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Results 401 - 450 of 1961
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Hickson Jonathan - - 2009
The biochemical and biological mechanisms metastatic cancer cells use to function as communities and thwart internal and external growth control mechanisms remain undefined. In this work, we present the hypothesis that cancer cells may use a Quorum-Sensing mechanism to regulate multicellular functions and control steps in metastatic colonization. Quorum sensing ...
Tsukatani Tadayuki - - 2008
A colorimetric method to assay cell proliferation of microorganisms in 96-well microtiter plates using water-soluble tetrazolium salts and electron mediators was developed. Combinations of 6 kinds of water-soluble tetrazolium salts and 27 kinds of electron mediators that considered the metabolic efficiency of microorganisms and the influence with medium components were ...
Cullinane Méabh - - 2008
Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a tropical infection of humans and other animals. The bacterium is an intracellular pathogen that can escape from endosomes into the host cytoplasm, where it replicates and infects adjacent cells. We investigated the role played by autophagy in the intracellular survival of ...
Müller Nicole - - 2008
We here describe four proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae, which might play a role in host-pathogen interaction. The hypothetical bacterial proteins CPn0708 and CPn0712 were detected in Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected host cells by indirect immunofluorescence tests with polyclonal antisera raised against the respective proteins. While CPn0708 was localized within the inclusion body, ...
Galiana Eric - - 2008
Zoospores of the oomycete Phytophthora parasitica establish microbial spheroid microcolonies and biofilms on the surface of wounded leaves of their host, Nicotiana tabacum. The formation of microcolonies involves the movement of some zoospores towards attractants from wound sites, followed by their irreversible adsorption and the formation of a cluster of ...
Craven Robin R - - 2008
Francisella tularensis, a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen, causes disseminating infections in humans and other mammalian hosts. Macrophages and other monocytes have long been considered the primary site of F. tularensis replication in infected animals. However, recently it was reported that F. tularensis also invades and replicates within alveolar epithelial ...
Sorrentino R - - 2008
Lung epithelial cells express pattern recognition receptors, which react to bacteria. We have evaluated the effect of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria on interleukin-8 (CXCL8) release from epithelial cells and the integrity of the epithelial barrier. Primary cultures of human airway epithelial cells and the epithelial cell line A549 were used, ...
Gefen Orit - - 2008
Phenotypic variability in populations of cells has been linked to evolutionary robustness to stressful conditions. A remarkable example of the importance of cell-to-cell variability is found in bacterial persistence, where subpopulations of dormant bacteria, termed persisters, were shown to be responsible for the persistence of the population to antibiotic treatments. ...
Varela Marta M - - 2008
The contribution of Chloroflexi-type SAR202 cells to total picoplankton and bacterial abundance and uptake of D- and L-aspartic acids (Asp) was determined in the different meso- and bathypelagic water masses of the (sub)tropical Atlantic (from 35 degrees N to 5 degrees S). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the ...
Vadillo-Rodriguez Virginia - - 2008
The cell envelope of gram-negative bacteria is responsible for many important biological functions: it plays a structural role, it accommodates the selective transfer of material across the cell wall, it undergoes changes made necessary by growth and division, and it transfers information about the environment into the cell. Thus, an ...
García-Pérez Blanca Estela - - 2008
Mycobacterium smegmatis (MSM) a non-pathogenic mycobacterium is often employed as a tool to understand many aspects of the mycobacterial infections. However, its own biology and particularly its mechanism of entry into non-phagocytic cells are not well known. Previously, we demonstrated that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) invades epithelial cells by macropinocytosis. In ...
Shin Sunny S Section of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, 295 Congress Avenue, Room 345, New Haven, CT 06536, USA. - - 2008
Key to the pathogenesis of intracellular pathogens is their ability to manipulate host cell processes, permitting the establishment of an intracellular replicative niche. In turn, the host cell deploys defence mechanisms that limit intracellular infection. The bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila, the aetiological agent of Legionnaire's Disease, has evolved virulence mechanisms ...
