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Results 401 - 450 of 1995
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Holder Anthony A AA Division of Parasitology, National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK. - - 2009
Apicomplexan parasites are motile and invade host cells. The force required for this is generated by an actomyosin motor. In a recent paper, Baum and colleagues suggest that the protein formin regulates the polymerization of actin at the moving junction between parasite and host cell. This finding provides novel insight ...
Johnson Amber M - - 2009
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of travelers' and postweaning diarrhea in humans and swine, respectively. The extent to which ETEC damages host cells is unclear. Experiments are presented that probe the ability of porcine ETEC isolates to induce apoptosis and cell death in porcine intestinal epithelial cells. ...
Sifri Costi D - - 2008
Cell communication in bacteria occurs through a vernacular of small diffusible chemical signals that impact gene regulation during times of high cell density. This form of intercellular signaling, known as quorum sensing, optimizes the metabolic and behavioral activities of a community of bacteria for life in close quarters. Quorum sensing ...
Man Angela L - - 2008
It has been shown previously that certain bacteria rapidly (3 h) up-regulated in vivo microfold cell (M cell)-mediated transport of Ag across the follicle-associated epithelium of intestinal Peyer's patch. Our aim was to determine whether soluble mediators secreted following host-bacteria interaction were involved in this event. A combination of proteomics ...
Dubrovin Evgeniy V - - 2008
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the process of infection of bacterial cells by bacteriophages, for which purpose experimental protocols were elaborated. Three types of bacteriophages were characterized with AFM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Bacteriophage interaction with cells was studied for three bacterial hosts: Gram-negative Escherichia coli ...
Guignot Julie - - 2008
Until recently, intermediate filaments (IF) were thought to be only involved in resistance to physical stress and mechanical integrity of cells and tissues. Recent data indicate that IF play a much more important role in cellular physiology including organelle structure and positioning within the cell. Here, we show that Salmonella ...
Swoboda Jessica R - - 2008
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on infectious and host responses distinguishing older people with or without active periodontitis. This study measured bacterial and serum cytokine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels in older persons. METHODS: Elders (mean age: 67 years), whose periodontal status had declined most or least (20% worst ...
Kubota Hiromi - - 2008
We investigated the formation of biofilms by 3 type strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus fructivorans, as representatives of LAB that cause food deterioration or contamination. Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum JCM1149 and Lactobacillus brevis JCM1059 appeared to adhere and accumulate on glass cover slips. ...
Pathirana Rishi D - - 2008
Porphyromonas gingivalis strains W50 and ATCC 33277 were shown to bind to cultured human fibroblast (MRC-5) cells using flow cytometry. As the concentration of P. gingivalis strain W50 cells was increased relative to the concentration of MRC-5 cells, the number of W50 cells bound per MRC-5 cell increased, as did ...
Hallén U - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: In the present study we examined the ability of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis to adhere to glycoconjugates on intact cells and to protein preparations of epithelial cells (KB cells). METHODS: The KB cell protein preparation was separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes ...
Yilmaz Ozlem O Department of Periodontology, College of Dentistry and Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. - - 2008
The microbiota of the human oral mucosa consists of a myriad of bacterial species that normally exist in commensal harmony with the host. Porphyromonas gingivalis, an aetiological agent in severe forms of periodontitis (a chronic inflammatory disease), is a prominent component of the oral microbiome and a successful colonizer of ...
Sajjan S Umadevi - - 2008
Burkholderia cenocepacia is an important respiratory pathogen in persons with cystic fibrosis (CF). Recent studies indicate that B. cenocepacia survives within macrophages and airway epithelial cells in vitro by evading endosome-lysosome fusion. We investigated the role of a plasmid-encoded type IV secretion system in the intracellular survival, replication, and processing ...
Velasquez Almonacid L A - - 2009
Connexin (Cx) channels are sites of cytoplasmic communication between contacting cells. Evidence indicates that the opening of hemichannels occurs under both physiological and pathological conditions. In this paper, the involvement of Cx-43 hemichannels is demonstrated in the pathogenesis of Yersinia. Parental HeLa cells and transfected HeLa cells stably expressing Cx-43 ...
