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Results 401 - 450 of 1890
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Tsao Po-Nien - - 2009
Although there is accumulated evidence of a role for Notch in the developing lung, it is still unclear how disruption of Notch signaling affects lung progenitor cell fate and differentiation events in the airway epithelium. To address this issue, we inactivated Notch signaling conditionally in the endoderm using a Shh-Cre ...
Nadarajan Saravanapriah - - 2009
Fertility depends on germline stem cell proliferation, meiosis and gametogenesis, yet how these key transitions are coordinated is unclear. In C. elegans, we show that GLP-1/Notch signaling functions in the germline to modulate oocyte growth when sperm are available for fertilization and the major sperm protein (MSP) hormone is present. ...
O'Keefe David D DD Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, - - 2009
The small GTPase Rap1 affects cell adhesion and cell motility in numerous developmental contexts. Loss of Rap1 in the Drosophila wing epithelium disrupts adherens junction localization, causing mutant cells to disperse, and dramatically alters epithelial cell shape. While the adhesive consequences of Rap1 inactivation have been well described in this ...
Puseenam Aekkachai - - 2009
The Akt signaling pathway is well known to regulate cell proliferation and growth. Girdin, a novel substrate of Akt, plays a crucial role in organization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell motility under the control of Akt. We here identified a novel Girdin-like protein in Drosophila (dGirdin), which has two ...
Mao Ling - - 2009
Accumulated evidence suggests a major role for the activation of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway in the development of neural crest stem cells that give rise to the sympathetic nervous system. We therefore investigated the involvement of SHH signaling in the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma, a common childhood malignant tumor ...
Schulze Jens - - 2009
The current picture of embryonic development in nematodes is essentially shaped by Caenorhabditis elegans and its close relatives. As their pattern of embryogenesis is rather similar, it is often considered to be representative for the taxon Nematoda as a whole. Here we give for the first time a comprehensive description ...
Koso Hideto - - 2009
PURPOSE: The authors sought to identify cell surface markers of photoreceptor and its precursor cells. METHODS: The expression of surface CD antigens that label both temporally and spatially distinct populations of mouse retinal cells were examined. Of the antibodies that showed positive signals in retinal cells, CD73 was focused on ...
Wang Yi - - 2009
Pluripotent human embryonic stem (hES) cells are capable of generating a variety of mature cell types, including hematopoietic cells in vitro. However, the precise signaling mechanisms that regulate hematopoietic cell development from hES cells are still poorly documented. Here we demonstrate that hemoangiogenic cells derived from hES cells are defined ...
Larizza Lidia - - 2009
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a developmental and cancer predisposing syndrome resulting from haploinsufficiency or alteration in neurofibromin, a multifunctional protein that acts in various signaling pathways affecting morphogenetic processes and cell proliferation. Neurofibromin deficiency deregulates Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and Ras/PI3K/AKT/PKB/mTOR signaling networks and intersected pathways including the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A ...
Sakagami Kiyo K Jules Stein Eye Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, - - 2009
Cell-extrinsic signals can profoundly influence the production of various neurons from common progenitors. Yet mechanisms by which extrinsic signals coordinate progenitor cell proliferation, cell cycle exit, and cell fate choices are not well understood. Here, we address whether Hedgehog (Hh) signals independently regulate progenitor proliferation and neuronal fate decisions in ...
Andrews Hillary K HK Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2009
The adult Drosophila external sensory organ (ESO), comprising the hair, socket, neuron, sheath and glia cells, arises through the asymmetric division of sensory organ precursor cells (SOPs). In a mosaic screen designed to identify new components in ESO development, we isolated mutations in sequoia, which encodes a putative zinc-finger transcription ...
Hara Kenta - - 2009
Regulation of the number of cells is critical for development of multicellular organisms. During plant epidermal development, a protodermal cell first makes a fate decision of whether or not to be the meristemoid mother cell (MMC), which undergoes asymmetric cell division forming a meristemoid and its sister cell. The MMC-derived ...
