Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1806
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Bosveld Floris - - 2008
Coenzyme A (CoA) is an essential metabolite, synthesized from vitamin B5 by the subsequent action of five enzymes: PANK, PPCS, PPCDC, PPAT and DPCK. Mutations in Drosophila dPPCS disrupt female fecundity and in this study we analyzed the female sterile phenotype of dPPCS mutants in detail. We demonstrate that dPPCS ...
Lomberk Gwen - - 2008
Notch, initially discovered and well characterized in Drosophila due to the notches apparent in the wing blades of mutant strains, and its signaling pathway play a key role in cell-cell communication, which involves gene regulation mechanisms that control multiple cell differentiation processes during embryonic and adult life, including timely cell ...
Ohazama Atsushi A Department of Craniofacial Development, Dental Institute, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, London, - - 2008
The extent to which cell signaling is integrated outside the cell is not currently appreciated. We show that a member of the low-density receptor-related protein family, Lrp4 modulates and integrates Bmp and canonical Wnt signalling during tooth morphogenesis by binding the secreted Bmp antagonist protein Wise. Mouse mutants of Lrp4 ...
Silva Elizabeth A EA Medical Research Council Cell Biology Unit, MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, and Anatomy and Developmental Biology Department, University College London, London, - - 2008
Proper development of all multicellular organisms involves programmed apoptosis. Completion of this process requires removal of the resulting cell corpses through phagocytosis by their neighbors or by macrophages. Studies in C. elegans have been fruitful in the genetic dissection of key pathways, but they lack the professional immune system of ...
Houthoofd Wouter - - 2008
One of the unique features of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans is its invariant development, where a stereotyped cell lineage generates a fixed number of cells with a fixed cell type. It remains unclear how embryonic development evolved within the nematodes to give rise to the complex, invariant cell lineage ...
Gaengel Konstantin - - 2008
The regular appearance and the repetitive nature of the Drosophila eye, consisting of several hundred identical multicellular units, the ommatidia, has long served as an invaluable experimental system to study cell-cell interactions, inductive signaling events, cell proliferation, programmed cell death, cell differentiation, cell organization, and planar cell polarity among others. ...
Baum Buzz - - 2008
Given the power of Drosophila genetics, it may seem surprising to discover that many fly researchers are turning to Drosophila cell culture as an experimental system. However, as we will show in this chapter, there are many benefits to be gained by using cell lines as a complement to studies ...
Diermeier-Daucher Simone - - 2008
Lateral interaction of c-erbB family receptors resulting in dimer formation is the key event initiating signal transduction. Consequently cross-activation and intracellular signaling is triggered with immediate impact on cell proliferation, migration, cell survival, and differentiation. In order to elucidate the connection of signal input (receptor activation) and signal output (altered ...
Park Dongkook - - 2008
The bHLH transcription factor DIMMED has been associated with the differentiation of peptidergic cells in Drosophila. However, whether all Drosophila peptidergic cells express DIMM, and the extent to which all DIMM cells are peptidergic, have not been determined. To address these issues, we have mapped DIMM expression in the central ...
Yamaguchi Terry P - - 2008
Proper cell-cell communication is necessary to orchestrate the cell fate determination, proliferation, movement, and differentiation that occurs during the development of a complex, multicellular organism. Members of the Wnt family of secreted signaling molecules regulate these processes in virtually every embryonic tissue and during the homeostatic maintenance of adult tissues. ...
Zaret K S KS Epigenetics and Progenitor Cells Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111, - - 2008
The endoderm is a multipotent progenitor cell population in the embryo that gives rise to the liver, pancreas, and other cell types and provides paradigms for understanding cell-type specification. Studies of isolated embryo tissue cells and genetic approaches in vivo have defined fibroblast growth factor/mitogen-activated protein kinase (FGF/MAPK) and bone ...
Marston Daniel J DJ Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, - - 2008
Wnt signaling has been demonstrated to regulate diverse cell processes throughout the development of the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. This chapter describes methods that have been used to investigate some of these Wnt-dependent processes: endoderm specification, mitotic spindle orientation, and cell migration.
