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Giles Amber J AJ Carter Immunology Center and Department of Microbiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, - - 2009
The adaptor protein Shc is phosphorylated downstream of many cell surface receptors, including Ag and cytokine receptors. However, the role of Shc in B cell development has not been addressed. Here, through conditional expression of a dominant negative Shc mutant and conditional loss of Shc protein expression, we tested a ...
Swaminathan Aishwarya - - 2010
The transcriptional corepressor SIN3 is an essential gene in metazoans. In cell culture experiments, loss of SIN3 leads to defects in cell proliferation. Whether and how SIN3 may regulate the cell cycle during development has not been explored. To gain insight into this relationship, we have generated conditional knock down ...
Cruickshank Mark N - - 2010
The notch signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved across the animal kingdom and regulates developmental 'decisions', such as cell fate commitment, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. In the mammalian immune system, notch signaling events have been extensively studied during T lymphopoiesis, and have a role both during early development, as well as ...
Baguma-Nibasheka Mark - - 2009
Previous microarray analysis revealed beta-transducin repeat containing (Btrc) down-regulation in the retina of mouse embryos specifically lacking cholinergic amacrine cells (CACs) as a result of the absence of skeletal musculature and fetal ocular movements. To investigate the role of Btrc in the determination of retinal cell fate, the present study ...
Aman Andy - - 2009
Collective migration of adherent cohorts of cells is a common and crucial phenomenon during embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. The zebrafish posterior lateral line primordium has emerged as a powerful in vivo model to study collective migration due to its relative simplicity and accessibility. While it has become clear ...
Munro Edwin - - 2009
The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans has produced a wellspring of insights into mechanisms that govern cellular symmetry breaking during animal development. Here we focus on two highly conserved systems that underlie many of the key symmetry-breaking events that occur during embryonic and larval development in the worm. One involves the ...
Fetting Jennifer L - - 2009
Directed cellular movements are a universal feature of morphogenesis in multicellular organisms. Differential adhesion between the stationary and motile cells promotes these cellular movements to effect spatial patterning of cells. A prominent feature of Drosophila eye development is the 90 degrees rotational movement of the multicellular ommatidial precursors within a ...
Birkholz Denise A DA Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado Denver, School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, - - 2009
Cell fate determination in many systems is based upon inductive events driven by cell-cell interactions. Inductive signaling regulates many aspects of Drosophila compound eye development. Accumulating evidence suggests that the color sensitivity of the R8 photoreceptor cell within an individual ommatidium is regulated by an inductive signal from the adjacent ...
Guo Zheng - - 2009
The Drosophila ovary is an excellent system with which to study germline stem cell (GSC) biology. Two or three female GSCs are maintained in a structure called a niche at the anterior tip of the ovary. The somatic niche cells surrounding the GSCs include terminal filament cells, cap cells and ...
Itoh Keiji K Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, - - 2009
Wnt pathways regulate many developmental processes, including cell-fate specification, cell polarity, and cell movements during morphogenesis. The subcellular distribution of pathway mediators in specific cellular compartments might be crucial for the selection of pathway targets and signaling specificity. We find that the ankyrin-repeat protein Diversin, which functions in different Wnt ...
Udolph Gerald - - 2009
The generation of cellular diversity in the nervous system involves the mechanism of asymmetric cell division. Besides an array of molecules, including the Par protein cassette, a heterotrimeric G protein signalling complex, Inscuteable plays a major role in controlling asymmetric cell division, which ultimately leads to differential activation of the ...
Choi Sun-Cheol SC Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, - - 2009
Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) plays a critical role in establishment of cell polarity in epithelial cells. While Frizzled/Dsh signaling has been implicated in the regulation of the localization and activity of Lgl, it remains unclear whether specific Wnt ligands are involved. Here we show that Wnt5a triggers the release of ...
Kageyama Ryoichiro - - 2009
In the developing nervous system, differentiating neurons express Delta and activate Notch signaling in their neighboring cells. As a result of Notch activation, neuronal differentiation is inhibited in neighboring cells and they remain neural progenitor cells. Thus, differentiation of neurons and maintenance of neural progenitor cells are well balanced owing ...
