-invasive quality of such biomarkers is essential because exogenous labels, probes or reporters can unintentionally and dramatically alter stem cell state as can disruption of cell-cell and cell-matrix ...
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