Sachidanandham Ramaiah - - 2009
While cultivation is a convenient way of proliferating and understanding bacteria, studies have shown the formation of nonculturable cells in nonspore-forming bacteria in response to environmental stress and thus in turn have generated immense interest. Whether these cells are in a state of dormancy or in a stage preceding cell ...
Al-Qadiri Hamzah M - - 2008
The effect of chlorine-induced bacterial injury on spectral features using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectroscopy was studied using a mixed bacterial culture of (1:1) ca. 500 CFU/mL each Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 in 0.9% saline. Bacterial cells were treated with 0, 0.3, or 1.0 ...
Haraga Andrea - - 2008
Burkholderia pseudomallei is a bacterial pathogen that causes a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms collectively known as melioidosis. Since it can be acquired by inhalation and is difficult to eradicate due to its resistance to a wide group of antibiotics and capacity for latency, work with B. pseudomallei requires a ...
Kamgang-Youbi Georges - - 2008
This paper describes the effects of initial microbial concentration and planktonic/adherent/detached states on the efficiency of plasma-activated water. This disinfecting solution was obtained by treating distilled water with an atmospheric pressure plasma produced by gliding electric discharges in humid air. The inactivation kinetics of planktonic cells of Hafnia alvei (selected ...
Van Deun Kim - - 2008
Invasion in and translocation across enterocytes are major events during Campylobacter jejuni-induced enteritis in humans. C. jejuni in vitro infection of cell monolayers typically results in loss of tight junction integrity, which could contribute to translocation. In the present study, we wanted to investigate whether butyrate is able to confer ...
Phelps Eric D - - 2008
Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite that can cause severe disease in fetuses and immune-compromised patients. Rhoptries, micronemes, and dense granules, which are secretory organelles unique to Toxoplasma and other apicomplexan parasites, play critical roles in parasite growth and virulence. To understand how these organelles modulate infected host cells, ...
Silvie Olivier - - 2008
A hallmark of Plasmodium development inside its mammalian victim is the remarkable restriction to the host species. Adaptation to an intracellular life style in specific target cells is determined by multiple parasite-host interactions. The first line of crosstalk occurs during intradermal sporozoite injection by an Anopheles mosquito. The following expansion ...
Wang Xindan - - 2008
An ongoing mission for biologists is to probe the molecular nature of cellular processes within live cells. Although much of what we have discovered during the molecular biology revolution of the last 50 years has been achieved by exploiting bacteria as 'bags of DNA and proteins', relatively little has been ...
Ellinghaus Ursula - - 2008
Inactivation of members of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) family results in the decrease or defect of marginal zone B (MZB) cells. It is not known which inhibitors of the NF-kappaB family (IkappaB) are required for MZB cell development. Here, we show that mice with B cell-specific inactivation of the main ...
Kilár Anikó - - 2008
A fast microchip electrophoresis method was developed to analyze and differentiate bacterial endotoxins directly from whole-cell lysates after removal of the proteinaceous components with proteinase K digestion and a precipitation of the endotoxin components. The partially purified endotoxin components were visualized by the interaction with dodecyl sulphate and then a ...
Bish Samuel E SE Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, - - 2008
Neisseria gonorrhoeae can invade into cervical epithelial cells to overcome this host defense barrier. We developed a beta-lactamase reporter system that allowed us to quantify at the single cell level if a host cell internalized a viable or nonviable microorganism. We autodisplayed beta-lactamase on the surface of FA1090 [FA1090Phi(bla-iga')] and ...
Pereira Ana Claudia M - - 2008
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an emerging pathogen associated to cases of acute or persistent diarrhea in children and adults from developed and developing countries. These microorganisms also have been isolated from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. EAEC exhibits aggregative adherence (AA) in HEp-2 cells. This pattern is characterized by the ...
Cascales Eric - - 2008
Bacterial secretion systems are macromolecular complexes that release virulence factors into the medium or translocate them into the target host cell. These systems are widespread in bacteria allowing them to infect eukaryotic cells and survive or replicate within them. A new secretion system, the type VI secretion system (T6SS), was ...
