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Results 401 - 450 of 1936
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Bischofberger Mirko - - 2008
During infection, most pathogenic bacteria deliver proteins to the host cell cytoplasm to manipulate host behavior. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Spanò and colleagues describe a system where a bacterium produces an exotoxin while inside the host cell. Only after this exotoxin is transported to the mammalian ...
McDougald, Diane, Centre for ...
Much of the fundamental understanding of microbial physiology is based on laboratory studies of freely suspended cells. While these studies have been essential for our foundational understanding of the genetics, physiology and behavior of microbes, it is now recognized that a majority of bacterial cells in nature exist in biofilms ...
Lohse Matthew B - - 2008
The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans resides asymptomatically in the gut of most healthy people but causes serious invasive diseases in immunocompromised patients. Many C. albicans strains have the ability to stochastically switch between distinct white and opaque cell types, but it is not known with certainty what role this ...
Montag Thomas - - 2008
Today, sterility of established parenteral drugs including biologicals, such as plasma derived products, is practically guaranteed. Bacterially contaminated products are extremely rare exceptions owing to the efficiency of the manufacturing processes in the pharmaceutical industry. In contrast, the manufacturing processes of cell based medicinal products or tissue preparations show much ...
Jordan Sina - - 2008
The bacterial cell envelope is the first and major line of defence against threats from the environment. It is an essential and yet vulnerable structure that gives the cell its shape and counteracts the high internal osmotic pressure. It also provides an important sensory interface and molecular sieve, mediating both ...
Bozzaro Salvatore - - 2008
Research into phagocytosis and host-pathogen interactions in the lower eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum has flourished in recent years. This chapter presents a glimpse of where this research stands, with emphasis on the cell biology of the phagocytic process and on the wealth of molecular genetic data that have been gathered. The ...
Watson Robert O - - 2008
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the major causes of infectious diarrhea world-wide, although relatively little is know about its mechanisms of pathogenicity. This bacterium can gain entry into intestinal epithelial cells, which is thought to be important for its ability to persistently infect and cause disease. We found that C. ...
Yoshida Nobuko - - 2008
Mammalian cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi is a complex process in which various parasite and host cell components interact, triggering the activation of signaling cascades and Ca2+ mobilization in both cells. Using metacyclic trypomastigotes (MT) generated in vitro and tissue culture-derived trypomastigotes (TCT), as counterparts of insect-borne and bloodstream parasites, ...
Chapeton-Montes Julie A - - 2008
Current methods for evaluating mycobacterial invasion of target cells pose technical difficulties including a long turn-around time. Thus, new methodologies must be developed that allow rapid and reliable monitoring of host cell invasion. Here, the invasion of A549 cell line by SYBR safe-labeled Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) H37Rv was assessed ...
Clements Abigail - - 2008
Analysing the pathogenic mechanisms of a bacterium requires an understanding of the composition of the bacterial cell surface. The bacterial surface provides the first barrier against innate immune mechanisms as well as mediating attachment to cells/surfaces to resist clearance. We utilised a series of Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants in which the ...
Nyholm S V - - 2008
Mutualistic relationships between bacteria and their eukaryotic hosts have existed for millions of years, and such associations can be used to understand the evolution of these beneficial partnerships. The symbiosis between sepiolid squids (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae), and their Vibrio bacteria (gamma Proteobacteria: Vibrionaceae), has been a model system for over 20 ...
van Alphen Lieke B - - 2008
The bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni invades mucosal cells via largely undefined and rather inefficient (0.01-2 bacteria per cell) mechanisms. Here we report a novel, highly efficient C. jejuni infection pathway resulting in 10-15 intracellular bacteria per cell within 3 h of infection. Electron microscopy, pulse-chase infection assays and time-lapse multiphoton ...
