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Ninov Nikolay - - 2010
Tissue remodeling in development and disease involves the coordinated invasion of neighboring territories and/or the replacement of entire cell populations. Cell guidance, cell matching, transitions from passive to migratory epithelia, cell growth and death, and extracellular matrix remodeling all impinge on epithelial spreading. Significantly, the extracellular signals that direct these ...
Becam Isabelle - - 2010
Notch and its ligands mediate short-range cell interactions that play a conserved role in inducing cell fate specification. Several regulatory mechanisms have been described to ensure robust polarized signaling from signal-sending to signal-receiving cells. High levels of ligand expression activate Notch in nearby cells and exert a cell-autonomous dominant-negative effect ...
Sugioka Kenji - - 2010
In various polarized cells, positions of nuclei are often off-center. However, extrinsic signals regulating nuclear off-centering and its biologic roles remain to be elucidated. In Caenorhabditis elegans, polarity of the EMS cell undergoing asymmetric division is regulated by the MOM-2/Wnt and MES-1 signals from its posterior neighbor P2 cell. We ...
Daiker Viktor - - 2010
The unicellular flagellate Euglena gracilis shows a negative gravitactic behavior. This is based on physiological mechanisms which in the past have been indirectly assessed. Meanwhile, it was possible to isolate genes involved in the signal transduction chain of gravitaxis. The DNA sequences of five calmodulins were found in Euglena, one ...
Singh R R - - 2010
Hedgehog (HH) signaling is important in the pathogenesis of several malignancies. Recently, we described that HH signaling proteins are commonly expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); however, the functional role of HH pathway in DLBCL has not been explored. Here, we assessed the possibility that HH pathway activation contributes ...
Reichrath Sandra - - 2010
Recently, an important role of Notch activation for Ras-induced transformation of glial cells and for glioma growth and survival has been demonstrated. It was concluded that activation of Notch-signaling may represent a new target for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) therapy. We now analyzed five GBM cell lines (Tx3095, Tx3868, U87, U118, ...
Cordero Julia B JB Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, - - 2010
Correct tissue patterning during development involves multiple morphogenetic events that include specification of different cell fates, cell proliferation, cell death, and coordinated changes in cell shape, position, and adhesion. Here, we use the Drosophila retina to explore the molecular mechanisms that regulate and integrate these various events. In a previous ...
Wang Xiaochen X Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, - - 2010
During dorsal closure in Drosophila, signaling events in the dorsalmost row of epidermal cells (DME cells) direct the migration of lateral epidermal sheets towards the dorsal midline where they fuse to enclose the embryo. A Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) cascade in the DME cells induces the expression of Decapentaplegic (Dpp). ...
Zhu Huifeng - - 2010
We study the arrangements of recurved bristles on the anterior wing margin of wild-type and mutant Drosophila. The epidermal or neural fate of a proneural cell depends on the concentrations of proteins of the achaete-scute complex. At puparium formation, concentrations of proteins are nearly identical in all cells of the ...
Yamanaka Yojiro - - 2010
Primitive endoderm (PE) and epiblast (EPI) are two lineages derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the E3.5 blastocyst. Recent studies showed that EPI and PE progenitors expressing the lineage-specific transcriptional factors Nanog and Gata6, respectively, arise progressively as the ICM develops. Subsequent sorting of the two progenitors during ...
Lorent Kristin - - 2010
The Notch signaling pathway regulates specification of zebrafish liver progenitor cells towards a biliary cell fate. Here, using staged administration of a pharmacological inhibitor of Notch receptor processing, we show that activation of the Notch pathway is also important for growth and expansion of the intrahepatic biliary network in zebrafish ...
Jacobs Sarah R SR Department of Pharmacology, Sarah W Stedman Center for Nutrition and Metabolism, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, - - 2010
It has become apparent that T cells require growth signals to maintain function and viability necessary to maintain proper immune homeostasis. One means by which cell extrinsic signals may mediate these effects is by sustaining sufficient basal cell metabolism to prevent cell atrophy. The role of metabolism and the specific ...
