Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1888
< 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >
Ueishi Satoru - - 2009
Spermatogenesis in Drosophila commences with cell division of germline stem cells (GSCs) to produce male germline cells at the tip of the testis. However, molecular mechanisms inducing division of male GSCs have not been reported. Insulin-like peptides are known to play an essential role in stimulation of proliferation and growth ...
Singleton Kentner L - - 2009
Temporal and spatial variations in the concentrations of signaling intermediates in a living cell are important for signaling in complex networks because they modulate the probabilities that signaling intermediates will interact with each other. We have studied 30 signaling sensors, ranging from receptors to transcription factors, in the physiological activation ...
Taghon T - - 2009
Notch signalling is a critical mediator of T cell development. However, while this signalling pathway is essential, it is not sufficient to induce T cell fate into multipotent hematopoietic precursor cells. Although Notch signalling events are crucial at all of the initial stages of T-lineage differentiation, T cell development also ...
Cau Elise - - 2009
The Notch pathway is instrumental for cell fate diversification during development. Pioneer studies conducted in Drosophila and more recent work performed in vertebrates have shown that in the nervous system, Notch is reiteratively employed when cells choose between two alternative fates, a process referred to as a binary fate decision. ...
Cagan Ross - - 2009
The Drosophila eye is one of nature's most beautiful structures and one of its most useful. It has emerged as a favored model for understanding the processes that direct cell fate specification, patterning, and morphogenesis. Though composed of thousands of cells, each fly eye is a simple repeating pattern of ...
Pouille Philippe-Alexandre - - 2009
During Drosophila gastrulation, two waves of constriction occur in the apical ventral cells, leading to mesoderm invagination. The first constriction wave is a stochastic process mediated by the constriction of 40% of randomly positioned mesodermal cells and is controlled by the transcription factor Snail. The second constriction wave immediately follows ...
Li Qi - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Proper patterning of the follicle cell epithelium over the egg chamber is essential for the Drosophila egg development. Differentiation of the epithelium into several distinct cell types along the anterior-posterior axis requires coordinated activities of multiple signaling pathways. Previously, we reported that lethal(2)giant larvae (lgl), a Drosophila tumor suppressor ...
Bibliowicz Jonathan - - 2009
The roles of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in controlling vertebrate retinal development have been studied extensively; however, species- and context-dependent findings have provided differing conclusions. Hh signaling has been shown to control both population size and cell cycle kinetics of proliferating retinal progenitors, and to modulate differentiation within the retina ...
Ye Fei - - 2009
Scutellaria baicalensis is an anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic Chinese herbal therapy. We have previously shown that S. baicalensis can inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell growth in vitro. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of S. baicalensis on the cell signaling network using our newly developed Pathway Array technology, ...
Martín Francisco A - - 2009
Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is a conserved process in all animals, used to eliminate damaged or unwanted cells after stress events or during normal development to sculpt larval or adult structures. In Drosophila, it is known that stress events such as irradiation or heat shock give rise to high apoptotic ...
Baena-Lopez Luis Alberto - - 2009
Morphogens form concentration gradients that organize patterns of cells and control growth. It has been suggested that, rather than the intensity of morphogen signaling, it is its gradation that is the relevant modulator of cell proliferation. According to this view, the ability of morphogens to regulate growth during development depends ...
Trautmann Alain - - 2009
Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (eATP) is ubiquitously used for cell-to-cell communication. The low concentration of eATP ([eATP]) that exists in a "halo" surrounding resting cells signals the presence of neighboring living cells. Transient increases in [eATP] are used for basic physiological signaling, namely, in the nervous and vascular systems. Larger increases ...
Denzel Sabine - - 2009
Epithelial cell adhesion molecule EpCAM is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is frequently over-expressed in simple epithelia, progenitors, embryonic and tissue stem cells, carcinoma and cancer-initiating cells. Besides functioning as a homophilic adhesion protein, EpCAM is an oncogenic receptor that requires regulated intramembrane proteolysis for activation of its signal transduction capacity. ...