Varon C - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Helicobacter pullorum is an enterohepatic Helicobacter species of avian origin detected in patients with acute diarrhoea and inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of the present study was to determine whether H pullorum exerts a direct effect on human intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and to characterise the ...
de Kerchove Alexis J - - 2008
The influence of bacterial motility on cell transport and deposition was investigated in a well-characterized radial stagnation point flow (RSPF) chamber. Deposition experiments were conducted with nonmotile (PA01 deltafliC deltapilA) and motile (PA01 deltapilA) strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and oppositely (positively) charged modified quartz surfaces. Deposition dynamics ofthe two bacterial ...
Zang Kaisai - - 2008
In situ uptake of [2,4,6,7-3H(N)]estrone ([3H]E1) by the major phylogenetic groups present in activated sludge samples from two different municipal wastewater treatment plants was investigated using microautoradiography-fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH). Approximately 1-2% of the total cells confined in the samples by an EUB probe mix contributed to E1 assimilation. ...
Huq Anwar - - 2008
Understanding the mechanism of biofilm formation is the first step in determining its function and, thereby, its impact and role in the environment. Extensive studies accomplished during the past few years have elucidated the genetics and biochemistry of biofilm formation. Cell-to-cell communication, that is, quorum sensing, is a key factor ...
Ramírez-Zavala Bernardo - - 2008
Candida albicans strains that are homozygous at the mating type locus (MTLa or MTLalpha) can spontaneously switch at a low frequency from the normal yeast cell morphology (white) to an elongated cell type (opaque), which is the mating-competent form of the fungus. The ability to switch reversibly between these two ...
Kurtti Timothy J - - 2008
Several fungal pathogens are able to enter and persist within eukaryotic cells as part of their infectious life cycle. Metarhizium anisopliae is a saprophytic entomopathogenic fungus virulent towards numerous tick species, including those within the genera Ixodes and Amblyomma. Infection of the target organism by this fungus proceeds via several ...
Van Engelenburg Schuyler B SB Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, - - 2008
Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella utilize the type III secretion system to inject bacterial effector proteins into a host cell. Upon entry, these effectors bind mammalian cell proteins, hijack cellular signaling pathways, and redirect cellular function, thus enabling bacterial infection. In this study we use the FlAsH/tetracysteine labeling system ...
Cherry Sara S Department of Microbiology, Penn Genomics Frontiers Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States. - - 2008
The détente between pathogen and host has been of keen interest to researchers in spite of being exceedingly difficult to probe. Recently, new RNA interference (RNAi) technologies, in particular in Drosophila tissue culture cells, have made it possible to interrogate the genetics of host organisms rapidly, with nearly complete genomic ...
Hickson Jonathan - - 2009
The biochemical and biological mechanisms metastatic cancer cells use to function as communities and thwart internal and external growth control mechanisms remain undefined. In this work, we present the hypothesis that cancer cells may use a Quorum-Sensing mechanism to regulate multicellular functions and control steps in metastatic colonization. Quorum sensing ...
Tsukatani Tadayuki - - 2008
A colorimetric method to assay cell proliferation of microorganisms in 96-well microtiter plates using water-soluble tetrazolium salts and electron mediators was developed. Combinations of 6 kinds of water-soluble tetrazolium salts and 27 kinds of electron mediators that considered the metabolic efficiency of microorganisms and the influence with medium components were ...
Cullinane Méabh - - 2008
Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a tropical infection of humans and other animals. The bacterium is an intracellular pathogen that can escape from endosomes into the host cytoplasm, where it replicates and infects adjacent cells. We investigated the role played by autophagy in the intracellular survival of ...
Müller Nicole - - 2008
We here describe four proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae, which might play a role in host-pathogen interaction. The hypothetical bacterial proteins CPn0708 and CPn0712 were detected in Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected host cells by indirect immunofluorescence tests with polyclonal antisera raised against the respective proteins. While CPn0708 was localized within the inclusion body, ...
