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Results 251 - 300 of 1890
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Ninov Nikolay - - 2010
Tissue remodeling in development and disease involves the coordinated invasion of neighboring territories and/or the replacement of entire cell populations. Cell guidance, cell matching, transitions from passive to migratory epithelia, cell growth and death, and extracellular matrix remodeling all impinge on epithelial spreading. Significantly, the extracellular signals that direct these ...
Becam Isabelle - - 2010
Notch and its ligands mediate short-range cell interactions that play a conserved role in inducing cell fate specification. Several regulatory mechanisms have been described to ensure robust polarized signaling from signal-sending to signal-receiving cells. High levels of ligand expression activate Notch in nearby cells and exert a cell-autonomous dominant-negative effect ...
Sugioka Kenji - - 2010
In various polarized cells, positions of nuclei are often off-center. However, extrinsic signals regulating nuclear off-centering and its biologic roles remain to be elucidated. In Caenorhabditis elegans, polarity of the EMS cell undergoing asymmetric division is regulated by the MOM-2/Wnt and MES-1 signals from its posterior neighbor P2 cell. We ...
Daiker Viktor - - 2010
The unicellular flagellate Euglena gracilis shows a negative gravitactic behavior. This is based on physiological mechanisms which in the past have been indirectly assessed. Meanwhile, it was possible to isolate genes involved in the signal transduction chain of gravitaxis. The DNA sequences of five calmodulins were found in Euglena, one ...
Reichrath Sandra - - 2010
Recently, an important role of Notch activation for Ras-induced transformation of glial cells and for glioma growth and survival has been demonstrated. It was concluded that activation of Notch-signaling may represent a new target for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) therapy. We now analyzed five GBM cell lines (Tx3095, Tx3868, U87, U118, ...
Singh R R - - 2010
Hedgehog (HH) signaling is important in the pathogenesis of several malignancies. Recently, we described that HH signaling proteins are commonly expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); however, the functional role of HH pathway in DLBCL has not been explored. Here, we assessed the possibility that HH pathway activation contributes ...
Lorent Kristin - - 2010
The Notch signaling pathway regulates specification of zebrafish liver progenitor cells towards a biliary cell fate. Here, using staged administration of a pharmacological inhibitor of Notch receptor processing, we show that activation of the Notch pathway is also important for growth and expansion of the intrahepatic biliary network in zebrafish ...
Zhu Huifeng - - 2010
We study the arrangements of recurved bristles on the anterior wing margin of wild-type and mutant Drosophila. The epidermal or neural fate of a proneural cell depends on the concentrations of proteins of the achaete-scute complex. At puparium formation, concentrations of proteins are nearly identical in all cells of the ...
Yamanaka Yojiro - - 2010
Primitive endoderm (PE) and epiblast (EPI) are two lineages derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the E3.5 blastocyst. Recent studies showed that EPI and PE progenitors expressing the lineage-specific transcriptional factors Nanog and Gata6, respectively, arise progressively as the ICM develops. Subsequent sorting of the two progenitors during ...
Jacobs Sarah R SR Department of Pharmacology, Sarah W Stedman Center for Nutrition and Metabolism, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, - - 2010
It has become apparent that T cells require growth signals to maintain function and viability necessary to maintain proper immune homeostasis. One means by which cell extrinsic signals may mediate these effects is by sustaining sufficient basal cell metabolism to prevent cell atrophy. The role of metabolism and the specific ...
Cordero Julia B JB Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, - - 2010
Correct tissue patterning during development involves multiple morphogenetic events that include specification of different cell fates, cell proliferation, cell death, and coordinated changes in cell shape, position, and adhesion. Here, we use the Drosophila retina to explore the molecular mechanisms that regulate and integrate these various events. In a previous ...
Wang Xiaochen X Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, - - 2010
During dorsal closure in Drosophila, signaling events in the dorsalmost row of epidermal cells (DME cells) direct the migration of lateral epidermal sheets towards the dorsal midline where they fuse to enclose the embryo. A Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) cascade in the DME cells induces the expression of Decapentaplegic (Dpp). ...