Williams Charles C Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37203, - - 2010
In vertebrate embryos, the dorsal aorta and the posterior cardinal vein form in the trunk to comprise the original circulatory loop. Previous studies implicate Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in the development of the dorsal aorta. However, the mechanism controlling specification of artery versus vein remains unclear. Here, we investigated the cell-autonomous ...
Treanor Bebhinn - - 2010
Early events of B cell activation after B cell receptor (BCR) triggering have been well characterized. However, little is known about the steady state of the BCR on the cell surface. Here, we simultaneously visualize single BCR particles and components of the membrane skeleton. We show that an ezrin- and ...
Akiyama Junko - - 2010
Notch signaling has previously been implicated in the regulation of the cell fate of intestinal epithelial cells. However, the expression and function of Notch ligands in the human intestine remain largely unknown. In the present study, we showed that Notch ligands Delta-like 1 (Dll1) and Delta-like 4 (Dll4) are expressed ...
Li Guo-Hui - - 2010
The Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in the development of several leukemia and lymphoma. In order to investigate the relationship between Notch signaling and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), in this study, we expressed a recombinant Notch ligand protein, the DSL domain of the human Jagged1 fused with GST (GST-Jag1). ...
Bosco E E EE Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, - - 2010
The neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor gene encodes merlin, a membrane/cytoskeleton protein necessary for the maintenance of contact inhibition of growth in cells. Bi-allelic inactivation of NF2 is known to cause multiple cancers in both humans and mice. However, the mechanism through which merlin exerts its tumor-suppressive function remains ...
Kwon Young-Chang - - 2010
We investigated cell shape changes during wound closure in the Drosophila larval epidermis. During reepithelialization, epidermal cells permanently change shape from pentagonal or hexagonal to irregular forms. This process requires zipper, a gene encoding the Drosophila nonmuscle myosin II heavy chain. Following wounding, myosin II is localized at the wound ...
Cohen Andrew R - - 2010
Understanding how stem and progenitor cells choose between alternative cell fates is a major challenge in developmental biology. Efforts to tackle this problem have been hampered by the scarcity of markers that can be used to predict cell division outcomes. Here we present a computational method, based on algorithmic information ...
Risbud Makarand V MV Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. - - 2010
This minireview examines the role of hypoxia, and hypoxia inducible factors (HIF-1 and HIF-2), in regulating the metabolism, function, and fate of cells of the nucleus pulposus in the intervertebral disk. We focus on the mechanisms by which both these hypoxia-sensitive transcription factors influence energy metabolism, radical dismutation, and expression ...
Brzezinski Joseph A JA - - 2010
Photoreceptors, rods and cones are the most abundant cell type in the mammalian retina. However, the molecules that control their development are not fully understood. In studies of photoreceptor fate determination, we found that Blimp1 (Prdm1) is expressed transiently in developing photoreceptors. We analyzed the function of Blimp1 in the ...
Morichika Keisuke - - 2010
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) in Xenopus embryo are specified in the endodermal cell mass and migrate dorsally toward the future gonads. The role of the signal mediated by Notch and Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] was analyzed on the migrating PGCs at the tailbud stage. X-Notch-1 and X-Delta-1 are expressed in ...
Le Roy H?l?ne - - 2010
Cancer cells are unequal in a tumor mass and in established cultures. This is attributable to cancer stem cells with the unique ability to self-renew and to generate differentiating progeny. This ability is controlled at the level of asymmetric division by mechanisms that are yet not well defined. We found ...
Manuel Martine - - 2010
Foxg1 is required for development of the ventral telencephalon in the embryonic mammalian forebrain. Although one existing hypothesis suggests that failed ventral telencephalic development in the absence of Foxg1 is due to reduced production of the morphogens sonic hedgehog (Shh) and fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8), the possibility that telencephalic ...
Doh Junsang - - 2010
Cell-cell cooperativity in populations of motile and transiently interacting immune cells has been difficult to assess in the absence of tools to control proximity and communication. Here, we describe the generation of cell-laden microwells that can precisely control contact-mediated interactions and multicellular 'quorum' decisions in lymphocytes. Different types of fate ...