Szakmary Akos - - 2009
Yb regulates the proliferation of both germline and somatic stem cells in the Drosophila melanogaster ovary by activating piwi and hh expression in niche cells. In this study, we show that Yb protein is localized as discrete cytoplasmic spots exclusively in the somatic cells of the ovary and testis. These ...
Lemaire Patrick - - 2009
Ascidians were historically the first metazoans in which experimental embryology was carried out. These early works by Chabry and Conklin [Chabry, L., 1887. Embryologie normale et tératologique des Ascidie. Felix Alcan Editeur, Paris; Conklin, E., 1905. The organization and cell lineage of the ascidian egg. J. Acad., Nat. Sci. Phila. ...
Shi Yandong - - 2009
In the developing Drosophila eye, the precursors of the neuronal photoreceptor cells R1/R6/R7 and non-neuronal cone cells share the same developmental potential and constitute the R7 equivalence group. It is not clear how cells of this group elaborate their distinct fates. Here we show that both TTK88 and D-Pax2 play ...
Godt Dorothea - - 2009
Correct timing of developmental events is crucial for generating a normal organism. During oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, migration of border cells occurs in a defined temporal window and requires Jak/Stat and steroid hormone signalling. The initiation of border-cell migration is now shown to be timed by Jak/Stat-mediated downregulation of the ...
Patel Vimal A VA Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, The University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, - - 2009
Virtually all cells in the body have the capacity to recognize and respond to dead cells. Viable cells discriminate apo from nec targets via distinct cell surface receptors. Engagement of these receptors induces "recognition-dependent" signaling events in viable responding cells that differ for apo vs. nec targets. Although "engulfment-dependent" signaling ...
Gross Andrew J AJ Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, - - 2009
To better understand whether autoimmunity in Lyn-deficient mice arises from compromised central or peripheral B cell tolerance, we examined BCR signaling properties of wild-type and Lyn-deficient B cells at different stages of development. Wild-type mature follicular B cells were less sensitive to BCR stimulation than were immature transitional stage 1 ...
Lassiter Rhonda N T RN Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602, - - 2009
The ophthalmic trigeminal (opV) placode gives rise exclusively to sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system, providing an advantageous model for understanding neurogenesis. The signaling pathways governing opV placode development have only recently begun to be elucidated. Here, we investigate the fibroblast growth factor receptor-4 (FGFR4), an opV expressed gene, ...
Simanton Wendy W Indiana University School of Medicine-South Bend, Raclin-Carmichael Hall, 1234 Notre Dame, Ave., South Bend, IN 46617, - - 2009
Although many similarities in arthropod CNS development exist, differences in axonogenesis and the formation of midline cells, which regulate axon growth, have been observed. For example, axon growth patterns in the ventral nerve cord of Artemia franciscana differ from that of Drosophila melanogaster. Despite such differences, conserved molecular marker expression ...
Gorfinkiel Nicole N Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EH, UK. - - 2009
Halfway through embryonic development, the epidermis of Drosophila exhibits a gap at the dorsal side covered by an extraembryonic epithelium, the amnioserosa (AS). Dorsal closure (DC) is the process whereby interactions between the two epithelia establish epidermal continuity. Although genetic and biomechanical analysis have identified the AS as a force-generating ...
Hunt Lee L Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, - - 2009
Stomata are pores in the plant epidermis that control carbon dioxide uptake and water loss. They are major regulators of global carbon and water cycles [1]. Several signaling components that regulate stomatal development have been characterized. These include a putative secretory peptide EPF1, LRR receptor components TMM and ER, and ...
Watanabe Tadayoshi - - 2009
During early morphogenesis, tissue segregation is often accompanied by changes in cell shape. To understand how such coordination is regulated, somitogenesis was used as a model. When a somite forms in the anterior end of the presomitic mesoderm, an intersomitic boundary (gap) emerges, and it is rapidly followed by cell ...
Chesney Michael A MA Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706-1544, - - 2009
The Caenorhabditis elegans distal tip cell (DTC) provides a niche for germline stem cells in both hermaphrodites and males. The hermaphrodite distal tip cell (hDTC) also provides "leader" function to control gonadal elongation and shape, while in males, leader function is allocated to the linker cell (LC). Therefore, the male ...