Williams Charles C Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37203, - - 2010
In vertebrate embryos, the dorsal aorta and the posterior cardinal vein form in the trunk to comprise the original circulatory loop. Previous studies implicate Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in the development of the dorsal aorta. However, the mechanism controlling specification of artery versus vein remains unclear. Here, we investigated the cell-autonomous ...
Treanor Bebhinn - - 2010
Early events of B cell activation after B cell receptor (BCR) triggering have been well characterized. However, little is known about the steady state of the BCR on the cell surface. Here, we simultaneously visualize single BCR particles and components of the membrane skeleton. We show that an ezrin- and ...
Akiyama Junko - - 2010
Notch signaling has previously been implicated in the regulation of the cell fate of intestinal epithelial cells. However, the expression and function of Notch ligands in the human intestine remain largely unknown. In the present study, we showed that Notch ligands Delta-like 1 (Dll1) and Delta-like 4 (Dll4) are expressed ...
Li Guo-Hui - - 2010
The Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in the development of several leukemia and lymphoma. In order to investigate the relationship between Notch signaling and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), in this study, we expressed a recombinant Notch ligand protein, the DSL domain of the human Jagged1 fused with GST (GST-Jag1). ...
Bosco E E EE Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, - - 2010
The neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor gene encodes merlin, a membrane/cytoskeleton protein necessary for the maintenance of contact inhibition of growth in cells. Bi-allelic inactivation of NF2 is known to cause multiple cancers in both humans and mice. However, the mechanism through which merlin exerts its tumor-suppressive function remains ...
Kwon Young-Chang - - 2010
We investigated cell shape changes during wound closure in the Drosophila larval epidermis. During reepithelialization, epidermal cells permanently change shape from pentagonal or hexagonal to irregular forms. This process requires zipper, a gene encoding the Drosophila nonmuscle myosin II heavy chain. Following wounding, myosin II is localized at the wound ...
Cohen Andrew R - - 2010
Understanding how stem and progenitor cells choose between alternative cell fates is a major challenge in developmental biology. Efforts to tackle this problem have been hampered by the scarcity of markers that can be used to predict cell division outcomes. Here we present a computational method, based on algorithmic information ...
Risbud Makarand V MV Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. - - 2010
This minireview examines the role of hypoxia, and hypoxia inducible factors (HIF-1 and HIF-2), in regulating the metabolism, function, and fate of cells of the nucleus pulposus in the intervertebral disk. We focus on the mechanisms by which both these hypoxia-sensitive transcription factors influence energy metabolism, radical dismutation, and expression ...
Brzezinski Joseph A JA - - 2010
Photoreceptors, rods and cones are the most abundant cell type in the mammalian retina. However, the molecules that control their development are not fully understood. In studies of photoreceptor fate determination, we found that Blimp1 (Prdm1) is expressed transiently in developing photoreceptors. We analyzed the function of Blimp1 in the ...
Le Roy H?l?ne - - 2010
Cancer cells are unequal in a tumor mass and in established cultures. This is attributable to cancer stem cells with the unique ability to self-renew and to generate differentiating progeny. This ability is controlled at the level of asymmetric division by mechanisms that are yet not well defined. We found ...
Doh Junsang - - 2010
Cell-cell cooperativity in populations of motile and transiently interacting immune cells has been difficult to assess in the absence of tools to control proximity and communication. Here, we describe the generation of cell-laden microwells that can precisely control contact-mediated interactions and multicellular 'quorum' decisions in lymphocytes. Different types of fate ...
Morichika Keisuke - - 2010
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) in Xenopus embryo are specified in the endodermal cell mass and migrate dorsally toward the future gonads. The role of the signal mediated by Notch and Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] was analyzed on the migrating PGCs at the tailbud stage. X-Notch-1 and X-Delta-1 are expressed in ...
Manuel Martine - - 2010
Foxg1 is required for development of the ventral telencephalon in the embryonic mammalian forebrain. Although one existing hypothesis suggests that failed ventral telencephalic development in the absence of Foxg1 is due to reduced production of the morphogens sonic hedgehog (Shh) and fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8), the possibility that telencephalic ...