Suo Zhiyong Z Imaging and Chemical Analysis Laboratory, Department of Physics, and Veterinary Molecular Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, - - 2008
A monolayer of live bacterial cells has been patterned onto substrates through the interaction between CFA/I fimbriae and the corresponding antibody. Patterns of live bacteria have been prepared with cellular resolution on silicon and gold substrates for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as a model with high specificity and efficiency. The ...
Bhattacharjee Koutilya - - 2008
Immunocompetent cells were isolated from spleen of B. himalayanus and studied surface morphology of the three different cell types--(i) plastic adherent; (ii) nylon wool adherent; and (iii) nylon wool non-adherent cells. As revealed by scanning electron microscopy, they resembled the macrophages, B and T cells, respectively. Presence of such cell ...
Zaidi Tanweer T Channing Laboratory and Hematology Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2008
Pseudomonas aeruginosa enters corneal epithelial cells in vitro via membrane microdomains or lipid rafts. Bacterial entry, mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), promotes infection and disease. This study was conducted to determine whether P. aeruginosa and CFTR are colocalized to rafts in isogenic corneal cells expressing wild-type ...
Handfield M M Department of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, Box 100424 JHMHSC, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0424, USA. - - 2008
In many instances, the encounter between host and microbial cells, through a long-standing evolutionary association, can be a balanced interaction whereby both cell types co-exist and inflict a minimal degree of harm on each other. In the oral cavity, despite the presence of large numbers of diverse organisms, health is ...
Philips Jennifer A - - 2008
Nearly 1.7 billion people are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Its ability to survive intracellularly is thought to be central to its success as a pathogen, but how it does this is poorly understood. Using a Drosophila model of infection, we identify three host cell activities, Rab7, CG8743, and the ESCRT ...
Shi Lei - - 2008
There has been increasing interest in employing electro-bioremediation, a hybrid technology of bioremediation and electrokinetics, to overcome the low bioavailability of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOC) by homogenizing sorption-retarded HOC and immobilised microorganisms. Present electro-remediation approaches mainly aim at macroscale pollutant extraction and tend to neglect possible impacts of direct current ...
Hybiske Kevin - - 2008
The exit of intracellular pathogens from host cells is an important step in the infectious cycle, but is poorly understood. It has recently emerged that microbial exit is a process that can be directed by organisms from within the cell, and is not simply a consequence of the physical or ...
Hughes David T DT Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235, - - 2008
Microorganisms and their hosts communicate with each other through an array of hormonal signals. This cross-kingdom cell-to-cell signalling involves small molecules, such as hormones that are produced by eukaryotes and hormone-like chemicals that are produced by bacteria. Cell-to-cell signalling between bacteria, usually referred to as quorum sensing, was initially described ...
Kim, Nam-Ju
Bifidobacteria has been suggested to exert health promoting effects on the host by maintaining microbial flora and modulating immune functions in the human intestine. We assessed modulatory effects of the different cell fractions of Bifidobacterium sp. BGN4 on macrophage cells and other immune cells from the spleen and Peyer's patches ...
CHUNG, KUN SUB
In a previous study, a biological response modifier (BRM) specifically enhancing the function of B-cells was isolated from Korean fermented soybean paste (Kfsp), but not from non-fermented soybeans. In this study, we attempted to isolate the bacteria producing the BRM from Kfsp (KfspBRM) by ELISA using anti-KfspBRM and by B-cell ...
Kubota Munehiro - - 2008
Zeolites adsorb microbial cells on their surfaces and selective adsorption for specific microorganisms was seen with certain zeolites. Tests for the adsorption ability of zeolites were conducted using various established microbial cell lines. Specific cell lines were shown to selectively absorb to certain zeolites, species to species. In order to ...
Njagi, O N; ;
Besnoitia besnoiti is an obligate intracellular coccidian protozoa of significant economic importance in the regions where it occurs. The parasite exhibits two forms in its intermediate hosts; the rapidly multiplying proliferative forms (merozoites, tachyzoites) and the slowly multiplying or quiescent cyst forms (cystozoites, bradyzoites). Both forms are invasive and possess ...