Galiana Eric - - 2008
Zoospores of the oomycete Phytophthora parasitica establish microbial spheroid microcolonies and biofilms on the surface of wounded leaves of their host, Nicotiana tabacum. The formation of microcolonies involves the movement of some zoospores towards attractants from wound sites, followed by their irreversible adsorption and the formation of a cluster of ...
Craven Robin R - - 2008
Francisella tularensis, a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen, causes disseminating infections in humans and other mammalian hosts. Macrophages and other monocytes have long been considered the primary site of F. tularensis replication in infected animals. However, recently it was reported that F. tularensis also invades and replicates within alveolar epithelial ...
Sorrentino R - - 2008
Lung epithelial cells express pattern recognition receptors, which react to bacteria. We have evaluated the effect of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria on interleukin-8 (CXCL8) release from epithelial cells and the integrity of the epithelial barrier. Primary cultures of human airway epithelial cells and the epithelial cell line A549 were used, ...
Gefen Orit - - 2008
Phenotypic variability in populations of cells has been linked to evolutionary robustness to stressful conditions. A remarkable example of the importance of cell-to-cell variability is found in bacterial persistence, where subpopulations of dormant bacteria, termed persisters, were shown to be responsible for the persistence of the population to antibiotic treatments. ...
Varela Marta M - - 2008
The contribution of Chloroflexi-type SAR202 cells to total picoplankton and bacterial abundance and uptake of D- and L-aspartic acids (Asp) was determined in the different meso- and bathypelagic water masses of the (sub)tropical Atlantic (from 35 degrees N to 5 degrees S). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the ...
Vadillo-Rodriguez Virginia - - 2008
The cell envelope of gram-negative bacteria is responsible for many important biological functions: it plays a structural role, it accommodates the selective transfer of material across the cell wall, it undergoes changes made necessary by growth and division, and it transfers information about the environment into the cell. Thus, an ...
García-Pérez Blanca Estela - - 2008
Mycobacterium smegmatis (MSM) a non-pathogenic mycobacterium is often employed as a tool to understand many aspects of the mycobacterial infections. However, its own biology and particularly its mechanism of entry into non-phagocytic cells are not well known. Previously, we demonstrated that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) invades epithelial cells by macropinocytosis. In ...
Shin Sunny S Section of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, 295 Congress Avenue, Room 345, New Haven, CT 06536, USA. - - 2008
Key to the pathogenesis of intracellular pathogens is their ability to manipulate host cell processes, permitting the establishment of an intracellular replicative niche. In turn, the host cell deploys defence mechanisms that limit intracellular infection. The bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila, the aetiological agent of Legionnaire's Disease, has evolved virulence mechanisms ...
Suo Zhiyong Z Imaging and Chemical Analysis Laboratory, Department of Physics, and Veterinary Molecular Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, - - 2008
A monolayer of live bacterial cells has been patterned onto substrates through the interaction between CFA/I fimbriae and the corresponding antibody. Patterns of live bacteria have been prepared with cellular resolution on silicon and gold substrates for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as a model with high specificity and efficiency. The ...
Bhattacharjee Koutilya - - 2008
Immunocompetent cells were isolated from spleen of B. himalayanus and studied surface morphology of the three different cell types--(i) plastic adherent; (ii) nylon wool adherent; and (iii) nylon wool non-adherent cells. As revealed by scanning electron microscopy, they resembled the macrophages, B and T cells, respectively. Presence of such cell ...
Zaidi Tanweer T Channing Laboratory and Hematology Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2008
Pseudomonas aeruginosa enters corneal epithelial cells in vitro via membrane microdomains or lipid rafts. Bacterial entry, mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), promotes infection and disease. This study was conducted to determine whether P. aeruginosa and CFTR are colocalized to rafts in isogenic corneal cells expressing wild-type ...
Handfield M M Department of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, Box 100424 JHMHSC, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0424, USA. - - 2008
In many instances, the encounter between host and microbial cells, through a long-standing evolutionary association, can be a balanced interaction whereby both cell types co-exist and inflict a minimal degree of harm on each other. In the oral cavity, despite the presence of large numbers of diverse organisms, health is ...
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