Wang Richard C RC Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, - - 2010
Cell growth is regulated by two antagonistic processes: TOR signaling and autophagy. These processes integrate signals including growth factors, amino acids, and energy status to ensure that cell growth is appropriate to environmental conditions. Autophagy responds indirectly to the cellular milieu as a downstream inhibitory target of TOR signaling and ...
Morimoto Mitsuru - - 2010
Lung development is the result of complex interactions between four tissues: epithelium, mesenchyme, mesothelium and endothelium. We marked the lineages experiencing Notch1 activation in these four cellular compartments during lung development and complemented this analysis by comparing the cell fate choices made in the absence of RBPjkappa, the essential DNA ...
Song Hai - - 2010
Control of organ size by cell proliferation and survival is a fundamental developmental process, and its deregulation leads to cancer. However, the molecular mechanism underlying organ size control remains elusive in vertebrates. In Drosophila, the Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway controls organ size by both restricting cell growth and proliferation and ...
Decho Alan W - - 2010
Much laboratory-based information exists on quorum sensing, a type of bacterial cell-to-cell communication that depends upon exchanges of molecular signals between neighboring cells. However, little is known about how this and other microbial sensing systems operate in nature. Geochemical and biological modifications of signals probably occur in extracellular environments, and ...
Gulen Muhammet F MF Department of Immunology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, - - 2010
Interleukin-1 (IL-1)-mediated signaling in T cells is essential for T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation. We showed here that SIGIRR, a negative regulator of IL-1 receptor and Toll-like receptor signaling, was induced during Th17 cell lineage commitment and governed Th17 cell differentiation and expansion through its inhibitory effects on IL-1 ...
Muranishi Yuki - - 2010
Crx is a transcription factor which is predominantly expressed in developing and mature photoreceptor cells in the retina, and plays a crucial role in the terminal differentiation of both rods and cones. Crx is one of the earliest-expressed genes specifically in photoreceptor precursors, allowing us to trace photoreceptor precursor cells ...
Weiger Michael C - - 2010
It has long been appreciated that spatiotemporal dynamics of cell migration are under the control of intracellular signaling pathways, which are mediated by adhesion receptors and other transducers of extracellular cues. Further, there is ample evidence that aspects of cell migration are stochastic: how else could it exhibit directional persistence ...
Tong Xin - - 2010
In Drosophila, mitotic neural progenitor cells asymmetrically segregate the cell fate determinant Numb in order to block Notch signaling in only one of the two daughter cells. Sanpodo, a membrane protein required for Notch signaling in asymmetrically dividing cells, is sequestered from the plasma membrane to intracellular vesicles in a ...
Wong Yan-Fung - - 2010
BACKGROUND: C. elegans TGF-beta-like Sma/Mab signaling pathway regulates both body size and sensory ray patterning. Most of the components in this pathway were initially identified by genetic screens based on the small body phenotype, and many of these mutants display sensory ray patterning defect. At the cellular level, little is ...
Dymecki Susan M - - 2010
Cell types are typically defined by expression of a unique combination of genes, rather than a single gene. Intersectional methods therefore become crucial to selectively access these cells for higher resolution fate mapping and functional manipulations. Here, we discuss one such intersectional method. Two recombinase systems (Cre/loxP and Flp/FRT) work ...
S?nchez-S?nchez Ana V - - 2010
Differentiation of neural retinal precursor (NRP) cells in vertebrates follows an established order of cell-fate determination associated with exit from the cell cycle. Wnt signaling regulates cell cycle in colon carcinoma cells and has been implicated in different aspects of retinal development in various species. To better understand the biological ...
Gautam Naveen-Kumar - - 2010
Drosophila development is a tightly regulated process involving metamorphosis of a relatively less mobile larva to a highly motile adult, triggered by secretion of 20-hydroxyecdysone. Under the influence of ecdysone, most of the larval tissues degenerate, while the imaginal cells differentiate and form adult specific structures. Although the larval Malpighian ...