Xu Peng - - 2010
Notch receptors play an essential role in cellular processes during embryonic and postnatal development, including maintenance of stem cell self-renewal, proliferation, and determination of cell fate and apoptosis. Deregulation of Notch signaling has been implicated in some genetic diseases and tumorigenesis. The function of Notch signaling in a variety of ...
Starz-Gaiano Michelle M Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, - - 2009
We are using Drosophila follicle cells to study the mechanisms that promote cell motility. Using genetics we identified a gene regulatory network that controls the dynamic pattern of activation of JAK/STAT in anterior follicle cells. Under the influence of a graded signal, Unpaired (UPD), JAK/STAT becomes activated first in a ...
Shan Jingdong - - 2010
The Wnt4 gene encodes a secreted signaling molecule controlling the development of several organs, such as the kidney, adrenal gland, ovary, mammary gland and pituitary gland. It is thought to act in the embryonic kidney as an auto-inducer of nephrogenesis controlling mesenchyme-to-epithelium transition, and Wnt4-deficient mice die soon after birth, ...
Isohata Noriyuki - - 2009
It has been established that the Hedgehog (Hh) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) signals act on morphogenesis of embryonic and adult tissues. Recently, both signals have been involved in tumor malignancy. However, little is known as to whether Hh and EMT signals act on normal and malignant epithelial cells in the ...
Ristorcelli Elodie - - 2009
We previously reported that exosomal nanoparticles secreted by human pancreatic tumoral cell lines decrease tumoral cell proliferation through the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway, because of activation of pro-apoptotic phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and of glucose synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta). Interactions between exosomal nanoparticles and cells are thought ...
Mitsiadis Thimios A - - 2009
Teeth arise from sequential and reciprocal interactions between the oral epithelium and the underlying cranial neural crest-derived mesenchyme. Their formation involves a precisely orchestrated series of molecular and morphogenetic events, and gives us the opportunity to discover and understand the nature of the signals that direct cell fates and patterning. ...
Yan Dong - - 2009
During development, secreted morphogens such as Wnt, Hedgehog (Hh), and BMP emit from their producing cells in a morphogenetic field, and specify different cell fates in a direct concentration-dependent manner. Understanding how morphogens form their concentration gradients to pattern tissues has been a central issue in developmental biology. Various experimental ...
Rosby Raphyel - - 2009
Mammalian nucleostemin (NS) is a nucleolar guanosine triphosphate-binding protein implicated in cell cycle progression, stem cell proliferation, and ribosome assembly. Drosophila melanogaster contains a four-member nucleostemin family (NS1-4). NS1 is the closest orthologue to human NS; it shares 33% identity and 67% similarity with human NS. We show that NS1 ...
Donner Tyler J - - 2009
The principles underlying the formation of veins in the leaf have long intrigued developmental biologists. In Arabidopsis leaves, files of anatomically inconspicuous subepidermal cells that will elongate into vein-forming procambial cells selectively activate ATHB8 gene expression. The biological role of ATHB8 in vein formation and the molecular events that culminate ...
Shah Ishita M IM Department of Microbiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, - - 2009
A recent study reports that Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation depends upon paracrine signaling where the signal-producing and target-responsive cells are different.
Weigelt Britta B Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, Mailstop 977R225A, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. - - 2010
Development of effective and durable breast cancer treatment strategies requires a mechanistic understanding of the influence of the microenvironment on response. Previous work has shown that cellular signaling pathways and cell morphology are dramatically influenced by three-dimensional (3D) cultures as opposed to traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayers. Here, we compared 2D ...
Bagci T - - 2009
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant glioma type with diffuse borders due to extensive tumor cell infiltration. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of GBM cell dispersal is critical for developing effective therapies to limit infiltration. We identified neuropilin-1 as a mediator of cancer cell invasion by a functional proteomic screen ...