Zhang Yi - - 2009
Knowledge about signaling pathways is typically compiled based on data gathered using different cell lines. This approach implicitly assumes that the cell line dependence is not important. However, different cell lines do not always respond to a particular stimulus in the same way, and lack of coherent data collected from ...
Benchabane Hassina - - 2009
The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor is an essential negative regulator in the evolutionarily conserved Wnt/Wingless (Wg) signal transduction pathway. During normal development, Wnt signaling is required not only to induce cell proliferation and cell fate specification, but also to induce apoptotic cell death. However in some malignant states ...
Sela-Donenfeld Dalit D Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University, The Robert H Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Rehovot, Israel. - - 2009
During formation of the vertebrate central nervous system, the hindbrain is organized into segmental units, called rhombomeres (r). These cell-lineage restricted segments are separated by a subpopulation of cells known as boundary cells. Boundary cells display distinct molecular and cellular properties such as an elongated shape, enriched extracellular matrix components ...
Feyerabend Thorsten B - - 2009
Notch1 signaling is required for T cell development and has been implicated in fate decisions in the thymus. We showed that Notch1 deletion in progenitor T cells (pro-T cells) revealed their latent developmental potential toward becoming conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. In addition, Notch1 deletion in pro-T cells resulted in ...
Bhattacharya Abhishek - - 2009
Notch signaling is one of the most important pathways in development and homeostasis, and is altered in multiple pathologies. Study of Drosophila eye development shows that Notch signaling depends on the HLH protein Extramacrochaetae. Null mutant clones show that extramacrochaetae is required for multiple aspects of eye development that depend ...
Matsuda Miho - - 2009
Mind bomb1 (Mib1)-mediated endocytosis of the Notch ligand DeltaD is essential for activation of Notch in a neighboring cell. Although most DeltaD is localized in cytoplasmic puncta in zebrafish neural tissue, it is on the plasma membrane in mib1 mutants because Mib1-mediated endocytosis determines the normal subcellular localization of DeltaD. ...
Kim Yeon Kyu - - 2009
Most insect cells have a simple N-glycosylation process and consequently paucimannosidic or simple core glycans predominate. Previously, we have shown that paucimannosidic N-glycan structures are dominant in Drosophila S2 cells. It has been proposed that beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (GlcNAcase), a hexosaminidase in the Golgi membrane which removes a terminal N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), might ...
Schwank Gerald - - 2008
Morphogens can control organ development by regulating patterning as well as growth. Here we use the model system of the Drosophila wing imaginal disc to address how the patterning signal Decapentaplegic (Dpp) regulates cell proliferation. Contrary to previous models, which implicated the slope of the Dpp gradient as an essential ...
Almudi Isabel - - 2009
During the development of multicellular organisms the fate of individual cells is specified with great precision and reproducibility. Although classical genetic approaches led to the identification of many of the signaling pathways contributing to cell fate specification, they have provided little insight into the mechanisms that ensure robustness and reproducibility. ...
Shi Weiyang - - 2009
Convergent extension (CE) is the narrowing and lengthening of an embryonic field along a defined axis. It underlies a variety of complex morphogenetic movements, such as mesoderm elongation and neural tube closure in vertebrate embryos. Convergent extension relies on the same intracellular molecular machinery that directs planar cell polarity (PCP) ...
Caussinus Emmanuel - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Branching morphogenesis remodels epithelial tissues into tubular networks. This process is crucial to many organs, from the insect trachea to the vertebrate vasculature. Although Drosophila tracheal development has been well characterized morphologically and genetically, very little is known about the forces involved during morphogenesis. The repertoire of cell behaviors ...
Lopez Daniel - - 2009
Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive bacterium that is well known for its ability to differentiate into metabolically inactive spores that are highly resistant to environmental stresses. In fact, populations of genetically identical B. subtilis comprise numerous distinct cell types. In addition to spores, cells can become genetically competent, motile, produce ...
Sellin Julia - - 2009
In this study we show that cell fate decisions in the dorsal and lateral mesoderm of Drosophila melanogaster depend on the antagonistic action of the Gli-like transcription factor Lame duck (Lmd) and the zinc finger homeodomain factor Zfh1. Lmd expression leads to the reduction of Zfh1 positive cell types, thereby ...