O'Hara Steven P - - 2008
Cryptosporidium exhibits a complex strategy to invade and establish productive infection sites, involving complimentary parasite and host cell processes. While the work regarding host cell actin remodeling has greatly enhanced our understanding of the molecular pathways involved in the parasite induced actin reorganization, the specific function of host cell actin ...
Steele-Mortimer Olivia - - 2008
Salmonella enterica serovars cause a variety of diseases ranging from self-limiting gastroenteritis to severe systemic infections. Virulence of these facultative intracellular pathogens is dependent on their ability to invade and replicate within non-phagocytic cells, and cultured epithelial cell systems have been used extensively to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved. For ...
Mott G Adam - - 2008
The cell-invasive, trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi exhibits a unique relationship with lysosomes in target host cells. In contrast to many intracellular pathogens that are adept at avoiding contact with lysosomes, T. cruzi requires transient residence within this acidic organelle for productive infection. The low pH environment of lysosomes facilitates ...
Rieger Tomás - - 2008
The bacterium Serratia marcescens produces a plethora of multicellular shapes of different colorations on solid substrates, allowing immediate visual detection of varieties. Such a plasticity allows studies on multicellular community scale spanning two extremes, from well-elaborated individual colonies to undifferentiated cell mass.For a single strain and medium, we obtained a ...
Coudeyras Sophie - - 2008
The ability of a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain (Lcr35) to adhere to cervical and vaginal cells and to affect the viability of two main vaginosis-associated pathogens, Prevotella bivia, Gardnerella vaginalis, as well as Candida albicans was investigated. Adhesion ability was determined in vitro with immortalized epithelial cells from the endocervix, ...
Fishman Yelena - - 2008
Algal-cnidarian symbiosis is one of the main factors contributing to the success of cnidarians, and is crucial for the maintenance of coral reefs. While loss of the symbionts (such as in coral bleaching) may cause the death of the cnidarian host, over-proliferation of the algae may also harm the host. ...
Balraj Premanand - - 2008
Rickettsia raoultii is a novel Rickettsia species recently isolated from Dermacentor ticks and classified within the spotted fever group (SFG). The inability of R. raoultii to spread within L929 cells suggests that this bacterium is unable to polymerize host cell actin, a property exhibited by all SFG rickettsiae except R. ...
Mally Manuela - - 2008
Capnocytophaga canimorsus, a commensal bacterium of the canine oral flora, has been repeatedly isolated since 1976 from severe human infections transmitted by dog bites. Here, we show that C. canimorsus exhibits robust growth when it is in direct contact with mammalian cells, including phagocytes. This property was found to be ...
Choi Chul Hee - - 2008
Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen of increasing importance, but the pathogenic mechanism of this microorganism has not been fully explored. This study investigated the potential of A. baumannii to invade epithelial cells and determined the role of A. baumannii outer membrane protein A (AbOmpA) in interactions with epithelial cells. ...
Li Ling - - 2008
Porphyromonas gingivalis is associated with periodontal disease and invades different cell types including epithelial, endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In addition to P. gingivalis DNA, we have previously identified live invasive bacteria in atheromatous tissue. However, the mechanism of persistence of this organism in vascular tissues remains unclear. Therefore, the ...
Nadell Carey D - - 2008
Bacteria have fascinating and diverse social lives. They display coordinated group behaviors regulated by quorum-sensing systems that detect the density of other bacteria around them. A key example of such group behavior is biofilm formation, in which communities of cells attach to a surface and envelope themselves in secreted polymers. ...
Slaney Jennifer M JM Centre for Infectious Disease, Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Queen Mary's School of Medicine and Dentistry, 4 Newark Street, London E1 2AT, - - 2008
The complement system is an important host response to invading bacteria. Activation leads to deposition on the bacterial surface of C3b and its' inactivation products and phagocytosis of the opsonised bacteria by host cells. Alternatively the entire complement pathway including terminal components C5b-9 may be activated on the cell surface ...
