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Results 301 - 350 of 1890
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Zhan Yougen - - 2010
Mutations that diminish the function of the extracellular matrix receptor Dystroglycan (DG) result in muscular dystrophies, with associated neuronal migration defects in the brain and mental retardation e.g. Muscle Eye Brain Disease. To gain insight into the function of DG in the nervous system we initiated a study to examine ...
Zecca Myriam - - 2010
During development, the Drosophila wing primordium undergoes a dramatic increase in cell number and mass under the control of the long-range morphogens Wingless (Wg, a Wnt) and Decapentaplegic (Dpp, a BMP). This process depends in part on the capacity of wing cells to recruit neighboring, non-wing cells into the wing ...
Gettings Melanie - - 2010
Segments are fundamental units in animal development which are made of distinct cell lineages separated by boundaries. Although boundaries show limited plasticity during their formation for sharpening, cell lineages make compartments that become tightly restricted as development goes on. Here, we characterize a unique case of breaking of the segment ...
Zheng Zhiqiang - - 2010
Embryonic stem (ES) cells hold considerable promise as a source of cells with therapeutic potential, including cells that can be used for drug screening and in cell replacement therapies. Differentiation of ES cells into the somatic lineages is a regulated process; before the promise of these cells can be realised ...
Schwank Gerald - - 2010
Morphogen gradients play a fundamental role in organ patterning and organ growth. Unlike their role in patterning, their function in regulating the growth and the size of organs is poorly understood. How and why do morphogen gradients exert their mitogenic effects to generate uniform proliferation in developing organs, and by ...
Buffin Eulalie - - 2010
In Drosophila, each external sensory organ originates from the division of a unique precursor cell (the sensory organ precursor cell or SOP). Each SOP is specified from a cluster of equivalent cells, called a proneural cluster, all of them competent to become SOP. Although, it is well known how SOP ...
Shen Jie - - 2010
Decapentaplegic (Dpp) is one of the best characterized morphogens, required for dorso-ventral patterning of the Drosophila embryo and for anterior-posterior (A/P) patterning of the wing imaginal disc. In the larval wing pouch, the Dpp target gene optomotor-blind (omb) is generally assumed to be expressed in a step function above a ...
Blom Tomas - - 2010
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that regulates a multitude of cellular functions, including cell proliferation, survival, migration and angiogenesis. S1P mediates its effects either by signaling through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or through an intracellular mode of action. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism behind S1P-induced survival ...
Gandille Pierre - - 2010
Most human cancers originate from epithelial tissues and cell polarity and adhesion defects can lead to metastasis. The Polycomb-Group of chromatin factors were first characterized in Drosophila as repressors of homeotic genes during development, while studies in mammals indicate a conserved role in body plan organization, as well as an ...
Georgopoulos Nikolaos T - - 2010
Despite the well-documented association between loss of E-cadherin and carcinogenesis, as well as the link between restoration of its expression and suppression of proliferation in carcinoma cells, the ability of E-cadherin to modulate growth-promoting cell signalling in normal epithelial cells is less well understood and frequently contradictory. The potential for ...
Baldridge Dustin - - 2010
Human skeletal dysplasias are disorders that result from errors in bone, cartilage, and joint development. A complex series of signaling pathways, including the FGF, TGFbeta, BMP, WNT, Notch, and Hedgehog pathways, are essential for proper skeletogenesis, and human skeletal dysplasias are often a consequence of primary or secondary dysregulation of ...
Ueki Yumi Y Oklahoma Center for Neuroscience, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, - - 2010
Members of IL-6 family cytokines, such as leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), activate the common signal-transducing receptor gp130. We and others have previously shown that application of exogenous gp130 ligands promotes photoreceptor survival in light-induced and inherited retinal degeneration in animal models. While there is strong ...
Zimmer Céline C National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), Medical Research Council (MRC), Department of Molecular Neurobiology, London NW7 1AA, UK. - - 2010
Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells play a key role in the formation of the cerebral cortex. These pioneer neurons are distributed throughout the cortical marginal zone in distinct graded distributions. Fate mapping and cell lineage tracing studies have recently shown that CR cells arise from restricted domains of the pallial ventricular zone, ...