Borgnia Mario J - - 2008
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus cells are small deltaproteobacterial cells that feed on other gram-negative bacteria, including human pathogens. Using cryo-electron tomography, we demonstrated that B. bacteriovorus cells are capable of substantial flexibility and local deformation of the outer and inner membranes without loss of cell integrity. These shape changes can occur in ...
Bischofberger Mirko - - 2008
During infection, most pathogenic bacteria deliver proteins to the host cell cytoplasm to manipulate host behavior. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Spanò and colleagues describe a system where a bacterium produces an exotoxin while inside the host cell. Only after this exotoxin is transported to the mammalian ...
McDougald, Diane, Centre for ...
Much of the fundamental understanding of microbial physiology is based on laboratory studies of freely suspended cells. While these studies have been essential for our foundational understanding of the genetics, physiology and behavior of microbes, it is now recognized that a majority of bacterial cells in nature exist in biofilms ...
Lohse Matthew B - - 2008
The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans resides asymptomatically in the gut of most healthy people but causes serious invasive diseases in immunocompromised patients. Many C. albicans strains have the ability to stochastically switch between distinct white and opaque cell types, but it is not known with certainty what role this ...
Montag Thomas - - 2008
Today, sterility of established parenteral drugs including biologicals, such as plasma derived products, is practically guaranteed. Bacterially contaminated products are extremely rare exceptions owing to the efficiency of the manufacturing processes in the pharmaceutical industry. In contrast, the manufacturing processes of cell based medicinal products or tissue preparations show much ...
Jordan Sina - - 2008
The bacterial cell envelope is the first and major line of defence against threats from the environment. It is an essential and yet vulnerable structure that gives the cell its shape and counteracts the high internal osmotic pressure. It also provides an important sensory interface and molecular sieve, mediating both ...
Bozzaro Salvatore - - 2008
Research into phagocytosis and host-pathogen interactions in the lower eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum has flourished in recent years. This chapter presents a glimpse of where this research stands, with emphasis on the cell biology of the phagocytic process and on the wealth of molecular genetic data that have been gathered. The ...
Watson Robert O - - 2008
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the major causes of infectious diarrhea world-wide, although relatively little is know about its mechanisms of pathogenicity. This bacterium can gain entry into intestinal epithelial cells, which is thought to be important for its ability to persistently infect and cause disease. We found that C. ...
Yoshida Nobuko - - 2008
Mammalian cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi is a complex process in which various parasite and host cell components interact, triggering the activation of signaling cascades and Ca2+ mobilization in both cells. Using metacyclic trypomastigotes (MT) generated in vitro and tissue culture-derived trypomastigotes (TCT), as counterparts of insect-borne and bloodstream parasites, ...
Chapeton-Montes Julie A - - 2008
Current methods for evaluating mycobacterial invasion of target cells pose technical difficulties including a long turn-around time. Thus, new methodologies must be developed that allow rapid and reliable monitoring of host cell invasion. Here, the invasion of A549 cell line by SYBR safe-labeled Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) H37Rv was assessed ...
Clements Abigail - - 2008
Analysing the pathogenic mechanisms of a bacterium requires an understanding of the composition of the bacterial cell surface. The bacterial surface provides the first barrier against innate immune mechanisms as well as mediating attachment to cells/surfaces to resist clearance. We utilised a series of Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants in which the ...
Nyholm S V - - 2008
Mutualistic relationships between bacteria and their eukaryotic hosts have existed for millions of years, and such associations can be used to understand the evolution of these beneficial partnerships. The symbiosis between sepiolid squids (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae), and their Vibrio bacteria (gamma Proteobacteria: Vibrionaceae), has been a model system for over 20 ...
van Alphen Lieke B - - 2008
The bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni invades mucosal cells via largely undefined and rather inefficient (0.01-2 bacteria per cell) mechanisms. Here we report a novel, highly efficient C. jejuni infection pathway resulting in 10-15 intracellular bacteria per cell within 3 h of infection. Electron microscopy, pulse-chase infection assays and time-lapse multiphoton ...
O'Hara Steven P - - 2008
Cryptosporidium exhibits a complex strategy to invade and establish productive infection sites, involving complimentary parasite and host cell processes. While the work regarding host cell actin remodeling has greatly enhanced our understanding of the molecular pathways involved in the parasite induced actin reorganization, the specific function of host cell actin ...
