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Aoyagi-Ikeda Kana - - 2010
Notch is an ancient cell signaling system that regulates cell fate specification. This study examined the role of Notch in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and myofibroblast differentiation of cultured RLE-6TN cells, rat alveolar epithelial cells. Activation of Notch, either by ectopic expression of Notch intracellular domain or by coculture of RLE-6TN ...
Vikram Amit - - 2011
Citrus limonoids are unique secondary metabolites, characterized by a triterpenoid skeleton with a furan ring. Studies have demonstrated beneficial health properties of limonoids. In addition, certain citrus limonoids play a role in plant defence against insect pests. In the present study, five limonoids were purified from sour orange and evaluated ...
Rowland Sarah L SL Integrated Department of Immunology, National Jewish Health and University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO 80206, - - 2010
BAFF is an important prosurvival cytokine for mature B cells. However, previous studies have shown that BAFFR is already expressed at the immature B cell stage, and that the prosurvival protein Bcl-2 does not completely complement the B cell defects resulting from the absence of BAFFR or BAFF. Thus, we ...
Schouwey K - - 2011
The Notch signaling pathway is an ubiquitous cell-cell interaction mechanism, which is essential in controlling processes like cell proliferation, cell fate decision, differentiation or stem cell maintenance. Recent data have shown that Notch signaling is RBP-Jκ-dependent in melanocytes, being required for survival of these pigment cells that are responsible for ...
Lavergne E - - 2011
Constitutive activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cancer results from mutations in pathway components, which frequently coexist with autocrine Wnt signaling or epigenetic silencing of extracellular Wnt antagonists. Among the extracellular Wnt inhibitors, the secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs) are decoy receptors that contain soluble Wnt-binding frizzled domains. In addition to SFRPs, ...
Leitner Judith - - 2010
It is well established that full activation of T cells requires the interaction of the TCR complex with the peptide-MHC complex (Signal 1) and additional signals (Signal 2). These second signals are generated by the interaction of costimulatory ligands expressed on antigen presenting cells with activating receptors on T cells. ...
Gleason Julie E - - 2010
Metazoan stem cells repopulate tissues during adult life by dividing asymmetrically to generate another stem cell and a cell that terminally differentiates. Wnt signaling regulates the division pattern of stem cells in flies and vertebrates. While the short-lived nematode C. elegans has no adult somatic stem cells, the lateral epithelial ...
Bialecka Monika - - 2010
Cdx transcription factors are required for axial extension. Cdx genes are expressed in the posterior growth zone, a region that supplies new cells for axial elongation. Cdx2(+/-)Cdx4(-/-) (Cdx2/4) mutant embryos show abnormalities in axis elongation from E8.5, culminating in axial truncation at E10.5. These data raised the possibility that the ...
Toyoda Reiko - - 2010
Gain- and loss-of-function experiments have demonstrated that a source of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 8 regulates anterior to posterior (A/P) patterning in the neocortical area map. Whether FGF8 controls patterning as a classic diffusible morphogen has not been directly tested. We report evidence that FGF8 diffuses through the mouse neocortical ...
Vargas-Vila Mario A - - 2010
In bilaterians, establishing the correct spatial positioning of structures along the dorsoventral (DV) axis is essential for proper embryonic development. Insects such as Drosophila rely on the Dorsal activity gradient and Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling to establish cell fates along the DV axis, leading to the distinction between tissues ...
Ohta Sho - - 2010
During development of the otocyst, regional morphogenesis establishes a dorsal vestibular chamber and a ventral auditory chamber, which collectively constitute the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear. We identified the earliest morphogenetic event heralding the formation of the vestibular chamber, a rapid thinning and expansion of the dorsolateral wall of ...
Peter Christian C Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, United - - 2010
T cells constantly monitor energy status and nutrient levels in order to adjust metabolic pathways according to their nutritional status and other environmental stimuli. It is increasingly evident that the regulation of cellular metabolism is tightly coupled to T cell differentiation that ultimately determines the cellular fate. The mammalian target ...
