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Results 201 - 250 of 1888
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Davidson Gary - - 2010
Wnt/beta-catenin signaling controls many aspects of cell behavior throughout development and in adults. One of its best-known and cancer-relevant functions is to stimulate cell proliferation. Recent work has implicated Wnt components in regulating mitotic events, suggesting that the cell cycle and Wnt signaling are directly linked. This concept has now ...
Inohaya Keiji - - 2010
The floor plate is a key organizer that controls the specification of neurons in the central nervous system. Here, we show a new role of the floor plate: segmental pattern formation of the vertebral column. Analysis of a spontaneous medaka mutant, fused centrum (fsc), which exhibits fused centra and the ...
Jones Whitney M - - 2010
Wg/Wnt signals specify cell fates in both invertebrate and vertebrate embryos and maintain stem-cell populations in many adult tissues. Deregulation of the Wnt pathway can transform cells to a proliferative fate, leading to cancer. We have discovered that two Drosophila proteins that are crucial for cytokinesis have a second, largely ...
Huang Chen-Che Jeff - - 2010
Adrenal, testis, and ovary are steroidogenic organs derived from a common primordium that consists of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1)-positive precursor cells. SF1 not only defines the steroidogenic lineages in these organs but also controls their differentiation. Recent evidence implicates the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway as a downstream regulator of SF1 ...
Yan Dong - - 2010
Hedgehog (Hh) acts as a morphogen in various developmental contexts to specify distinct cell fates in a concentration-dependent manner. Hh signaling is regulated by two conserved cell-surface proteins: Ig/fibronectin superfamily member Interference hedgehog (Ihog) and Dally-like (Dlp), a glypican that comprises a core protein and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. ...
Chikazawa Nobuhito - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer is still poor. Dye-effluxing side population (SP) colon cancer cells are reportedly resistant to chemotherapeutic agents. Most sporadic colorectal cancers involve constitutive activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. In this study, we examined the effect of the Wnt signaling on SP ...
Bramsiepe Jonathan - - 2010
Cell-fate specification is typically thought to precede and determine cell-cycle regulation during differentiation. Here we show that endoreplication, also known as endoreduplication, a specialized cell-cycle variant often associated with cell differentiation but also frequently occurring in malignant cells, plays a role in maintaining cell fate. For our study we have ...
Park Young-Han - - 2010
Notch is known as a transmembranous receptor family with four homologous forms - Notch 1, Notch 2, Notch 3, and Notch 4 and related to cell fate regulation and angiogenesis. The purpose is to investigate the effect of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) on the Notch 1 expression and proliferation in ...
Vaziri Sani Forugh F Department of Oral Biochemistry, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, - - 2010
The aim of this study was to analyse the hitherto largely unknown expression patterns of some specific cellular and extracellular molecules during palate and nasal cavity development. We showed that epithelia of the developing palate and the vomerine epithelium express similar sets of structural proteins. With the exception of keratin ...
Bertrand Vincent - - 2010
Lineage-based mechanisms are widely used to generate cell type diversity in both vertebrates and invertebrates. For the past few decades, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has served as a primary model system to study this process because of its fixed and well-characterized cell lineage. Recent studies conducted at the level of ...
Mukai Akiko - - 2010
Wingless (Wg)/Wnt has been proposed to exert various functions as a morphogen depending on the levels of its signalling. Therefore, not just the concentration of Wg/Wnt, but also the responsiveness of Wg/Wnt-target cells to the ligand, must have a crucial function in controlling cellular outputs. Here, we show that a ...
Mechlin Clay W - - 2010
PURPOSE: Hedgehog signaling regulates Gli transcription factors. Aberrant hedgehog signaling can be oncogenic and drugs that block hedgehog are being tested as anticancer agents. We considered whether hedgehog/Gli signaling may be involved in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma proliferative or invasive behavior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We stratified the human bladder ...