Yu Jianzhong - - 2008
Specification of the anterior-posterior axis in Drosophila oocytes requires proper communication between the germ-line cells and the somatically derived follicular epithelial cells. Multiple signaling pathways, including Notch, contribute to oocyte polarity formation by controlling the temporal and spatial pattern of follicle cell differentiation and proliferation. Here we show that the ...
Rompani S B - - 2008
Retinal progenitor cells have been shown to be multipotent throughout development. Similarly, many other structures of the developing central nervous system have been found to contain multipotent progenitor cells. Previous lineage studies did not address whether these multipotent progenitor cells were biased in their production of neuronal subtypes. This question ...
Poché Ross A - - 2007
Although much is known about the transcriptional regulation that coordinates retinal cell fate determination, very little is known about the developmental processes that establish the characteristic laminar architecture of the retina, in particular, the specification of neuronal positioning. The LIM class homeodomain transcription factor Lim1 (Lhx1) is expressed in postmitotic, ...
O'Connell Michael P MP Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 19104, - - 2007
Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play important roles in morphogen gradient formation and cell signaling. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is dysregulated in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a disabling disorder of progressive heterotopic bone formation. Here, we investigated the role of HSPG glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains on BMP signaling ...
Shcherbata Halyna R HR Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, - - 2007
In this study, we uncover a role for microRNAs in Drosophila germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance. Disruption of Dicer-1 function in GSCs during adult life results in GSC loss. Surprisingly, however, loss of Dicer-1 during development does not result in a GSC maintenance defect, although a defect is seen if ...
Troedsson Christofer - - 2007
In models of growth and life history, and in molecular and cell biology, there is a need for more accurate frames of reference to characterize developmental progression. In Caenorhabditis elegans, complete fate maps of cell lineage provide such a standard of reference. To be more widely applicable, reference frames should ...
Ossipova Olga - - 2007
Partitioning-defective 1 (PAR1) and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) are conserved serine/threonine protein kinases implicated in the establishment of cell polarity in many species from yeast to humans. Here we investigate the roles of these protein kinases in cell fate determination in Xenopus epidermis. Early asymmetric cell divisions at blastula ...
Demontis Fabio - - 2007
Communication among cells by means of the exchange of signaling cues is important for tissue and organ development. Recent reports indicate that one way that signaling cues can be delivered is by movement along cellular protrusions interconnecting cells. Here, by using confocal laser scanning microscopy and three-dimensional rendering, we describe ...
Zhao Zhongying - - 2008
Comparative genomic analysis of important signaling pathways in Caenorhabditis briggsae and Caenorhabditis elegans reveals both conserved features and also differences. To build a framework to address the significance of these features we determined the C. briggsae embryonic cell lineage, using the tools StarryNite and AceTree. We traced both cell divisions ...
Taylor Job J Biology Department, Institute for Morphogenesis and Regenerative Medicine, Cancer Center, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903, - - 2008
The evagination of Drosophila imaginal discs is a classic system for studying tissue level morphogenesis. Evagination involves a dramatic change in morphology and published data argue that this is mediated by cell shape changes. We have reexamined the evagination of both the leg and wing discs and find that the ...
Senoo-Matsuda Nanami N Department of Genetics and Development, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 701 West 168th Street, HHSC 704, New York, NY 10032, - - 2007
When neighboring cells in the developing Drosophila wing express different levels of the transcription factor, dMyc, competitive interactions can occur. Cells with more dMyc proliferate and ultimately overpopulate the wing, whereas cells with less dMyc die, thereby preventing wing overgrowth. How cells sense dMyc activity differences between themselves and the ...
Uematsu Kazutsugu - - 2007
BACKGROUND: We have previously found that Wnt signaling is activated in mesothelioma cells. To clarify the effect of blocking Wnt signaling in mesothelioma, the expression of dishevelled (Dvl), an intermediator of Wnt signaling, was down-regulated by a reformed type of small interfering RNA (siRNA), stealth RNAi, which can reduce the ...
Corrigall Douglas D Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT, London, United - - 2007
Cell constriction promotes epithelial sheet invagination during embryogenesis across phyla. However, how this cell response is linked to global patterning information during organogenesis remains unclear. To address this issue, we have used the Drosophila eye and studied the formation of the morphogenetic furrow (MF), which is characterized by cells undergoing ...