Wang Richard C RC Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, - - 2010
Cell growth is regulated by two antagonistic processes: TOR signaling and autophagy. These processes integrate signals including growth factors, amino acids, and energy status to ensure that cell growth is appropriate to environmental conditions. Autophagy responds indirectly to the cellular milieu as a downstream inhibitory target of TOR signaling and ...
Morimoto Mitsuru - - 2010
Lung development is the result of complex interactions between four tissues: epithelium, mesenchyme, mesothelium and endothelium. We marked the lineages experiencing Notch1 activation in these four cellular compartments during lung development and complemented this analysis by comparing the cell fate choices made in the absence of RBPjkappa, the essential DNA ...
Song Hai - - 2010
Control of organ size by cell proliferation and survival is a fundamental developmental process, and its deregulation leads to cancer. However, the molecular mechanism underlying organ size control remains elusive in vertebrates. In Drosophila, the Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway controls organ size by both restricting cell growth and proliferation and ...
Decho Alan W - - 2010
Much laboratory-based information exists on quorum sensing, a type of bacterial cell-to-cell communication that depends upon exchanges of molecular signals between neighboring cells. However, little is known about how this and other microbial sensing systems operate in nature. Geochemical and biological modifications of signals probably occur in extracellular environments, and ...
Gulen Muhammet F MF Department of Immunology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, - - 2010
Interleukin-1 (IL-1)-mediated signaling in T cells is essential for T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation. We showed here that SIGIRR, a negative regulator of IL-1 receptor and Toll-like receptor signaling, was induced during Th17 cell lineage commitment and governed Th17 cell differentiation and expansion through its inhibitory effects on IL-1 ...
Weiger Michael C - - 2010
It has long been appreciated that spatiotemporal dynamics of cell migration are under the control of intracellular signaling pathways, which are mediated by adhesion receptors and other transducers of extracellular cues. Further, there is ample evidence that aspects of cell migration are stochastic: how else could it exhibit directional persistence ...
Muranishi Yuki - - 2010
Crx is a transcription factor which is predominantly expressed in developing and mature photoreceptor cells in the retina, and plays a crucial role in the terminal differentiation of both rods and cones. Crx is one of the earliest-expressed genes specifically in photoreceptor precursors, allowing us to trace photoreceptor precursor cells ...
Tong Xin - - 2010
In Drosophila, mitotic neural progenitor cells asymmetrically segregate the cell fate determinant Numb in order to block Notch signaling in only one of the two daughter cells. Sanpodo, a membrane protein required for Notch signaling in asymmetrically dividing cells, is sequestered from the plasma membrane to intracellular vesicles in a ...
Zhan Yougen - - 2010
Mutations that diminish the function of the extracellular matrix receptor Dystroglycan (DG) result in muscular dystrophies, with associated neuronal migration defects in the brain and mental retardation e.g. Muscle Eye Brain Disease. To gain insight into the function of DG in the nervous system we initiated a study to examine ...
Gautam Naveen-Kumar - - 2010
Drosophila development is a tightly regulated process involving metamorphosis of a relatively less mobile larva to a highly motile adult, triggered by secretion of 20-hydroxyecdysone. Under the influence of ecdysone, most of the larval tissues degenerate, while the imaginal cells differentiate and form adult specific structures. Although the larval Malpighian ...
Bao Sujin - - 2010
Cells are sequentially recruited during formation of the Drosophila compound eye. A few simple rules are reiteratively utilized to control successive steps of eye assembly. Two themes emerge: the interplay between cell signaling and competence determines diversity of cell types and selective cell adhesion determines spatial patterns of cells. Cell ...
Del Debbio Carolina Beltrame - - 2010
Evidence emerging from a variety of approaches used in different species suggests that Müller cell function may extend beyond its role of maintaining retinal homeostasis to that of progenitors in the adult retina. Enriched Müller cells in vitro or those that re-enter cell cycle in response to neurotoxin-damage to retina ...