Yu Hui - - 2010
In Caenorhabditiselegans males, different subsets of ventral epidermal precursor (Pn.p) cells adopt distinct fates in a position-specific manner: three posterior cells, P(9-11).p, comprise the hook sensillum competence group (HCG) with three potential fates (1 degrees , 2 degrees , or 3 degrees ), while eight anterior cells, P(1-8).p, fuse with ...
Bland Michelle L - - 2010
The larval phase of the Drosophila life cycle is characterized by constant food intake, resulting in a two hundred-fold increase in mass over four days. Here we show that the conserved energy sensor AMPK is essential for nutrient intake in Drosophila. Mutants lacking dAMPKalpha are small, with low triglyceride levels, ...
Park Jang-June JJ Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore, - - 2010
T-cell tolerance is the central program that prevents harmful immune responses against self-antigens, in which inhibitory PD-1 signal given by B7-H1 interaction plays an important role. Recent studies demonstrated that B7-H1 binds CD80 besides PD-1, and B7-H1/CD80 interaction also delivers inhibitory signals in T cells. However, a role of B7-H1/CD80 ...
Katoh Kimiko - - 2010
The zinc finger transcription factor Blimp1 plays fundamentally important roles in many cell lineages and in the early development of several cell types, including B and T lymphocytes and germ cells. Although Blimp1 expression in developing retinal photoreceptor cells has been reported, its function remains unclear. We identified Blimp1 as ...
Yang Jungwoo - - 2010
Quorum sensing (QS) in bacteria is thought to enable populations of cells to coordinately and cooperatively regulate gene expression for traits that confer group benefits. While this view has strong empirical and theoretical support, it is increasingly appreciated that QS under natural conditions may be incapable of monitoring bacterial numbers ...
He Xiaowen X Department of Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903, - - 2010
During murine peri-implantation development, the egg cylinder forms from a solid cell mass by the apoptotic removal of inner cells that do not contact the basement membrane (BM) and the selective survival of the epiblast epithelium, which does. The signaling pathways that mediate this fundamental biological process are largely unknown. ...
Vuilleumier Robin - - 2010
In many instances during development, morphogens specify cell fates by forming concentration gradients. In the Drosophila melanogaster wing imaginal disc, Decapentaplegic (Dpp), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), functions as a long-range morphogen to control patterning and growth. Dpp is secreted from a stripe of cells at the anterior-posterior compartment boundary ...
Haglund Kaisa - - 2010
Cytokinesis, the final step of cell division, conventionally proceeds to cell separation by abscission, or complete cytokinesis, but may in certain tissues be incomplete, yielding daughter cells that are interconnected in syncytia by stable intercellular bridges. The mechanisms that determine complete versus incomplete cytokinesis are not known. Here we report ...
Levine Benjamin - - 2010
Stage 10 of Drosophila oogenesis can be subdivided into stages 10A and 10B based on a change in the morphology of the centripetal follicle cells (FC) from a columnar to an apically constricted shape. This coordinated cell shape change drives epithelial cell sheet involution between the oocyte and nurse cell ...
Kunzevitzky Noelia J - - 2010
PURPOSE. To describe how developing amacrine cells and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) differ in survival signaling and global gene expression. METHODS. Amacrine cells were immunopurified and processed for gene microarray analysis. For survival studies, purified amacrine cells were cultured at low density in serum-free medium, with and without peptide trophic ...
Tworzydlo Waclaw - - 2010
Stem cells function in niches, which consist of somatic cells that control the stem cells' self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation. Drosophila ovary germline niche consists of the terminal filament (TF) cells, cap cells, and escort stem cells; signaling from the TF cells and the cap cells is essential for maintenance of ...
Maduro Morris F - - 2010
Cell specification requires that particular subsets of cells adopt unique expression patterns that ultimately define the fates of their descendants. In C. elegans, cell fate specification involves the combinatorial action of multiple signals that produce activation of a small number of "blastomere specification" factors. These initiate expression of gene regulatory ...
Guseman Jessica M - - 2010
Patterning of stomata, valves on the plant epidermis, requires the orchestrated actions of signaling components and cell-fate determinants. To understand the regulation of stomatal patterning, we performed a genetic screen using a background that partially lacks stomatal signaling receptors. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of chorus (chor), which ...