Escudero Luis M LM MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, United - - 2007
Remodeling epithelia is a primary driver of morphogenesis. Here, we report a central role of myosin II in regulating several aspects of complex epithelial architecture in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc. The epithelial indentation of the morphogenetic furrow is established from a pattern of myosin II activation defined by the ...
Nishimura Mayuko - - 2007
Invagination of organ placodes converts flat epithelia into three-dimensional organs. Cell tracing in the Drosophila tracheal placode revealed that, in the 30-minute period before invagination, cells enter mitotic quiescence and form short rows that encircle the future invagination site. The cells in the rows align to form a smooth boundary ...
Fiehler Ryan W RW Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, - - 2008
Both dramatic and subtle morphogenetic movements are of paramount importance in molding cells and tissues into functional form. Cells move either independently or as populations and the distance traversed by cells varies greatly, but in all cases, the output is common: to organize cells into or within organs and epithelia. ...
McManus Michael T - - 2008
Two aspects of the competence of abscission zone cells as a specific class of hormone target cell are examined. The first is the competence of these target cells to respond to a remote stele-generated signal, and whether ethylene acts in concert with this signal to initiate abscission of the primary ...
Hanashima Carina - - 2007
Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells, the earliest-born neurons in the neocortex, arise from discrete sources within the telencephalon, including the dorsal midline and the pallial-subpallial boundary (PSB). In particular, the cortical hem, a region of high bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wnt (wingless-type MMTV integration site family) expression but lacking in Foxg1 ...
Ambrus Aaron M - - 2007
In Drosophila melanogaster, the loss of activator de2f1 leads to a severe reduction in cell proliferation and repression of E2F targets. To date, the only known way to rescue the proliferation block in de2f1 mutants was through the inactivation of dE2F2. This suggests that dE2F2 provides a major contribution to ...
Jordan Martha S - - 2007
Multi-molecular complexes nucleated by adaptor proteins play a central role in signal transduction. In T cells, one central axis consists of the assembly of several signaling proteins linked together by the adaptors linker of activated T cells (LAT), Src homology 2 domain-containing leukocyte-specific phosphoprotein of 76 kDa (SLP-76), and Grb2-related ...
Knust Elisabeth - - 2007
Cells exhibit an amazingly wide range of different forms, and in most cases the shape of a cell is crucial for performing its specific function(s). But how does a cell obtain its particular shape during development, how can the shape be adapted to different environmental conditions, and what are the ...
Chaigne-Delalande B - - 2008
Constitutively active Rac stimulates Akt activity in T lymphocytes cultured in suspension. This regulation contrasts with findings obtained in fibroblasts, endothelial or neuronal cells grown on substrate, where Akt stimulation occurs independently of Rac. We now show that V12Rac-mediated stimulation of Akt is not restricted to the hematopoietic lineage but ...
Araújo Sofia J - - 2007
Tramtrack (Ttk) is a widely expressed transcription factor, the function of which has been analysed in different adult and embryonic tissues in Drosophila. So far, the described roles of Ttk have been mainly related to cell fate specification, cell proliferation and cell cycle regulation. Using the tracheal system of Drosophila ...
Boettner Benjamin - - 2007
Epithelial morphogenesis is characterized by an exquisite control of cell shape and position. Progression through dorsal closure in Drosophila gastrulation depends on the ability of Rap1 GTPase to signal through the adherens junctional multidomain protein Canoe. Here, we provide genetic evidence that epithelial Rap activation and Canoe effector usage are ...
Nakamura Tetsuya - - 2007
Continuous renewal of the intestinal epithelium requires coordinated regulation to maintain the balance between proliferation and differentiation of the epithelial stem cells and immature progenitor cells. Canonical Wnt signaling has long been regarded as the signaling pathway playing a central role in this epithelial cell fate determination; however, recent studies ...
Williams Benjamin R - - 2007
Homolog pairing refers to the alignment and physical apposition of homologous chromosomal segments. Although commonly observed during meiosis, homolog pairing also occurs in nonmeiotic cells of several organisms, including humans and Drosophila. The mechanism underlying nonmeiotic pairing, however, remains largely unknown. Here, we explore the use of established Drosophila cell ...