Bao Sujin - - 2010
Cells are sequentially recruited during formation of the Drosophila compound eye. A few simple rules are reiteratively utilized to control successive steps of eye assembly. Two themes emerge: the interplay between cell signaling and competence determines diversity of cell types and selective cell adhesion determines spatial patterns of cells. Cell ...
Yue ZhiCao - - 2010
The different cell types in an animal are often considered to be specified by combinations of transcription factors, and defined by marker gene expression. This paradigm is challenged, however, in stem cell research and application. Using a mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) culture system, here we show that the expression ...
Martin Adam C - - 2010
During development, proliferating cells are organized into compartments with boundaries across which cells fail to intermix. Compartment boundaries are often attributed to differential cell-cell adhesion between separate compartments. However, tension generated by actomyosin cables at boundaries can also function as a barrier that prevents cell mixing.
Bridge Diane - - 2010
BACKGROUND: In the face of changing environmental conditions, the mechanisms underlying stress responses in diverse organisms are of increasing interest. In vertebrates, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans, FoxO transcription factors mediate cellular responses to stress, including oxidative stress and dietary restriction. Although FoxO genes have been identified in early-arising animal lineages ...
Meyer Néva P - - 2010
The polychaete annelid Capitella teleta (formerly Capitella sp. I) develops by spiral cleavage and has been the focus of several recent developmental studies aided by a fully sequenced genome. Fate mapping in polychaetes has lagged behind other spiralian taxa, because of technical limitations. To generate a modern fate map for ...
Ameri Jacqueline - - 2010
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling controls axis formation during endoderm development. Studies in lower vertebrates have demonstrated that FGF2 primarily patterns the ventral foregut endoderm into liver and lung, whereas FGF4 exhibits broad anterior-posterior and left-right patterning activities. Furthermore, an inductive role of FGF2 during dorsal pancreas formation has been ...
Indraccolo Stefano - - 2010
The Notch pathway is an evolutionally conserved cell-cell interaction signalling system involved in several key aspects of cell life, ranging from differentiation and proliferation to apoptosis. As such, it plays an important role in development, homeostasis, angiogenesis and various diseases. Over-activation of the Notch pathway has often been reported in ...
Hirakawa Yuki - - 2010
Cell division and differentiation of stem cells are controlled by non-cell-autonomous signals in higher organisms. The plant vascular meristem is a stem-cell tissue comprising procambial cells that produce xylem cells on one side and phloem cells on the other side. Recent studies have revealed that TDIF (tracheary element differentiation inhibitory ...
Thompson Barry J - - 2010
The Mal/SRF transcription factor is regulated by the level of G-actin in cells and has important roles in cell migration and other actin-dependent processes in Drosophila. A recent report suggests that Mal/SRF and an upstream regulator, Pico, are required for cell proliferation and tissue growth in Drosophila. I find otherwise. ...
Barad Omer - - 2010
The pattern of the sensory bristles in the fruit fly Drosophila is remarkably reproducible. Each bristle arises from a sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell that is selected, through a lateral inhibition process, from a cluster of proneural cells. Although this process is well characterized, the mechanism ensuring its robustness remains ...
Legué Emilie - - 2010
Understanding how cells are assembled in three dimensions to generate an organ, or a whole organism, is a pivotal question in developmental biology. Similarly, it is critical to understand how adult stem cells integrate into an existing organ during regeneration or in response to injury. Key to discovering the answers ...
Del Debbio Carolina Beltrame - - 2010
Evidence emerging from a variety of approaches used in different species suggests that Müller cell function may extend beyond its role of maintaining retinal homeostasis to that of progenitors in the adult retina. Enriched Müller cells in vitro or those that re-enter cell cycle in response to neurotoxin-damage to retina ...
Conte Daniele - - 2010
In the genesis of many tissues, a phase of cell proliferation is followed by cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation. The latter two processes overlap: genes involved in the cessation of growth may also be important in triggering differentiation. Though conceptually distinct, they are often causally related and functional interactions ...
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