Rhea Jeanne M - - 2010
Peptide hormones are potent signaling molecules that coordinate animal physiology, behavior, and development. A key step in activation of these peptide signals is their proteolytic processing from propeptide precursors by a family of proteases, the subtilisin-like proprotein convertases (PCs). Here, we report the functional dissection of amontillado (amon), which encodes ...
Korta Dorota Z DZ Developmental Genetics Program, Department of Pathology, Helen and Martin Kimmel Center for Stem Cell Biology, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, - - 2010
Caenorhabditis elegans boasts a short lifecycle and high fecundity, two features that make it an attractive and powerful genetic model organism. Several recent studies indicate that germline proliferation, a prerequisite to optimal fecundity, is tightly controlled over the course of development. Cell proliferation control includes regulation of competence to proliferate, ...
McCann Colin P - - 2010
Collective migration is a key feature of the social amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum, where the binding of chemoattractants leads to the production and secretion of additional chemoattractant and the relay of the signal to neighboring cells. This then guides cells to migrate collectively in a head-to-tail fashion. We used mutants that ...
Sprinzak David - - 2010
The Notch-Delta signalling pathway allows communication between neighbouring cells during development. It has a critical role in the formation of 'fine-grained' patterns, generating distinct cell fates among groups of initially equivalent neighbouring cells and sharply delineating neighbouring regions in developing tissues. The Delta ligand has been shown to have two ...
Yeramilli Venkata A - - 2010
The effects of B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) on B cell maturation and survival in the mouse are relatively well understood. In contrast, little is known about the role of BAFF in B cell development in other mammals, such as rabbits, that use GALT to develop ...
Kim Seonhee - - 2010
Cortical development depends upon tightly controlled cell fate and cell survival decisions that generate a functional neuronal population, but the coordination of these two processes is poorly understood. Here we show that conditional removal of a key apical complex protein, Pals1, causes premature withdrawal from the cell cycle, inducing excessive ...
Yalcin-Ozuysal O - - 2010
The breast epithelium has two major compartments, luminal and basal cells, that are established and maintained by poorly understood mechanisms. The p53 homolog, p63, is required for the formation of mammary buds, but its function in the breast after birth is unknown. We show that in primary human breast epithelial ...
Bazan Nicolas G - - 2010
Retinal degenerative diseases result in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and photoreceptor cell loss. These cells are continuously exposed to the environment (light) and to potentially pro-oxidative conditions, as the retina's oxygen consumption is very high. There is also a high flux of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a PUFA that moves through ...
Oerlemans Martinus I F J - - 2010
Although the contribution of Wnt signaling in infarct healing is suggested, its exact role after myocardial infarction (MI) still needs to be unraveled. We evaluated the cardiac presence of active Wnt signaling in vivo following MI, and investigated in which cell types active Wnt signaling was present by determining Axin2 ...
Weiler Christoph - - 2010
The fate of notochord cells during disc development and aging is still a subject of debate. Cells with the typical notochordal morphology disappear from the disc within the first decade of life. However, the pure morphologic differentiation of notochordal from non-notochordal disc cells can be difficult, prompting the use of ...
Bessa Juliana - - 2010
IL-21 produced by follicular Th (Tfh) cells is an important regulator of Tfh cell development and B cell responses, including germinal center (GC) formation. However, whether defective GC formation and Ab responses are a consequence of impaired Tfh cells development or a B cell-intrinsic defect in IL-21-deficient mice requires clarification. ...
Janssens Katrien - - 2010
Guidance receptor signaling is crucial for steering migrating cells. Despite this, we generally lack direct measurements of such signaling. Border cells in Drosophila migrate as a tightly associated group, but dynamically, with front and rear cells exchanging places. They use the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) PDGF/VEGF receptor (PVR) as a ...
Berganti?os Cora - - 2010
Regeneration and tissue repair allow damaged or lost body parts to be replaced. After injury or fragmentation of Drosophila imaginal discs, regeneration leads to the development of normal adult structures. This process is likely to involve a combination of cell rearrangement and compensatory proliferation. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying these ...