Pohl Christian - - 2010
Left-right (LR) patterning is an intriguing but poorly understood process of bilaterian embryogenesis. We report a mechanism for LR patterning in C. elegans in which the embryo uncouples its midline from the anteroposterior (AP) axis. Specifically, the eight-cell embryo establishes a midline that is tilted rightward from the AP axis ...
Lu Linchao - - 2010
Mammalian Notch receptors require modification by fucose on epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats of their extracellular domain to respond optimally to signal induction by canonical Notch ligands. Inactivation of the Golgi GDP-fucose transporter Slc35c1 in mouse or human does not cause marked defects in Notch signaling during development, and shows ...
Kamstrup M R - - 2010
The oncogenic potential of deregulated Notch signalling has been described in several haematopoietic malignancies. We have previously reported an increased expression of Notch1 in primary cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders, lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (pcALCL). To investigate the functional importance of Notch signalling in cell lines derived ...
Kinchen Jason M - - 2010
Programmed cell death is used during developmental morphogenesis to eliminate superfluous cells or cells with inappropriate developmental potential (e.g., self-reactive immune cells, tumorigenic cells). Recent work in genetic models has led to a number of key observations, revealing signal transduction pathways and identifying new roles for genes previously studied in ...
Mukhopadhyay Bibhash - - 2010
Photoreceptor morphogenesis requires specific and coordinated localization of junctional markers at different stages of development. Here, we provide evidence that Drosophila Klp64D, a homolog of Kif3A motor subunit of the heterotrimeric Kinesin II complex, is essential for viability of developing photoreceptors and localization of junctional proteins. Genetic analysis of mutant ...
Mackay Fabienne - - 2010
One remarkable feature of the immune system is its capacity to maintain constant numbers of resting immune cells despite the complex nature of signals needed throughout development and maturation. For many years, B-cell survival was thought to rely solely on B-cell receptor (BCR) tonic signals that would trigger necessary basal ...
Sethi Nilay - - 2010
The Notch signaling pathway is important for cell fate decisions in embryonic development and adult life. Defining the functional importance of the Notch pathway in these contexts requires the elucidation of essential signal transduction components that have not been fully characterized. Here, we show that Rabconnectin-3B is required for the ...
Schottenfeld Jodi - - 2010
The Drosophila respiratory organ (tracheal system) consists of epithelial tubes, the morphogenesis of which is controlled by distinct sets of signaling pathways and transcription factors. The downstream events controlling tube formation and shape are only now beginning to be identified. Here we review recent insight into the communication between neighboring ...
Feng Yuanyi - - 2010
How mitotic cell fate is regulated in the developing mammalian CNS is an important but largely unanswered question. Recently reporting in Neuron, Godin et al. showed that Huntingtin, the protein mutated in Huntington's disease, is required for both cerebral cortical neurogenesis and mitotic spindle function in neural progenitors.
Bunt Stephanie - - 2010
Details of the mechanisms that determine the shape and positioning of organs in the body cavity remain largely obscure. We show that stereotypic positioning of outgrowing Drosophila renal tubules depends on signaling in a subset of tubule cells and results from enhanced sensitivity to guidance signals by targeted matrix deposition. ...
Chappaz Stéphane - - 2010
Hematopoietic lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells initiate lymph node (LN) and Peyer's patch (PP) development during fetal life by inducing the differentiation of mesenchymal organizer cells. The growth factor signals underlying LTi cell development and LN and PP organogenesis remain poorly understood. LTi cells express the Il7r and the receptor ...
Yin Zhizhong Z Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, - - 2010
Living cells have evolved sophisticated signaling networks allowing them to respond to a wide array of external stimuli. Microfluidic devices, facilitating the analysis of signaling networks through precise definition of the cellular microenvironment often lack the capacity of delivering multiple combinations of different signaling cues, thus limiting the throughput of ...
Schumacher Ton N M - - 2010
The behaviour of T cells is not fixed in the germ line, but is highly adaptable depending on experiences encountered during a T cell's life. To understand how different T cell subsets arise and how prior signalling input regulates subsequent T cell behaviour, approaches are required that couple a given ...