Lin Yung-Yao YY Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EH, UK. - - 2009
Prickle-Spiny-Legs (Pk) is an essential component of the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, together with Frizzled (Fz) and Dishevelled (Dsh). A role for Pk was proposed to mediate feedback amplification of asymmetric Fz/Dsh activity across cell boundaries, ensuring a single prehair initiates at each distal vertex. Here we show that ...
Ochiai Wataru - - 2009
To understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating cytogenesis within the neocortical ventricular zone, we examined at high resolution the spatiotemporal expression patterns of Ngn2 and Tbr2. Individually DiI-labeled daughter cells were tracked from their birth in slice cultures and immunostained for Ngn2 and Tbr2. Both proteins were initially absent ...
Li Yan - - 2008
Cell identity and tissue morphogenesis are tightly orchestrated during organogenesis, but the mechanisms regulating this are poorly understood. We show that interactions between Wnt11 and the secreted Wnt antagonist secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (Sfrp5) coordinate cell fate and morphogenesis during Xenopus foregut development. sfrp5 is expressed in the surface cells ...
Cheong Raymond - - 2009
A comprehensive, systems level understanding of cell signaling networks requires methods to efficiently assay multiple signaling species, at the level of single cells, responding to a variety of stimulation protocols. Here we describe a microfluidic device that enables quantitative interrogation of signaling networks in thousands of individual cells using immunofluorescence-based ...
Maeda Kousuke - - 2008
Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are required for maintenance of the proper cell composition in the adult intestine. To ensure permanent recruitment of newly differentiated cells, the ISC undergoes asymmetric cell division that generates an ISC itself and a progenitor cell. In the Drosophila midgut, cell fate for the absorptive cell ...
Jin Zhigang - - 2008
Mitosis is triggered by activation of Cdk1, a cyclin-dependent kinase. Conserved checkpoint mechanisms normally inhibit Cdk1 by inhibitory phosphorylation during interphase, ensuring that DNA replication and repair is completed before cells begin mitosis. In metazoans, this regulatory mechanism is also used to coordinate cell division with critical developmental processes, such ...
Elliott Jimmy - - 2008
In the developing mouse retina, multipotent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) give rise to specific retinal cell types at different times, but the molecular mechanisms regulating how RPCs change over time remain unclear. In the Drosophila neuroblast lineage, the zinc finger transcription factor Hunchback (Hb) is both necessary and sufficient to ...
Feres K J - - 2009
The recepteur d'origine nantais (RON) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) in the scatter factor family, which includes the c-Met receptor. RON exhibits increased expression in a significant number of human breast cancer tissues as well as in many established breast cancer cell lines. Recent studies have indicated that in ...
Patel Falshruti B - - 2008
The WAVE/SCAR complex promotes actin nucleation through the Arp2/3 complex, in response to Rac signaling. We show that loss of WVE-1/GEX-1, the only C. elegans WAVE/SCAR homolog, by genetic mutation or by RNAi, has the same phenotype as loss of GEX-2/Sra1/p140/PIR121, GEX-3/NAP1/HEM2/KETTE, or ABI-1/ABI, the three other components of the ...
Thomas Bittig
During the development of multicellular organisms, organs grow to well-defined shapes and sizes. The proper size and patterning of tissues are ensured by signaling molecules as e.g. morphogens. Secreted from a restricted source, morphogens spread into the adjacent target tissue where they form a graded concentration profile. Upon binding of ...
ten Berge Derk - - 2008
A fundamental question in developmental biology is how does an undifferentiated field of cells acquire spatial pattern and undergo coordinated differentiation? The development of the vertebrate limb is an important paradigm for understanding these processes. The skeletal and connective tissues of the developing limb all derive from a population of ...
Gebelein Brian - - 2008
How cells integrate both patterning and signaling information to select between distinct cell fates is a fundamental problem in developmental biology. In this short review, I focus on recent findings of how the Hox and senseless patterning genes regulate epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling and cell fate within the Drosophila ...