Hijioka Hiroshi - - 2010
The constitutive activation of the Notch pathway has been demonstrated in various types of malignancies. However, it remains unclear how the Notch pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We investigated the expression of Notch pathway molecules in OSCC cell lines and biopsy specimens and ...
Dilks Stacie A - - 2010
Certain Drosophila embryonic epidermal cells construct actin-based protrusions, called denticles, which exhibit stereotyped, column-specific differences in size, density and hook orientation. This precise denticle pattern is conserved throughout all drosophilids yet studied, and screening for mutations that affect this pattern has been used to identify genes involved in development and ...
Vale Andre M - - 2010
Abnormalities in humoral immunity typically reflect a generalized or selective failure of effective B-cell development. The developmental processes can be followed through analysis of cell-surface markers, such as IgM, IgD, CD10, CD19, CD20, CD21, and CD38. Early phases of B-cell development are devoted to the creation of immunoglobulin and testing ...
Nicolay Brandon N - - 2010
Functional inactivation of the Retinoblastoma (pRB) pathway is an early and obligatory event in tumorigenesis. The importance of pRB is usually explained by its ability to promote cell cycle exit. Here, we demonstrate that, independently of cell cycle exit control, in cooperation with the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, pRB functions ...
Yamaguchi Masahiro - - 2010
It has been reported that the loss of apicobasal cell polarity and the disruption of adherens junctions induce hyperplasia in the mouse developing brain. However, it is not fully understood whether hyperplasia is caused by an enhanced cell proliferation, an inhibited neurogenesis, or both. In this study, we found that ...
Coant Nicolas - - 2010
The homeostatic self-renewal of the colonic epithelium requires coordinated regulation of the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin and Notch signaling pathways to control proliferation and lineage commitment of multipotent stem cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the Wnt/beta-catenin and Notch1 pathways interplay in controlling cell proliferation and fate in the colon are ...
Wang Yi - - 2010
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated by nuclear reprogramming of mature cells to a pluripotent state, and show biological properties of embryonic stem (ES) cells. The observation that human (h)ES cells generate hemoangiogenic progeny, defined by their high-level expression of KDR and low-level expression of PDGFRalpha (KDR(+)PDGFRalpha(lo)) via WNT ...
D'Autilia Silvia - - 2010
In the developing central nervous system, the cell cycle clock plays a crucial role in determining cell fate specification. A second clock, the circadian oscillator, generates daily rhythms of cell cycle progression. Although these two clocks interact, the mechanisms linking circadian cell cycle progression and cell fate determination are still ...
Henderson Robert B RB Division of Immune Cell Biology, Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, England, - - 2010
Rac1 and Rac2 GTPases transduce signals from multiple receptors leading to cell migration, adhesion, proliferation, and survival. In the absence of Rac1 and Rac2, B cell development is arrested at an IgD- transitional B cell stage that we term transitional type 0 (T0). We show that T0 cells cannot enter ...
Gravano David M - - 2010
Notch signaling is critical for T-cell generation in the thymus. Notch signaling is linear in nature and is highly regulated through differential gene expression and post-translational modification. Upon ligand binding, the Notch receptor is sequentially cleaved, first via extracellular ADAM protease-mediated cleavage, followed by an intracellular presenilin-dependent cleavage to release ...
Ninov Nikolay - - 2010
Tissue remodeling in development and disease involves the coordinated invasion of neighboring territories and/or the replacement of entire cell populations. Cell guidance, cell matching, transitions from passive to migratory epithelia, cell growth and death, and extracellular matrix remodeling all impinge on epithelial spreading. Significantly, the extracellular signals that direct these ...
Becam Isabelle - - 2010
Notch and its ligands mediate short-range cell interactions that play a conserved role in inducing cell fate specification. Several regulatory mechanisms have been described to ensure robust polarized signaling from signal-sending to signal-receiving cells. High levels of ligand expression activate Notch in nearby cells and exert a cell-autonomous dominant-negative effect ...
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