Tamori Yoichiro Y Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, United States of - - 2010
During the initial stages of carcinogenesis, transformation events occur in a single cell within an epithelial monolayer. However, it remains unknown what happens at the interface between normal and transformed epithelial cells during this process. In Drosophila, it has been recently shown that normal and transformed cells compete with each ...
Yeh Jing-Ruey J JR Developmental Biology Laboratory, Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA. - - 2010
Embryonic zebrafish have long been used for lineage-tracing studies. In zebrafish embryos, the cell fate identities can be determined by whole-mount in situ hybridization, or by visualization of live embryos if using fluorescent reporter lines. We use embryonic zebrafish to study the effects of a leukemic oncogene AML1-ETO on modulating ...
Johnston Robert J RJ Jr Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, - - 2010
Although cell fate specification is tightly controlled to yield highly reproducible results and avoid extreme variation, developmental programs often incorporate stochastic mechanisms to diversify cell types. Stochastic specification phenomena are observed in a wide range of species and an assorted set of developmental contexts. In bacteria, stochastic mechanisms are utilized ...
Feng Liang L Flaum Eye Institute, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, - - 2010
Math5-null mutation results in the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and in a concurrent increase of amacrine and cone cells. However, it remains unclear whether there is a cell fate switch of Math5-lineage cells in the absence of Math5 and whether MATH5 cell-autonomously regulates the differentiation of the above ...
Jenny Andreas A Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, - - 2010
Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling regulates the establishment of polarity within the plane of an epithelium and allows cells to obtain directional information. Its results are as diverse as the determination of cell fates, the generation of asymmetric but highly aligned structures (e.g., stereocilia in the human ear or hairs ...
Salipante Stephen J SJ Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98109, - - 2010
Fate maps depict how cells relate together through past lineage relationships, and are useful tools for studying developmental and somatic processes. However, with existing technologies, it has not been possible to generate detailed fate maps of complex organisms such as the mouse. We and others have therefore proposed a novel ...
Karbowniczek Magdalena - - 2010
Mutations in either of the genes encoding the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), TSC1 and TSC2, result in a multisystem tumor disorder characterized by lesions with unusual lineage expression patterns. How these unusual cell-fate determination patterns are generated is unclear. We therefore investigated the role of the TSC in the Drosophila ...
Piccirillo Sarah - - 2010
Multicellular organisms utilize cell-to-cell signals to build patterns of cell types within embryos, but the ability of fungi to form organized communities has been largely unexplored. Here we report that colonies of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae formed sharply divided layers of sporulating and nonsporulating cells. Sporulation initiated in the colony's ...
Kanesaki Yu - - 2009
Plastids and mitochondria are organelles in plant cells, which are considered to have evolved from endosymbiotic associations of bacteria. These organelles have their own genomes descended from their ancestors, and the organelle DNA replications (ODR) of plant cells are coordinated with the nuclear DNA replication (NDR) as ODR precedes NDR ...
Morgan Clinton T CT Medical Scientist Training Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, - - 2010
Small molecules can control cell fate in vivo and may allow directed induction of desired cell types, providing an attractive alternative to transplant-based approaches in regenerative medicine. We have chemically induced functional oocytes in Caenorhabditis elegans adults that otherwise produced only sperm. These findings suggest that chemical approaches to therapeutic ...
Sekine Yuichi - - 2009
Signal-transducing adaptor protein-2 (STAP-2) is a recently identified adaptor protein that contains pleckstrin and Src homology 2-like domains, as well as a YXXQ motif in its C-terminal region. Our previous studies revealed that STAP-2 regulates integrin-mediated T cell adhesion. In the present study, we find that STAP-2 expression affects Jurkat ...
Chen Haoming H Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia, - - 2009
Cell migration is a critical step in cancer cell invasion. Recent studies have implicated the importance of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway in cancer cell migration. However, the mechanism associated with ERK-regulated cell migration is poorly understood. Using a panel of breast cancer cell lines, we detected an ...
Hyun Seogang - - 2009
How body size is determined is a long-standing question in biology, yet its regulatory mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we find that a conserved microRNA miR-8 and its target, USH, regulate body size in Drosophila. miR-8 null flies are smaller in size and defective in insulin signaling in fat body ...
Ferrell James E JE - - 2009
New experimental and theoretical studies reported by Uri Alon, Marc Kirschner, and colleagues in this issue of Molecular Cell suggest that Weber's law of sensory perception may apply to a number of cell signaling processes.
Jørgensen Claus C Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute (SLRI), Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto M5G 1X5, - - 2009
Cells have self-organizing properties that control their behavior in complex tissues. Contact between cells expressing either B-type Eph receptors or their transmembrane ephrin ligands initiates bidirectional signals that regulate cell positioning. However, simultaneously investigating how information is processed in two interacting cell types remains a challenge. We implemented a proteomic ...
Hartenstein Volker V Department of Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. - - 2010
The midgut epithelium is formed by absorptive enterocytes, secretory cells and endocrine cells. Each of these lineages is derived from the pluripotent progenitors that constitute the embryonic endoderm; the mature midgut retains pools of self-renewing stem cells that continue to produce all lineages. Recent findings in vertebrates and Drosophila shed ...
Doronkin S S Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA. - - 2010
The role of the hypoxic response during metastasis was analysed in migrating border cells of the Drosophila ovary. Acute exposure to 1% O(2) delayed or blocked border cell migration (BCM), whereas prolonged exposure resulted in the first documented accelerated BCM phenotype. Similarly, manipulating the expression levels of sima, the Drosophila ...
Baer Magdalena M - - 2010
The tubular network of the tracheal system in the Drosophila embryo is created from a set of epithelial placodes by cell migration, rearrangements, fusions and shape changes. A designated number of cells is initially allocated to each branch of the system. We show here that the final cell number in ...
Blumenthal Edward M - - 2009
The biogenic amine tyramine (TA) is a potent diuretic factor when applied to the Malpighian tubule (MT) of Drosophila melanogaster, stimulating both urine production and transepithelial chloride conductance. Isolated MTs can respond not only to TA but also to its precursor, tyrosine; this observation led to the proposal that MTs ...
Mulinari Shai - - 2009
The formation of segmental grooves during mid embryogenesis in the Drosophila epidermis depends on the specification of a single row of groove cells posteriorly adjacent to cells that express the Hedgehog signal. However, the mechanism of groove formation and the role of the parasegmental organizer, which consists of adjacent rows ...
Lagha Mounia - - 2009
Maintenance of multipotency and how cells exit this state to adopt a specific fate are central questions in stem cell biology. During vertebrate development, multipotent cells of the dorsal somite, the dermomyotome, give rise to different lineages such as vascular smooth and skeletal muscle, regulated by the transcription factors Foxc2 ...
Haas Sandra C - - 2010
FLT3 receptor-associated signalling plays a role in proliferation and leukaemia. The transcription factor C/EBPbeta may be involved in malignancy with its alternative translation product C/EBPbeta-LIP. We investigated a potential connection between FLT3 signalling and the C/EBPbeta system in FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD)-positive leukaemia cells and FLT3-ITD- or FLT3-wild type (WT)-transfected ...
Bertet Claire - - 2009
Tissue morphogenesis requires stereotyped cell shape changes, such as apical cell constriction in the mesoderm and cell intercalation in the ventrolateral ectoderm of Drosophila. Both processes require force generation by an actomyosin network. The subcellular localization of Myosin-II (Myo-II) dictates these different morphogenetic processes. In the intercalating ectoderm Myo-II is ...
Shyu Li-Fang - - 2009
Temporal and spatial regulation of cell division is critical for proper development of multicellular organisms. An important aspect of this regulation is cell-cycle arrest, which in many cell types is coupled with differentiated status. Here we report that the polar cells--a group of follicle cells differentiated early during Drosophila oogenesis--are ...
Vincent Jean-Paul JP MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London, UK. - - 2009
A combination of biophysical measurements and computer simulation shows that a localised increase in cell bond tension prevents cell mixing at the anterior-posterior compartment boundary of Drosophila wing imaginal discs.
Boyle Michael J MJ Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Washington, Box 355065, Seattle, WA 98195-5065, - - 2009
Organ morphogenesis requires cooperation between cells, which determine their course of action based upon location within a tissue. Just as important, cells must synchronize their activities, which requires awareness of developmental time. To understand how cells coordinate behaviors in time and space, we analyzed Drosophila egg chamber development. We found ...
Gline Stephanie E SE Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-3200, USA. - - 2009
Knowing the normal patterns of embryonic cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation is a cornerstone for understanding development. Yet for most species, the precision with which embryonic cell lineages can be determined is limited by technical considerations (the large numbers of cells, extended developmental times, opacity of the embryos), and these ...
Gulino Alberto - - 2010
Numb is an evolutionary conserved protein that plays critical roles in cell fate determination. Mammalian Numb displays a higher degree of structural complexity compared to the Drosophila homolog based on the number of encoding genes (Numb and Numb-like) and of alternative spliced isoforms. Accordingly, Numb proteins display a complex pattern ...
Buono M - - 2010
In higher vertebrates, sulfatases belong to a conserved family of enzymes that are involved in the regulation of cell metabolism and in developmental cell signaling. They cleave the sulfate from sulfate esters contained in hormones, proteins, and complex macromolecules. A highly conserved cysteine in their active site is post-translationally converted ...
Zhang Jianmin J Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, - - 2009
The Hippo signalling pathway regulates cellular proliferation and survival, thus has profound effects on normal cell fate and tumorigenesis. The pivotal effector of this pathway is YAP (yes-associated protein), a transcriptional co-activator amplified in mouse and human cancers, where it promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and malignant transformation. So ...
Tusche Michael W - - 2009
B cell activation factor of the TNF family (BAFF) activates noncanonical nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) heterodimers that promote B cell survival. We show that although MALT1 is largely dispensable for canonical NF-kappaB signaling downstream of the B cell receptor, the absence of MALT1 results in impaired BAFF-induced phosphorylation of NF-kappaB2 ...
Babaoglan A Burcu - - 2009
Asymmetric cell divisions generate sibling cells of distinct fates ('A', 'B') and constitute a fundamental mechanism that creates cell-type diversity in multicellular organisms. Antagonistic interactions between the Notch pathway and the intrinsic cell-fate determinant Numb appear to regulate asymmetric divisions in flies and vertebrates. During these divisions, productive Notch signaling ...
Meyer Heiko - - 2009
Proteins belonging to the family of neprilysins are typically membrane bound M13 endopeptidases responsible for the inactivation and/or activation of peptide signaling events on cell surfaces. Mammalian neprilysins are known to be involved in the metabolism of various regulatory peptides especially in the nervous, immune, cardiovascular and inflammatory systems. Although ...
Martín Francisco A - - 2009
We report here experiments aimed at understanding the connections between cell competition and growth in the Drosophila wing disc. The principal assay has been to generate discs containing marked cells that proliferate at different rates and to study their interactions and their contribution to the final structure. It is known ...
Tokusumi Tsuyoshi - - 2009
Based on environmental challenges or altered genetic composition, Drosophila larvae can produce up to three types of blood cells that express genetic programs essential for their distinct functions. Using transcriptional enhancers for genes expressed exclusively in plasmatocytes, crystal cells, or lamellocytes, several new hemocyte-specific enhancer-reporter transgenes were generated to facilitate ...
Landsberg Katharina P - - 2009
Subdividing proliferating tissues into compartments is an evolutionarily conserved strategy of animal development [1-6]. Signals across boundaries between compartments can result in local expression of secreted proteins organizing growth and patterning of tissues [1-6]. Sharp and straight interfaces between compartments are crucial for stabilizing the position of such organizers and ...
Badouel Caroline - - 2009
Control of cell number requires the coordinate regulation of cell proliferation and cell death. Studies in both the fly and mouse have identified the Hippo kinase pathway as a key signaling pathway that controls cell proliferation and apoptosis. Several studies have implicated the Hippo pathway in a variety of cancers. ...
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