Egger Boris - - 2010
The proper balance between symmetric and asymmetric stem cell division is crucial both to maintain a population of stem cells and to prevent tumorous overgrowth. Neural stem cells in the Drosophila optic lobe originate within a polarised neuroepithelium, where they divide symmetrically. Neuroepithelial cells are transformed into asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts ...
Daniels Brian R - - 2010
Specification of germline and somatic cell lineages in C. elegans originates in the polarized single-cell zygote. Several cell-fate determinants are partitioned unequally along the anterior-posterior axis of the zygote, ensuring the daughter cells a unique inheritance upon asymmetric cell division. Recent studies have revealed that partitioning of the germline determinant ...
Ding Lin-Can - - 2010
The Notch signaling pathway is important for cell-cell communication; it is involved in gene regulation mechanisms that control multiple cell differentiation processes during embryonic and adult life. Notch is present in all metazoans, and vertebrates possess four different Notch receptors: Notch-1, Notch-2, Notch-3, and Notch-4. The aim of the present ...
Hsieh Ting-Chiu - - 2010
Previous studies in Drosophila melanogaster have demonstrated that many tumor suppressor pathways impinge on Rb/E2F to regulate proliferation and survival. Here, we report that Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1 (TSC1), a well-established tumor suppressor that regulates cell size, is an important regulator of dE2F1 during development. In eye imaginal discs, the ...
Risbud Makarand V - - 2010
The goal of this mini-review is to address the long standing argument that the pathogenesis of disc disease is due to the loss and/or the replacement of the notochordal cells by other cell types. We contend that, although cells of different size and morphology exist, there is no strong evidence ...
Boyle Michael J MJ Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-5065, - - 2010
The function of an organ relies on its form, which in turn depends on the individual shapes of the cells that create it and the interactions between them. Despite remarkable progress in the field of developmental biology, how cells collaborate to make a tissue remains an unsolved mystery. To investigate ...
Cohen Michael M Centre for Mathematics and Physics in the Life Sciences and Experimental Biology, London, WC1E 6BT, - - 2010
The organization of bristles on the Drosophila notum has long served as a popular model of robust tissue patterning. During this process, membrane-tethered Delta activates intracellular Notch signaling in neighboring epithelial cells, which inhibits Delta expression. This induces lateral inhibition, yielding a pattern in which each Delta-expressing mechanosensory organ precursor ...
Wang Fan - - 2010
Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is a multifunctional oncoprotein which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the exact mechanisms remain controversial. Here we show that HBx strongly stimulated cell growth, promoted cell cycle progression and inhibited apoptosis of human non-tumor hepatic cell line ...
Ren Haiyan - - 2010
The Wnt signaling pathway regulates multiple aspects of the development of stem cell-like epithelial seam cells in Caenorhabditis elegans, including cell fate specification and symmetric/asymmetric division. In this study, we demonstrate that lit-1, encoding the Nemo-like kinase in the Wnt/beta-catenin asymmetry pathway, plays a role in specifying temporal identities of ...
Christophorou Nicolas A D NA Department of Craniofacial Development, King's College London, Guy's Campus, London SE1 9RT, - - 2010
Crucial components of the vertebrate eye, ear and nose develop from discrete patches of surface epithelium, called placodes, which fold into spheroids and undergo complex morphogenesis. Little is known about how the changes in cell and tissue shapes are coordinated with the acquisition of cell fates. Here we explore whether ...
Vachias Caroline - - 2010
Organisers control the patterning and growth of many tissues and organs. Correctly regulating the size of these organisers is crucial for proper differentiation to occur. Organiser activity in the epithelium of the Drosophila ovarian follicle resides in a pair of cells called polar cells. It is known that these two ...
Tortoriello Giuseppe - - 2010
Eukaryotic pseudouridine synthases direct RNA pseudouridylation and bind H/ACA small nucleolar RNA (snoRNAs), which, in turn, may act as precursors of microRNA-like molecules. In humans, loss of pseudouridine synthase activity causes dyskeratosis congenita (DC), a complex systemic disorder characterized by cancer susceptibility, failures in ribosome biogenesis and telomere stability, and ...
Daul Aric L - - 2010
The Drosophila larval brain is a well-established model for investigating the role of stem cells in development. Neuroblasts (neural stem cells) must be competent to generate many thousands of differentiated neurons through asymmetric divisions during normal development. Studies in fly neuroblasts have been instrumental in identifying how the establishment and ...