Dowse Timothy J TJ Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College, London, - - 2008
Apicomplexan pathogens replicate exclusively within the confines of a host cell. Entry into (invasion) and exit from (egress) these cells requires an array of specialized parasite molecules, many of which have long been considered to have potential as targets of drug or vaccine-based therapies. In this chapter the authors discuss ...
Liao Anne P AP Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology Division, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, United States of - - 2008
Salmonella Typhimurium is a major cause of human gastroenteritis. The Salmonella type III secretory system secretes virulence proteins, called effectors. Effectors are responsible for the alteration of tight junction (TJ) structure and function in intestinal epithelial cells. AvrA is a newly described bacterial effector found in Salmonella. We report here ...
Maier Valerie Helene - - 2008
Cathelicidins are antimicrobial peptides indicated as important in the control of the natural microflora as well as in the fight against bacterial invasion in mammals. Little is known about cathelicidins in fish and here the Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) embryo cell line (CHSE-214) was used as a model system to ...
Lefebvre Christophe - - 2008
Previous studies evidenced that cystatin B-like gene is specifically expressed and induced in large circulating coelomic cells following bacterial challenge in the leech Theromyzon tessulatum. In order to understand the role of that cysteine proteinase inhibitor during immune response, we investigated the existence of members of cathepsin family. We cloned ...
Bao Ning - - 2008
Bacterial counts provide important information during the processes such as pathogen detection and hygiene inspection and these processes are critical for public health and food/pharmaceutical production. In this study, we demonstrate the quantification of the number of bacterial cells based on the autofluorescence from the cell lysate on a microfluidic ...
Janse Chris J - - 2007
Malaria parasites must invade the erythrocytes of its host, to be able to grow and multiply. Having depleted the host cell of its nutrients, the parasites break out to invade new erythrocytes. In this issue of Cell, Yeoh et al. (2007) discover a new organelle, the exoneme, that contains a ...
Kim Kwang-Pyo - - 2008
Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that causes systemic bacteremia and meningitis with high mortality, and powdered infant formula is a frequent source of this bacterium. However, the mechanisms that this organism uses to invade and translocate through the intestinal barrier are unknown. Using Caco-2 epithelial cells, we were able ...
Norman R Sean - - 2008
Increases in the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria require new approaches for the treatment of infectious bacterial pathogens. It is now clear that a nanotechnology-driven approach using nanoparticles to selectively target and destroy pathogenic bacteria can be successfully implemented. We have explored this approach by using gold nanorods that have ...
Russell Brooke H BH Center for Extracellular Matrix Biology, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2008
Dissemination of Bacillus anthracis spores from the lung is a critical early event in the establishment of inhalational anthrax. We recently reported that B. anthracis could adhere to and be internalized by cultured intestinal epithelial and fibroblast cells. Here, using gentamicin protection assays and/or electron microscopy, we found that Sterne ...
大島, 隆幸
Thesis (Ph. D. in Agriculture)--University of Tsukuba, (A), no. 2552, 2001.3.23
Das Sarita - - 2007
The present investigation deals with the effect of the chloroform fraction composed of sterols and fatty acids isolated from Hemidesmus indicus root extract (CHI) on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium)-induced cytotoxicity in a human intestinal epithelial cell line (Int 407). The optimum dose was fixed as 100 microg/mL for ...
Eyngor Marina - - 2007
By constructing a biological model based on in vitro culture of polarized rainbow trout primary skin epithelial cell monolayers, the series of early events that precede Streptococcus iniae infection, particularly colonization and translocation through external barriers, were analyzed. Streptococcus iniae promptly invades skin epithelial cells, but the rapid decline of ...
Kankanala, Prasanna
Rice blast is a major fungal disease on rice, caused by the hemibiotrophic filamentous ascomycete fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. This disease accounts for 157 million tons of grain loss annually. The fungus produces a specialized cell called appressorium to penetrate the host surface barrier and enter inside. It produces intracellular Invasive ...