Buchman Joshua J - - 2008
The nuclei of progenitor cells in developing neural epithelia change their position during the cell cycle through a process called interkinetic nuclear migration. Del Bene et al. (2008) report that defects in the machinery controlling this process lead to altered exposure to Notch signals and systemic effects on neurogenesis in ...
Moll Cordula - - 2008
The formation of gametes is a key step in the life cycle of any sexually reproducing organism. In flowering plants, gametes develop in haploid structures termed gametophytes that comprise a few cells. The female gametophyte forms gametic cells and flanking accessory cells. During a screen for regulators of egg-cell fate, ...
Natzle Jeanette E - - 2008
Following eclosion from the pupal case, wings of the immature adult fly unfold and expand to present a flat wing blade. During expansion the epithelia, which earlier produced the wing cuticle, delaminate from the cuticle, and the epithelial cells undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The resulting fibroblast-like cells then initiate ...
Dansereau David A - - 2008
Experiments in cultured cells with Ran-binding protein M (RanBPM) suggest that it links cell surface receptors and cell adhesion proteins. In this study, we undertake a genetic study of RanBPM function in the germline stem cell (GSC) niche of Drosophila melanogaster ovaries. We find that two RanBPM isoforms are produced ...
Wu Jun - - 2008
The Frizzled (Fz) receptor is required cell autonomously in Wnt/beta-catenin and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling. In addition to these requirements, Fz acts nonautonomously during PCP establishment: wild-type cells surrounding fz(-) patches reorient toward the fz(-) cells. The molecular mechanism(s) of nonautonomous Fz signaling are unknown. Our in vivo studies ...
Kim Byung Hak - - 2008
Inappropriate activation of JAK/STAT signaling occurs with high frequency in human cancers and is associated with cancer cell survival and proliferation. Therefore, the development of pharmacologic STAT signaling inhibitors has therapeutic potential in the treatment of human cancers. Here, we report 2-[(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-hydroxy-methyl]-1-(4-nitro-phenylamino)-6-phenyl-1,2,4a,7a-tetrahydro-pyrrolo[3,4-b]-pyridine-5,7-dione (AUH-6-96) as a novel small-molecule inhibitor of JAK/STAT ...
Gebelein Brian - - 2008
How cells integrate both patterning and signaling information to select between distinct cell fates is a fundamental problem in developmental biology. In this short review, I focus on recent findings of how the Hox and senseless patterning genes regulate epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling and cell fate within the Drosophila ...
Wheeler Scott R - - 2008
The study of how transcriptional control and cell signaling influence neurons and glia to acquire their differentiated properties is fundamental to understanding CNS development and function. The Drosophila CNS midline cells are an excellent system for studying these issues because they consist of a small population of diverse cells with ...
Barrott,Jared James 1981-
Vertebrate development is regulated by cellular communication by mechanisms of cell fate and cell behavior. These crucial mechanisms are regulated by cellular signaling and in the case of cell fate, cellular signaling results in transcription of developmentally important genes. Communication between cells can also result in regulation of cell behavior ...
Tsao Po-Nien - - 2008
Little is known about the mechanisms by which the lung epithelial progenitors are initially patterned and how proximal-distal boundaries are established and maintained when the lung primordium forms and starts to branch. Here we identified a number of Notch pathway components in respiratory progenitors of the early lung, and we ...
Chadwick Nicholas - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Notch signalling is known to promote hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and to influence the lineage commitment decisions of progenitor cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of Notch-induced apoptosis in the erythroleukaemic cell line TF-1, and in primary cord blood CD34+ cells. METHODS: Retroviral constructs ...
Kimura Yukiko - - 2008
The p2 progenitor domain in the ventral spinal cord gives rise to two interneuron subtypes: V2a and V2b. Delta-Notch-mediated cell-cell interactions between postmitotic immature neurons have been implicated in the segregation of neuron subtypes. However, lineage relationships between V2a and V2b neurons have not been reported. We address this issue ...
< 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >