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Results 401 - 450 of 1909
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Lefebvre Christophe - - 2008
Previous studies evidenced that cystatin B-like gene is specifically expressed and induced in large circulating coelomic cells following bacterial challenge in the leech Theromyzon tessulatum. In order to understand the role of that cysteine proteinase inhibitor during immune response, we investigated the existence of members of cathepsin family. We cloned ...
Bao Ning - - 2008
Bacterial counts provide important information during the processes such as pathogen detection and hygiene inspection and these processes are critical for public health and food/pharmaceutical production. In this study, we demonstrate the quantification of the number of bacterial cells based on the autofluorescence from the cell lysate on a microfluidic ...
Janse Chris J - - 2007
Malaria parasites must invade the erythrocytes of its host, to be able to grow and multiply. Having depleted the host cell of its nutrients, the parasites break out to invade new erythrocytes. In this issue of Cell, Yeoh et al. (2007) discover a new organelle, the exoneme, that contains a ...
Kim Kwang-Pyo - - 2008
Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that causes systemic bacteremia and meningitis with high mortality, and powdered infant formula is a frequent source of this bacterium. However, the mechanisms that this organism uses to invade and translocate through the intestinal barrier are unknown. Using Caco-2 epithelial cells, we were able ...
Norman R Sean - - 2008
Increases in the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria require new approaches for the treatment of infectious bacterial pathogens. It is now clear that a nanotechnology-driven approach using nanoparticles to selectively target and destroy pathogenic bacteria can be successfully implemented. We have explored this approach by using gold nanorods that have ...
Russell Brooke H BH Center for Extracellular Matrix Biology, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2008
Dissemination of Bacillus anthracis spores from the lung is a critical early event in the establishment of inhalational anthrax. We recently reported that B. anthracis could adhere to and be internalized by cultured intestinal epithelial and fibroblast cells. Here, using gentamicin protection assays and/or electron microscopy, we found that Sterne ...
大島, 隆幸
Thesis (Ph. D. in Agriculture)--University of Tsukuba, (A), no. 2552, 2001.3.23
Das Sarita - - 2007
The present investigation deals with the effect of the chloroform fraction composed of sterols and fatty acids isolated from Hemidesmus indicus root extract (CHI) on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium)-induced cytotoxicity in a human intestinal epithelial cell line (Int 407). The optimum dose was fixed as 100 microg/mL for ...
Eyngor Marina - - 2007
By constructing a biological model based on in vitro culture of polarized rainbow trout primary skin epithelial cell monolayers, the series of early events that precede Streptococcus iniae infection, particularly colonization and translocation through external barriers, were analyzed. Streptococcus iniae promptly invades skin epithelial cells, but the rapid decline of ...
Kankanala, Prasanna
Rice blast is a major fungal disease on rice, caused by the hemibiotrophic filamentous ascomycete fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. This disease accounts for 157 million tons of grain loss annually. The fungus produces a specialized cell called appressorium to penetrate the host surface barrier and enter inside. It produces intracellular Invasive ...
Cisz Michelle - - 2008
Type III secretion is used by many gram-negative bacterial pathogens to directly deliver protein toxins (effectors) into targeted host cells. In all cases, secretion of effectors is triggered by host cell contact, although the mechanism is unclear. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, expression of all type III secretion-related genes is up-regulated when ...
Hautefort I - - 2008
The biogenesis of the Salmonella-containing vacuole within mammalian cells has been intensively studied over recent years. However, the ability of Salmonella to sense and adapt to the intracellular environment of different types of host cells has received much less attention. To address this issue, we report the transcriptome of Salmonella ...
Shapiro J A - - 2007
Forty years' experience as a bacterial geneticist has taught me that bacteria possess many cognitive, computational and evolutionary capabilities unimaginable in the first six decades of the twentieth century. Analysis of cellular processes such as metabolism, regulation of protein synthesis, and DNA repair established that bacteria continually monitor their external ...