Cisz Michelle - - 2008
Type III secretion is used by many gram-negative bacterial pathogens to directly deliver protein toxins (effectors) into targeted host cells. In all cases, secretion of effectors is triggered by host cell contact, although the mechanism is unclear. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, expression of all type III secretion-related genes is up-regulated when ...
Hautefort I - - 2008
The biogenesis of the Salmonella-containing vacuole within mammalian cells has been intensively studied over recent years. However, the ability of Salmonella to sense and adapt to the intracellular environment of different types of host cells has received much less attention. To address this issue, we report the transcriptome of Salmonella ...
Shapiro J A - - 2007
Forty years' experience as a bacterial geneticist has taught me that bacteria possess many cognitive, computational and evolutionary capabilities unimaginable in the first six decades of the twentieth century. Analysis of cellular processes such as metabolism, regulation of protein synthesis, and DNA repair established that bacteria continually monitor their external ...
Date Amol - - 2007
Whole-cell sensing systems based on living genetically engineered bacteria are known to have high sensitivity, selectivity, and rapid response times. Although these systems have found applications in biomedical and environmental analyses, their limited shelf life and transportability still restrict their use for on-site monitoring of analytes. To that end, we ...
Pauly Barbara S - - 2007
Internalization of cargo by clathrin-mediated endocytosis has been studied extensively. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Cossart and colleagues report that a variety of pathogens induce the recruitment of clathrin and other endocytic proteins to sites of pathogen interaction with the cell surface. This recruitment is followed by ...
Miyake Masami - - 2008
We have devised a colorimetric method that monitors secretion of effector proteins into host cytoplasm through the bacterial type III secretion machinery. Here we used constructs of effectors fused with Bordetella adenylate cyclase as a reporter, but evaluated the effector translocation by quantifying cell viability, rather than by measuring the ...
Pichoff Sebastien - - 2007
An evolving hypothesis is that bacterial cell shape is determined by cytoskeletal elements that localize peptidoglycan synthetic machineries. In most bacteria FtsZ assembles into the Z ring which recruits the machinery necessary for cytokinesis. Most rod shaped cells require MreB which assembles into cables that run between the poles of ...
Conover Gloria M - - 2008
The function of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the bacterial cell envelope remains cryptic. We show here that productive interaction of the respiratory pathogen Legionella pneumophila with host cells requires bacterial PC. Synthesis of the lipid in L. pneumophila was shown to occur via either phospholipid N-methyltransferase (PmtA) or phosphatidylcholine synthase (PcsA), ...
Aly Khaled A - - 2007
The Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/D4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) mediates the transfer of single-stranded DNA and protein virulence factors into plant cells, and also determines the assembly of the T-pilus, which is believed to play a role in host recognition. The T-pilus is composed of the major component VirB2 and ...
Cho HoJung - - 2007
Colonies of bacterial cells can display complex collective dynamics, frequently culminating in the formation of biofilms and other ordered super-structures. Recent studies suggest that to cope with local environmental challenges, bacterial cells can actively seek out small chambers or cavities and assemble there, engaging in quorum sensing behavior. By using ...
Cabeen Matthew T - - 2007
The bacterial world is full of varying cell shapes and sizes, and individual species perpetuate a defined morphology generation after generation. We review recent findings and ideas about how bacteria use the cytoskeleton and other strategies to regulate cell growth in time and space to produce different shapes and sizes.
Romano Julia D JD Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, - - 2008
The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma develops within a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) uniquely adapted for its survival in mammalian cells. Post-invasion events extensively modify the PV, resulting in interactions with host cell structures. Recent studies emphasized that Toxoplasma is able to co-opt host gene expression, suggesting that host transcriptional activities are ...
Rao Dhana - - 2007
Bacteria that produce inhibitory compounds on the surface of marine algae are thought to contribute to the defense of the host plant against colonization of fouling organisms. However, the number of bacterial cells necessary to defend against fouling on the plant surface is not known. Pseudoalteromonas tunicata and Phaeobacter sp. ...
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