Georgopoulos Nikolaos T - - 2010
Despite the well-documented association between loss of E-cadherin and carcinogenesis, as well as the link between restoration of its expression and suppression of proliferation in carcinoma cells, the ability of E-cadherin to modulate growth-promoting cell signalling in normal epithelial cells is less well understood and frequently contradictory. The potential for ...
Shen Jie - - 2010
Decapentaplegic (Dpp) is one of the best characterized morphogens, required for dorso-ventral patterning of the Drosophila embryo and for anterior-posterior (A/P) patterning of the wing imaginal disc. In the larval wing pouch, the Dpp target gene optomotor-blind (omb) is generally assumed to be expressed in a step function above a ...
Indraccolo Stefano - - 2010
The Notch pathway is an evolutionally conserved cell-cell interaction signalling system involved in several key aspects of cell life, ranging from differentiation and proliferation to apoptosis. As such, it plays an important role in development, homeostasis, angiogenesis and various diseases. Over-activation of the Notch pathway has often been reported in ...
Johnston Robert J RJ Jr Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, - - 2010
Although cell fate specification is tightly controlled to yield highly reproducible results and avoid extreme variation, developmental programs often incorporate stochastic mechanisms to diversify cell types. Stochastic specification phenomena are observed in a wide range of species and an assorted set of developmental contexts. In bacteria, stochastic mechanisms are utilized ...
Martin Adam C - - 2010
During development, proliferating cells are organized into compartments with boundaries across which cells fail to intermix. Compartment boundaries are often attributed to differential cell-cell adhesion between separate compartments. However, tension generated by actomyosin cables at boundaries can also function as a barrier that prevents cell mixing.
Legué Emilie - - 2010
Understanding how cells are assembled in three dimensions to generate an organ, or a whole organism, is a pivotal question in developmental biology. Similarly, it is critical to understand how adult stem cells integrate into an existing organ during regeneration or in response to injury. Key to discovering the answers ...
Meyer Néva P - - 2010
The polychaete annelid Capitella teleta (formerly Capitella sp. I) develops by spiral cleavage and has been the focus of several recent developmental studies aided by a fully sequenced genome. Fate mapping in polychaetes has lagged behind other spiralian taxa, because of technical limitations. To generate a modern fate map for ...
Gandille Pierre - - 2010
Most human cancers originate from epithelial tissues and cell polarity and adhesion defects can lead to metastasis. The Polycomb-Group of chromatin factors were first characterized in Drosophila as repressors of homeotic genes during development, while studies in mammals indicate a conserved role in body plan organization, as well as an ...
Blom Tomas - - 2010
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that regulates a multitude of cellular functions, including cell proliferation, survival, migration and angiogenesis. S1P mediates its effects either by signaling through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or through an intracellular mode of action. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism behind S1P-induced survival ...
Zimmer Céline C National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), Medical Research Council (MRC), Department of Molecular Neurobiology, London NW7 1AA, UK. - - 2010
Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells play a key role in the formation of the cerebral cortex. These pioneer neurons are distributed throughout the cortical marginal zone in distinct graded distributions. Fate mapping and cell lineage tracing studies have recently shown that CR cells arise from restricted domains of the pallial ventricular zone, ...
Jenny Andreas A Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, - - 2010
Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling regulates the establishment of polarity within the plane of an epithelium and allows cells to obtain directional information. Its results are as diverse as the determination of cell fates, the generation of asymmetric but highly aligned structures (e.g., stereocilia in the human ear or hairs ...
Feng Liang L Flaum Eye Institute, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, - - 2010
Math5-null mutation results in the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and in a concurrent increase of amacrine and cone cells. However, it remains unclear whether there is a cell fate switch of Math5-lineage cells in the absence of Math5 and whether MATH5 cell-autonomously regulates the differentiation of the above ...
Bridge Diane - - 2010
BACKGROUND: In the face of changing environmental conditions, the mechanisms underlying stress responses in diverse organisms are of increasing interest. In vertebrates, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans, FoxO transcription factors mediate cellular responses to stress, including oxidative stress and dietary restriction. Although FoxO genes have been identified in early-arising animal lineages ...
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