Date Amol - - 2007
Whole-cell sensing systems based on living genetically engineered bacteria are known to have high sensitivity, selectivity, and rapid response times. Although these systems have found applications in biomedical and environmental analyses, their limited shelf life and transportability still restrict their use for on-site monitoring of analytes. To that end, we ...
Pauly Barbara S - - 2007
Internalization of cargo by clathrin-mediated endocytosis has been studied extensively. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Cossart and colleagues report that a variety of pathogens induce the recruitment of clathrin and other endocytic proteins to sites of pathogen interaction with the cell surface. This recruitment is followed by ...
Miyake Masami - - 2008
We have devised a colorimetric method that monitors secretion of effector proteins into host cytoplasm through the bacterial type III secretion machinery. Here we used constructs of effectors fused with Bordetella adenylate cyclase as a reporter, but evaluated the effector translocation by quantifying cell viability, rather than by measuring the ...
Pichoff Sebastien - - 2007
An evolving hypothesis is that bacterial cell shape is determined by cytoskeletal elements that localize peptidoglycan synthetic machineries. In most bacteria FtsZ assembles into the Z ring which recruits the machinery necessary for cytokinesis. Most rod shaped cells require MreB which assembles into cables that run between the poles of ...
Conover Gloria M - - 2008
The function of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the bacterial cell envelope remains cryptic. We show here that productive interaction of the respiratory pathogen Legionella pneumophila with host cells requires bacterial PC. Synthesis of the lipid in L. pneumophila was shown to occur via either phospholipid N-methyltransferase (PmtA) or phosphatidylcholine synthase (PcsA), ...
Aly Khaled A - - 2007
The Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/D4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) mediates the transfer of single-stranded DNA and protein virulence factors into plant cells, and also determines the assembly of the T-pilus, which is believed to play a role in host recognition. The T-pilus is composed of the major component VirB2 and ...
Cho HoJung - - 2007
Colonies of bacterial cells can display complex collective dynamics, frequently culminating in the formation of biofilms and other ordered super-structures. Recent studies suggest that to cope with local environmental challenges, bacterial cells can actively seek out small chambers or cavities and assemble there, engaging in quorum sensing behavior. By using ...
Cabeen Matthew T - - 2007
The bacterial world is full of varying cell shapes and sizes, and individual species perpetuate a defined morphology generation after generation. We review recent findings and ideas about how bacteria use the cytoskeleton and other strategies to regulate cell growth in time and space to produce different shapes and sizes.
Romano Julia D JD Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, - - 2008
The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma develops within a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) uniquely adapted for its survival in mammalian cells. Post-invasion events extensively modify the PV, resulting in interactions with host cell structures. Recent studies emphasized that Toxoplasma is able to co-opt host gene expression, suggesting that host transcriptional activities are ...
Rao Dhana - - 2007
Bacteria that produce inhibitory compounds on the surface of marine algae are thought to contribute to the defense of the host plant against colonization of fouling organisms. However, the number of bacterial cells necessary to defend against fouling on the plant surface is not known. Pseudoalteromonas tunicata and Phaeobacter sp. ...
Alonso-Hearn Marta - - 2008
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of cattle takes place through the intestinal mucosa. To identify M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genes associated with the invasion of bovine epithelial cells in vitro, we screened a library of transposon mutants. Several mutants of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were identified which invaded Madin-Darby bovine ...
aalster and tzohary
The colonies of brown colored small sphaerical cells are colones of Microcystis botris, a less common species of this genus in Lake Kinneret. The black dots in each individual cell are gas vesicles, typical of this genus, giving it positive buoyancy. The 3 colorless organims accociated with the Microcystis colonies ...
Rajam Gowrisankar - - 2008
Pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) is a putative pneumococcal (Pnc) adhesin known to bind to nasopharyngeal (NP) epithelial cells. This study evaluated the effect of peptides within a functional domain of PsaA on NP cells. Detroit 562 NP cells were treated with synthetic peptides derived from PsaA (P4, P6, and ...
Parent Mary E - - 2008
Quorum sensing is almost always regarded as a population density effect in three-dimensional bulk samples of bacteria. Here we create two-dimensional samples of Vibrio fischeri cells adhered onto glass surfaces to examine the effect of local population densities on quorum sensing. This is done by measuring the luminescent response. The ...
Martin Nathaniel I - - 2007
Lipid II is an essential cell-wall precursor required for the growth and replication of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Compounds that use lipid II to selectively target bacterial cells for destruction represent an important class of antibiotics. Clinically, vancomycin is the most important example of an antibiotic that operates in ...
Sarkar Madhubanti - - 2007
Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, is an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects neutrophils and neutrophil precursors. Bacterial recognition of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and the alpha2,3-sialylated- and alpha1,3-fucosylated-moiety sialyl-Lewis x (sLe(x)), which modifies the PSGL-1 N terminus, is important for adhesion to and invasion of myeloid ...
Kafsack Björn F C BF Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, 5641 Medical Sciences Bldg. II, 1150 West Medical Center Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0620, - - 2007
The phylum Apicomplexa includes parasites responsible for global scourges such as malaria, cryptosporidiosis, and toxoplasmosis. Parasites in this phylum reproduce inside the cells of their hosts, making invasion of host cells an essential step of their life cycle. Characterizing the stages of host-cell invasion, has traditionally involved tedious microscopic observations ...
Alto Neal Mathew - - 2007
Intestinal epithelial cells serve as the major defense barrier against enteric bacterial infection. However, pathogens have devised remarkable schemes to usurp this formidable immune barrier. In a study recently published in Cell, Iwai et al. expand our understanding of how Shigella colonizes the epithelium by describing bacterial IpaB as a ...
Morgan-Sagastume Fernando - - 2008
Bacterial biomass was characterised in supernatants from activated sludge from a nutrient removal plant after settling before and after applying gentle shear (G approximately 600 s(-1)). Free-swimming and floc-associated bacteria were quantified by microscopy and their identity was determined by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). Total cell numbers in the supernatant ...
Kamgang J O - - 2007
AIMS: To determine the efficiency of an electric discharge of the gliding arc type for the destruction of Staphylococcus epidermidis planktonic, adherent and biofilm cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacterial cells were treated in humid air and at atmospheric pressure by a nonthermal quenched plasma of the glidarc type. The kinetics ...
Zarfl Christiane - - 2008
The uptake of sulfonamides into bacterial cells was simulated by a dynamic model to estimate bioavailability and steady-state accumulation of sulfonamides in the cells. Uptake of sulfonamides is modeled as diffusion-like transport of the neutral molecule and the ionic species. Speciation outside and inside the cell depends on the extra- ...
Feng Youzhi - - 2007
Biosorption has been shown to be an eco-friendly approach to remove heavy metal ions. In this study, the photosynthetic bacteria Rhodobacter capsulatus was screened and found to have strong ability to adsorb Au(III). The maximum specific uptake of living cells was over 92.43 mg HAuCl(4)/g dry weight of cell in ...
Bakowski Malina A - - 2007
The intracellular bacterial pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium), causes disease in a variety of hosts. To invade and replicate in host cells, these bacteria subvert host molecular machinery using bacterial proteins, called effectors, which they translocate into host cells using specialized protein delivery systems. One of these effectors, ...
Verastegui Manuela - - 2007
The specific mechanisms underlying Taenia solium oncosphere adherence and penetration in the host have not been studied previously. We developed an in vitro adhesion model assay to evaluate the mechanisms of T. solium oncosphere adherence to the host cells. The following substrates were used: porcine intestinal mucosal scrapings (PIMS), porcine ...
Chen Guokai - - 2007
Social amoebae feed on bacteria in the soil but aggregate when starved to form a migrating slug. We describe a previously unknown cell type in the social amoeba, which appears to provide detoxification and immune-like functions and which we term sentinel (S) cells. S cells were observed to engulf bacteria ...
Shi Lei - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Viability measurements of individual bacteria are applied in various scopes of research and industry using approaches where propidium iodide (PI) serves as dead cell indicator. The reliability of PI uptake as a cell viability indicator for dead (PI permeable) and viable (PI impermeable) bacteria was tested using two soil ...
Rapala-Kozik Maria - - 2008
The invasion of human host by pathogenic microorganisms is often associated with increased kinin production which may occur due to the action of pathogen secretory proteinases or the activation of host's surface-dependent kinin generation cascade, initiated by the adsorption of high molecular weight kininogen (HK) on the pathogen cells. In ...
Sahu Saura C - - 2007
Internalin A is a surface protein of the facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes that interacts with the human host cell protein E-cadherin to facilitate invasion of epithelial cells. A single amino acid substitution at position 16 in mouse E-cadherin prevents this interaction. Synthetic polypeptides of 30 aa encompassing position 16 ...
Caracuel-Rios Zaira Z School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Geoffrey Pope Building, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QD, United - - 2007
This review describes current advances in understanding the biology of plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Development of the specialized infection structure, the appressorium, in M. grisea has recently been shown to be controlled by cell cycle progression and initiation of autophagic, programmed cell death in the ...
Bell-Sakyi Lesley - - 2007
Over 40 cell lines are currently available from 13 ixodid and one argasid tick species. The successful isolation and propagation of several economically important tick-borne pathogens in tick cell lines has created a useful model to study interactions between tick cells and these viral and bacterial disease agents. Tick cell ...
Schneider Ilka - - 2007
Intracellular leucoproliferative Theileria are unique as eukaryotic organisms that transform the immune cells of their ruminant host. Theileria utilize the uncontrolled proliferation for rapid multiplication and distribution into host daughter cells. The equal distribution of the schizont into the daughter cells is thought to be accomplished by a tight association ...
Frýdlová Ivana - - 2007
The ability to invade a solid substrate is an important phenomenon due to its connection with pathogenic activity of fungi. We report here on invasion displayed by MATalpha cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking Isw2p, a subunit of the ISW2 chromatin remodelling complex. We found that on minimal medium, where the ...
Fortune Sarah M - - 2007
Mycobacteria are uniquely adapted to grow inside host macrophages. As Clay et al. show in this issue of Cell Host & Microbe and as van der Wel et al. show in a recent issue of Cell, there are both benefits and drawbacks for the pathogen in adopting this strategy, and ...
Norris Vic - - 2007
Five common assumptions about the first cells are challenged by the pre-biotic ecology model and are replaced by the following propositions: firstly, early cells were more complex, more varied and had a greater diversity of constituents than modern cells; secondly, the complexity of a cell is not related to the ...
Bozue Joel - - 2007
Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, and the spore form of the bacterium represents the infectious particle introduced into a host. The spore is surrounded by an exosporium, a loose-fitting membrane composed of proteins and carbohydrates from which hair-like projections extend. These projections are composed mainly of BclA ...
Teughels W - - 2007
It is known that beneficial bacteria can suppress the emergence of pathogenic bacteria, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. This study examined the potential for a similar suppression of Aggregatibacter (formerly Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans colonization of epithelial cells, due to its potential relevance in periodontal diseases. Seven presumed beneficial bacteria were examined ...
Ammendolia M G - - 2007
Among Listeria genus, only two species, Listeria ivanovii and Listeria monocytogenes, are pathogenic. L. ivanovii is almost only associated with infections in animals, mainly sheep and cattle, and has rarely been associated with human infections, whereas L. monocytogenes causes severe illnesses in both humans and animals. To further investigate the ...
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