Klerkx Elke P F - - 2009
The vaccinia-related kinases (VRKs) are highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom and phosphorylate several chromatin proteins and transcription factors. In early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, VRK-1 is required for proper nuclear envelope formation. In this work, we present the first investigation of the developmental role of VRKs by means of a ...
Kudo Mareina - - 2009
OBJECT: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates diverse physiological functions, including cell proliferation and survival. Recent studies have shown that IL-6 expression is often elevated in response to several types of glioma. Although IL-6 is said to play an important role in glioma, the involvement of IL-6 signaling ...
Willems Maxime - - 2009
The development of macrostomid flatworms is of interest for evolutionary developmental biology research because these taxa combine characteristics of the canonical spiral cleavage pattern with significant deviations from this pattern. One such deviation is the formation of hull cells, which surround the remaining embryonic primordium during early development. Using live ...
Simon Françoise - - 2009
Understanding the mechanisms that coordinate cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and cell differentiation is essential to address the problem of how "normal" versus pathological developmental processes take place. In the bristle lineage of the adult fly, we have tested the capacity of post-mitotic cells to re-enter the cell cycle in ...
Krahn Michael P - - 2009
Activation of Notch by its transmembrane ligand Delta requires the E3 ubiquitin ligases Neuralized or Mind bomb and endocytosis of the ubiquitinated ligand. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Ossipova et al. show that the polarity regulator PAR-1 phosphorylates Mind bomb, leading to the degradation of Mind bomb and to ...
Lin Nianwei - - 2009
Cell death plays an essential role during Drosophila embryogenesis. However, it remains an enigma as to what mechanisms determine (or select) the specific cells to be eliminated at a particular developmental stage. Is it mostly dependent on the lineage of the cell, signifying genetic predetermination, or is it due to ...
Ribes Vanessa V Developmental Neurobiology, National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, United Kingdom, NW7 - - 2009
The secreted protein Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) acts in graded fashion to pattern the dorsal-ventral axis of the vertebrate neural tube. This is a dynamic process in which increasing concentrations and durations of exposure to SHH generate neurons with successively more ventral identities. Interactions between the receiving cells and the graded ...
Sabherwal Nitin N Faculty of Life Sciences, Michael Smith Building, University of Manchester, Manchester, - - 2009
During neurogenesis in Xenopus, apicobasally polarised superficial and non-polar deep cells take up different fates: deep cells become primary neurons while superficial cells stay as progenitors. It is not known whether the proteins that affect cell polarity also affect cell fate and how membrane polarity information may be transmitted to ...
Gondi Christopher S CS Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61605, - - 2009
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family (also known as the ErbB protein family) is comprised of four structurally-related receptor tyrosine kinases. Insufficient ErbB signaling in humans is associated with the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. In contrast, excessive ErbB signaling is associated with ...
Bultje Ronald S RS Developmental Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, - - 2009
Asymmetric cell division of radial glial progenitors produces neurons while allowing self-renewal; however, little is known about the mechanism that generates asymmetry in daughter cell fate specification. Here, we found that mammalian partition defective protein 3 (mPar3), a key cell polarity determinant, exhibits dynamic distribution in radial glial progenitors. While ...
Griffin Ruth R Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, Institut de Recherches en Technologies et Sciences pour le Vivant, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Grenoble, France. - - 2009
In Drosophila melanogaster, widely used mitotic recombination-based strategies generate mosaic flies with positive readout for only one daughter cell after division. To differentially label both daughter cells, we developed the twin spot generator (TSG) technique, which through mitotic recombination generates green and red twin spots that are detectable after the ...
Evans Cory J CJ Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, Los Angeles, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, - - 2009
We combined Gal4-UAS and the FLP recombinase-FRT and fluorescent reporters to generate cell clones that provide spatial, temporal and genetic information about the origins of individual cells in Drosophila melanogaster. We named this combination the Gal4 technique for real-time and clonal expression (G-TRACE). The approach should allow for screening and ...