Guseh J Sawalla - - 2009
The airways are conduits that transport atmospheric oxygen to the distal alveolus. Normally, airway mucous cells are rare. However, diseases of the airway are often characterized by mucous metaplasia, in which there are dramatic increases in mucous cell numbers. As the Notch pathway is known to regulate cell fate in ...
Widmann Thomas J - - 2009
Morphogenesis is largely driven by changes in the shape of individual cells. However, how cell shape is regulated in developing animals is not well understood. Here, we show that the onset of TGFbeta/Dpp signaling activity correlates with the transition from cuboidal to columnar cell shape in developing Drosophila melanogaster wing ...
Hansson Mattias - - 2009
Here we examine how BMP, Wnt, and FGF signaling modulate activin-induced mesendodermal differentiation of mouse ES cells grown under defined conditions in adherent monoculture. We monitor ES cells containing reporter genes for markers of primitive streak (PS) and its progeny and extend previous findings on the ability of increasing concentrations ...
Jang Anna C-C AC Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205-2185, - - 2009
During development, elaborate patterns of cell differentiation and movement must occur in the correct locations and at the proper times. Developmental timing has been studied less than spatial pattern formation, and the mechanisms integrating the two are poorly understood. Border-cell migration in the Drosophila ovary occurs specifically at stage 9. ...
Tonoyama Yasuhiro - - 2009
Glycans are known to play important roles in vertebrate development; however, it is difficult to analyze in mammals because it takes place in utero. Therefore, we used medaka (Oryzias latipes) to clarify the roles of glycans during vertebrate development. beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase is one of the key enzymes in the biosynthesis of ...
Long Tao T Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, - - 2009
Cell-to-cell communication in bacteria is a process known as quorum sensing that relies on the production, detection, and response to the extracellular accumulation of signaling molecules called autoinducers. Often, bacteria use multiple autoinducers to obtain information about the vicinal cell density. However, how cells integrate and interpret the information contained ...
Coumailleau F - - 2009
Endocytosis has a crucial role during Notch signalling after the asymmetric division of fly sensory organ precursors (SOPs): directional signalling is mediated by differential endocytosis of the ligand Delta and the Notch effector Sanpodo in one of the SOP daughters, pIIb. Here we show a new mechanism of directional signalling ...
Grieder Nicole C - - 2009
The Drosophila wing and the dorsal thorax develop from primordia within the wing imaginal disc. Here we show that spalt major (salm) is expressed within the presumptive dorsal body wall primordium early in wing disc development to specify notum and wing hinge tissue. Upon ectopic salm expression, dorsally located second ...
Wang Zhiwei Z Department of Pathology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, - - 2009
Despite rapid advances in many fronts, pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the most difficult human malignancies to treat due, in part, to de novo and acquired chemoresistance and radioresistance. Gemcitabine alone or in combination with other conventional therapeutics is the standard of care for the treatment of advanced PC ...
van Dop Willemijn A - - 2009
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The intestinal epithelium is a homeostatic system in which differentiated cells are in dynamic equilibrium with rapidly cycling precursor cells. Wnt signaling regulates intestinal epithelial precursor cell fate and proliferation. Homeostatic systems exist by virtue of negative feedback loops, and we have previously identified the Hedgehog (Hh) ...
Stone Craig E CE Department of Genetics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2009
Unicellular tubes or capillaries composed of individual cells with a hollow lumen perform important physiological functions including fluid or gas transport and exchange. These tubes are thought to build intracellular lumina by polarized trafficking of apical membrane components, but the molecular signals that promote luminal growth and luminal connectivity between ...
Birkholz Denise A DA Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado Denver, School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045, - - 2009
Color vision is based on the differential color sensitivity of retinal photoreceptors, however the developmental programs that control photoreceptor cell differentiation and specify color sensitivity are poorly understood. In Drosophila there is growing evidence that the color sensitivity of the R8 cell within an individual ommatidium is regulated by an ...