Pillitteri Lynn Jo - - 2007
Stomata are microscopic pores on the surface of land plants used for gas and water vapor exchange. A pair of highly specialized guard cells surround the pore and adjust pore size. Studies in Arabidopsis have revealed that cell-cell communication is essential to coordinate the asymmetric cell divisions required for proper ...
Li Wei - - 2007
Cell competition was first described in imaginal discs of genetically-mosaic Drosophila. In extreme cases, cell competition can replace entire compartments with the descendents of a single cell. We recently identified five genes that are required by wild-type epithelial cells to kill neighboring Minute cells during cell competition. These draper, wasp, ...
Grzeschik Nicola A - - 2007
In homozygous mutants of Drosophila lethal-2-giant larvae (lgl), tissues lose apico-basal cell polarity and exhibit ectopic proliferation. Here, we use clonal analysis in the developing eye to investigate the effect of lgl null mutations in the context of surrounding wild-type tissue. lgl- clones in the larval eye disc exhibit ectopic ...
Fiehler Ryan W - - 2007
The adult Drosophila retina is a highly polarized epithelium derived from a precursor tissue that is initially symmetric across its dorsoventral axis. Specialized 90 degrees rotational movements of subsets of cells, the ommatidial precursors, establish mirror symmetry in the retinal epithelium. Myosin II, or Zipper (Zip), a motor protein, regulates ...
Remsberg Jarrett R JR Molecular Aspects of Drug Design Section, Structural Biophysics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute-Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702, - - 2007
Smoothened is a critical component of the Hedgehog pathway that is essential for stem cell renewal and is dysregulated in many cancer types. We have found synthetic analogues of the second and third intracellular loops of smoothened to be potent inhibitors of the Hedgehog pathway. Palmitoylated peptides as short as ...
Saucedo Leslie J - - 2007
How cell numbers are controlled during organ development is a problem that is still in need of answers. Recent studies in Drosophila melanogaster have delineated a novel signalling pathway, the Hippo pathway, which has an important role in restraining cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis in differentiating epithelial cells. Much like ...
Yi Buqing - - 2007
The Hox gene lin-39 plays a crucial role in the establishment of the nematode vulva equivalence group. Mutations in lin-39 in Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus result in a vulvaless phenotype because presumptive vulva precursor cells adopt non-vulval fates. Interestingly, the non-vulval fate of anterior and posterior epidermal cells differs ...
Zecca Myriam - - 2007
Following segregation of the Drosophila wing imaginal disc into dorsal (D) and ventral (V) compartments, the wing primordium is specified by activity of the selector gene vestigial (vg). In the accompanying paper, we present evidence that vg expression is itself driven by three distinct inputs: (1) short-range DSL (Delta/Serrate/LAG-2)-Notch signaling ...
Mody Purvi D - - 2007
The mucin-like protein CD43 is excluded from the immune synapse, and regulates T-cell proliferation as well as T-cell migration. While the CD43 cytoplasmic domain is necessary for regulation of T-cell activation and proliferation, the mechanism via which CD43 regulates trafficking is not well defined. To investigate whether CD43 phosphorylation regulates ...
Sakurai Kayoko T - - 2007
Domain boundary formation in development involves sorting of different types of cells into separate spatial domains. The segment boundary between tarsus 5 (Ta5) and the pretarsus (Pre) of the Drosophila leg initially appears at the center of the leg disc and progressively sharpens and expands to its final position, accompanied ...
Chanut-Delalande Hélène - - 2007
Branching morphogenesis of the Drosophila tracheal system relies on the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway. The Drosophila FGF ligand Branchless (Bnl) and the FGFR Breathless (Btl/FGFR) are required for cell migration during the establishment of the interconnected network of tracheal tubes. However, due to an important maternal contribution ...
Morata Ginés - - 2007
Cell competition compares cells within a growing population and eliminates the weaker ones by apoptosis. In a recent issue of Cell, Li and Baker (2007) show in the Drosophila wing disc that cells fated to die induce in neighboring cells the activity of engulfment genes, whose function is essential to ...
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