Baguma-Nibasheka Mark - - 2009
Adaptor-related protein complex 3 delta 1 (Ap3d1) encodes the delta 1 subunit of an adaptor protein regulating intracellular vesicle-mediated transport, and the Ap3d-deletion mutant (Mocha) mouse undergoes rapid photoreceptor degeneration leading to blindness soon after birth. Previous microarray analysis revealed Ap3d down-regulation in the retina of mouse embryos specifically lacking ...
Constam Daniel B - - 2009
A fundamental challenge in biology is to explain how progenitor cells in developing tissues acquire distinct fates according to their position. In vertebrates, the positional information that specifies the germ layers and the primary body axes is mediated by Nodal. Nodal meets the criteria of a morphogen since it can ...
Widmann Thomas J - - 2009
The control of cell morphology is important for shaping animals during development. Here we address the role of the Wnt/Wingless signal transduction pathway and two of its target genes, vestigial and shotgun (encoding E-cadherin), in controlling the columnar shape of Drosophila wing disc cells. We show that clones of cells ...
Hagemann Anja I - - 2009
Morphogen gradients provide positional cues for cell fate specification and tissue patterning during embryonic development. One important aspect of morphogen function, the mechanism by which long-range signalling occurs, is still poorly understood. In Xenopus, members of the TGF-beta family such as the nodal-related proteins and activin act as morphogens to ...
López Daniel D Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2009
Cellular differentiation is triggered by extracellular signals that cause target cells to adopt a particular fate. Differentiation in bacteria typically involves autocrine signaling in which all cells in the population produce and respond to the same signal. Here we present evidence for paracrine signaling in bacterial populations-some cells produce a ...
Puligilla Chandrakala - - 2009
In mammals, auditory perception is initially mediated through sensory cells located in a rigorously patterned mosaic of unique cell types located within the coiled cochlea. Identification of the factors that direct multipotent progenitor cells to develop as each of these specialized cell types has the potential to enhance our understanding ...
Yoon Sun-Ok - - 2009
The Notch signaling pathway is one of the most conserved mechanisms to regulate cell fate in many tissues during development and postnatal life. In the immune system, Notch signaling regulates T and B cell development and modulates the differentiation of T and B cells. In this study, we investigated the ...
North Hilary A - - 2009
Eph receptors are widely expressed during cerebral cortical development, yet a role for Eph signaling in the generation of cells during corticogenesis has not been shown. Cortical progenitor cells selectively express one receptor, EphA4, and reducing EphA4 signaling in cultured progenitors suppressed proliferation, decreasing cell number. In vivo, EphA4(-/-) cortex ...
Stanley Pamela - - 2009
Notch signaling is required for the development of all T cells and marginal zone (MZ) B cells. Specific roles in T- and B-cell differentiation have been identified for different Notch receptors, the canonical Delta-like (Dll) and Jagged (Jag) Notch ligands, and downstream effectors of Notch signaling. Notch receptors and ligands ...
Nitschke Lars - - 2009
Siglecs (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins) are sialic acid-binding proteins, which are expressed on many cell types of the immune system. B cells express two members of the Siglec family, CD22 (Siglec-2) and Siglec-G, both of which have been shown to inhibit B-cell signaling. CD22 recruits the tyrosine phosphatase Src homology ...
Bischoff Marcus - - 2009
During morphogenesis, cell movements, cell divisions and cell death work together to form complex patterns and to shape organs. These events are the outcome of decisions made by many individual cells, but how these decisions are controlled and coordinated is elusive. The adult abdominal epidermis of Drosophila is formed during ...
Qiu Xuehui - - 2009
In vertebrates, hindbrain is subdivided into seven segments termed rhombomeres and the interface between each rhombomere forms the boundary. Similar to the D/V boundary formation in Drosophila, Notch activation has been shown to regulate the segregation of rhombomere boundary cells. Here we further explored the function of Notch signaling in ...
Tsao Po-Nien - - 2009
Although there is accumulated evidence of a role for Notch in the developing lung, it is still unclear how disruption of Notch signaling affects lung progenitor cell fate and differentiation events in the airway epithelium. To address this issue, we inactivated Notch signaling conditionally in the endoderm using a Shh-Cre ...
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