Steele-Mortimer Olivia - - 2008
Salmonella enterica serovars cause a variety of diseases ranging from self-limiting gastroenteritis to severe systemic infections. Virulence of these facultative intracellular pathogens is dependent on their ability to invade and replicate within non-phagocytic cells, and cultured epithelial cell systems have been used extensively to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved. For ...
Mott G Adam - - 2008
The cell-invasive, trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi exhibits a unique relationship with lysosomes in target host cells. In contrast to many intracellular pathogens that are adept at avoiding contact with lysosomes, T. cruzi requires transient residence within this acidic organelle for productive infection. The low pH environment of lysosomes facilitates ...
Rieger Tomás - - 2008
The bacterium Serratia marcescens produces a plethora of multicellular shapes of different colorations on solid substrates, allowing immediate visual detection of varieties. Such a plasticity allows studies on multicellular community scale spanning two extremes, from well-elaborated individual colonies to undifferentiated cell mass.For a single strain and medium, we obtained a ...
Coudeyras Sophie - - 2008
The ability of a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain (Lcr35) to adhere to cervical and vaginal cells and to affect the viability of two main vaginosis-associated pathogens, Prevotella bivia, Gardnerella vaginalis, as well as Candida albicans was investigated. Adhesion ability was determined in vitro with immortalized epithelial cells from the endocervix, ...
Fishman Yelena - - 2008
Algal-cnidarian symbiosis is one of the main factors contributing to the success of cnidarians, and is crucial for the maintenance of coral reefs. While loss of the symbionts (such as in coral bleaching) may cause the death of the cnidarian host, over-proliferation of the algae may also harm the host. ...
Balraj Premanand - - 2008
Rickettsia raoultii is a novel Rickettsia species recently isolated from Dermacentor ticks and classified within the spotted fever group (SFG). The inability of R. raoultii to spread within L929 cells suggests that this bacterium is unable to polymerize host cell actin, a property exhibited by all SFG rickettsiae except R. ...
Mally Manuela - - 2008
Capnocytophaga canimorsus, a commensal bacterium of the canine oral flora, has been repeatedly isolated since 1976 from severe human infections transmitted by dog bites. Here, we show that C. canimorsus exhibits robust growth when it is in direct contact with mammalian cells, including phagocytes. This property was found to be ...
Choi Chul Hee - - 2008
Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen of increasing importance, but the pathogenic mechanism of this microorganism has not been fully explored. This study investigated the potential of A. baumannii to invade epithelial cells and determined the role of A. baumannii outer membrane protein A (AbOmpA) in interactions with epithelial cells. ...
Li Ling - - 2008
Porphyromonas gingivalis is associated with periodontal disease and invades different cell types including epithelial, endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In addition to P. gingivalis DNA, we have previously identified live invasive bacteria in atheromatous tissue. However, the mechanism of persistence of this organism in vascular tissues remains unclear. Therefore, the ...
Nadell Carey D - - 2008
Bacteria have fascinating and diverse social lives. They display coordinated group behaviors regulated by quorum-sensing systems that detect the density of other bacteria around them. A key example of such group behavior is biofilm formation, in which communities of cells attach to a surface and envelope themselves in secreted polymers. ...
Slaney Jennifer M JM Centre for Infectious Disease, Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Queen Mary's School of Medicine and Dentistry, 4 Newark Street, London E1 2AT, - - 2008
The complement system is an important host response to invading bacteria. Activation leads to deposition on the bacterial surface of C3b and its' inactivation products and phagocytosis of the opsonised bacteria by host cells. Alternatively the entire complement pathway including terminal components C5b-9 may be activated on the cell surface ...
Dowse Timothy J TJ Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College, London, - - 2008
Apicomplexan pathogens replicate exclusively within the confines of a host cell. Entry into (invasion) and exit from (egress) these cells requires an array of specialized parasite molecules, many of which have long been considered to have potential as targets of drug or vaccine-based therapies. In this chapter the authors discuss ...
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