Domenech Maribella M University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3144 Engineering Centers Building, 1550 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706, - - 2009
The cellular microenvironment plays a critical role in shaping and directing the process of communication between the cells. Soluble signals are responsible for many cellular behaviors such as cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. Despite the importance of soluble signals, canonical methods are not well suited to the study of soluble ...
Wang Xu X Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, - - 2009
In all vertebrate brains, there is a period of widespread embryonic neurogenesis followed by specific regional neurogenesis that continues into adult stages. The Wnt signaling pathway, which is essential for numerous developmental processes, has also been suggested to be involved in neurogenesis. To help investigate the exact roles of canonical ...
Glauche I - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: The analysis of individual cell fates within a population of stem and progenitor cells is still a major experimental challenge in stem cell biology. However, new monitoring techniques, such as high-resolution time-lapse video microscopy, facilitate tracking and quantitative analysis of single cells and their progeny. Information on cellular development, ...
Marza Esther E MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, - - 2009
Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are glycosylated derivatives of ceramide in the lipid bilayer. Their ubiquitous distribution and complexity suggest that they have important functions, but what these are in vivo is still poorly understood. Here, we characterize the phenotype of Caenorhabditis elegans mutants with essentially no GSLs. The C. elegans genome encodes ...
O'Donnell Robert T - - 2009
CD22 is a cell-surface molecule found on most B-cell lymphomas (NHL). HB22.7 is an anti-CD22 antibody that blocks CD22 ligand binding, initiates signaling, and kills NHL cells. The SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase is disproportionately associated with the cytoplasmic domain of CD22. Sodium orthovanadate (NaV) and dephostatin (DP) are phosphatase inhibitors. The ...
Wong, Yan Fung
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, 2008
Estes Kathleen A - - 2009
Tubulogenesis and lumen formation are critical to the development of most organs. We study Caenorhabditis elegans vulval and uterine development to probe the complex mechanisms that mediate these events. Development of the vulva and the ventral uterus is coordinated by the inductive cell-signaling activity of a gonadal cell called the ...
Saito Naoki - - 2009
Intracellular components in methyl jasmonate (MeJA) signaling remain largely unknown, to compare those in well-understood abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. We have reported that nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling component in MeJA-induced stomatal closure, as well as ABA-induced stomatal closure in the previous study. To gain further information about the ...
Piddini Eugenia E MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, - - 2009
In a classical view of development, a cell can acquire positional information by reading the local concentration of a morphogen independently of its neighbors. Accordingly, in Drosophila, the morphogen Wingless produced in the wing's prospective distal region activates target genes in a dose-dependent fashion to organize the proximodistal pattern. Here, ...
Lawrence Richard J - - 2009
Eukaryotic genomes can be organized into distinct domains of heterochromatin or euchromatin. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, assembly of heterochromatin at the silent mating-type region is critical for cell fate determination in the form of mating-type switching. Here, we report that the ubiquitin ligase, Msc1, is a critical factor ...
Yang Yingzi - - 2009
The vertebrate limb bud provides a unique system to investigate the coordinated regulation of growth and patterning, two key processes that govern the formation of a complex multicellular organism from a fertilized egg. Two studies have advanced our understanding of limb development by elucidating that signaling gradients from the limb ...
Batts Shelley A SA Kresge Hearing Research Institute, University of Michigan Medical School, MSRB-3, 1150 West Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5648, - - 2009
During the development of the inner ear, the Notch cell signaling pathway is responsible for the specification of the pro-sensory domain and influences cell fate decisions. It is assumed that Notch signaling ends during maturity and cannot be reinitiated to alter the fate of new or existing cells in the ...
Hebeisen, Michaël
During the development of a multicellular organism, the cell cycle must be tightly regulated in order to ensure that cell division and growth are coordinated with the ongoing cell fate specification and morphogenetic programs. Although the molecular mechanisms that drive cell division are well understood, many of the signaling pathways ...
Fior Rita - - 2009
During Notch mediated lateral inhibition, interacting cells establish or amplify differences in Notch signalling, which are then translated into distinct cell fate decisions according to the developmental context. In recent years, several mechanisms that increase the signalling capacity of interacting cells have been uncovered (reviewed in Bray, 2006, Le Borgne, ...
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