Graham Thomas G W - - 2010
A major goal of developmental biology is to understand the molecular mechanisms whereby genetic signaling networks establish and maintain distinct cell types within multicellular organisms. Here, we review cell-fate decisions in the developing eye of Drosophila melanogaster and the experimental results that have revealed the topology of the underlying signaling ...
Umetsu Daiki - - 2010
The subdivision of proliferating tissues into groups of non-intermingling sets of cells, termed compartments, is a common process of animal development. Signaling between adjacent compartments induces the local expression of morphogens that pattern the surrounding tissue. Sharp and straight boundaries between compartments stabilize the source of such morphogens during tissue ...
Reddy B V V G - - 2010
The Drosophila optic lobe develops from neuroepithelial cells, which function as symmetrically dividing neural progenitors. We describe here a role for the Fat-Hippo pathway in controlling the growth and differentiation of Drosophila optic neuroepithelia. Mutation of tumor suppressor genes within the pathway, or expression of activated Yorkie, promotes overgrowth of ...
Yamamoto Mai - - 2010
In the developing embryo, cell-cell signalling is necessary for tissue patterning and structural organization. During midline development, the notochord plays roles in the patterning of its surrounding tissues while forming the axial structure; however, how these patterning and structural roles are coordinated remains elusive. Here, we identify a mechanism by ...
Boyan George - - 2010
The central complex of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria develops to completion during embryogenesis. A major cellular contribution to the central complex is from the w, x, y, z lineages of the pars intercerebralis, each of which comprises over 100 cells, making them by far the largest in the embryonic protocerebrum. ...
Galliot Brigitte - - 2010
The Hydra model system is well suited for the eludication of the mechanisms underlying regeneration in the adult, and an understanding of the core mechanisms is likely to cast light on pathways conserved in other species. Recent detailed analyses of the activation of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway in bisected Hydra shows ...
Rhiner Christa - - 2010
Cell competition promotes the elimination of weaker cells from a growing population. Here we investigate how cells of Drosophila wing imaginal discs distinguish "winners" from "losers" during cell competition. Using genomic and functional assays, we have identified several factors implicated in the process, including Flower (Fwe), a cell membrane protein ...
Gallant Peter - - 2010
In Drosophila imaginal discs, viable cells are outcompeted by their faster growing neighbors in a process called "cell competition." A new study in this issue of Developmental Cell identifies the membrane protein Flower as being specifically induced in the outcompeted cells and required for their ensuing apoptosis.
Togayachi Akira - - 2010
In a previous study, we demonstrated that beta1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 5 (B3gnt5) is a lactotriaosylceramide (Lc(3)Cer) synthase that synthesizes a precursor structure for lacto/neolacto-series glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in in vitro experiments. Here, we generated B3gnt5-deficient (B3gnt5(-/-)) mice to investigate the in vivo biological functions of lacto/neolacto-series GSLs. In biochemical analyses, lacto/neolacto-series GSLs were ...
Ong Sengkai - - 2010
Ring canals, also known as stable intercellular bridges, are derived from the contractile rings of incomplete cytokinesis (IC) in most organisms. Formation of ring canals is necessary to generate functional eggs and sperm in multiple organisms including insects, birds, mammals and various plants. How the constriction of a contractile ring ...
Spiller David G DG Centre for Cell Imaging, School of Biological Sciences, Bioscience Research Building, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB, - - 2010
Populations of cells are almost always heterogeneous in function and fate. To understand the plasticity of cells, it is vital to measure quantitatively and dynamically the molecular processes that underlie cell-fate decisions in single cells. Early events in cell signalling often occur within seconds of the stimulus, whereas intracellular signalling ...
Paszek Pawel - - 2010
Heterogeneity between individual cells is a common feature of dynamic cellular processes, including signaling, transcription, and cell fate; yet the overall tissue level physiological phenotype needs to be carefully controlled to avoid fluctuations. Here we show that in the NF-kappaB signaling system, the precise timing of a dual-delayed negative feedback ...
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