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Results 251 - 300 of 1957
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Cunliffe Michael - - 2009
The bacterioneuston is the community of Bacteria present in surface microlayers, the thin surface film that forms the interface between aquatic environments and the atmosphere. In this study we compared bacterial cell abundances and bacterial community structures of the bacterioneuston and the bacterioplankton (from the subsurface water column) during a ...
Caldas Lucio Ayres - - 2009
The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects its host cells through an active mechanism. In this work, we obtained evidence that host cells also play a fundamental role during the infection process. We found that previous incubation of the host cells, but not the parasites, with Dynasore, a small molecule that ...
Rickard A H AH Department of Biological Sciences, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 13902, USA. - - 2010
To (i) identify chronic wound bacteria and to test their ability to produce acyl-homoserine-lactones (AHLs) and autoinducer-2 (AI-2) cell-cell signalling molecules and (ii) determine whether chronic wound debridement samples might contain these molecules. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed the identity of 46 chronic wound strains belonging to nine genera. ...
Furuta Nobumichi - - 2009
Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, secretes outer membrane vesicles (MVs) that contain major virulence factors, including proteases termed gingipains (Arg-gingipain [Rgp] and Lys-gingipain [Kgp]). We recently showed that P. gingivalis MVs swiftly enter host epithelial cells via an endocytosis pathway and are finally sorted to lytic compartments. However, it remains ...
B??hme Linda - - 2009
Elimination of infected cells via programmed cell death plays a fundamental role in the defense of multicellular organisms against bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Several pathogens have therefore evolved sophisticated strategies to modulate the host cell death programme for their survival. This review aims to summarize recent findings on how bacterial ...
Midlej V - - 2010
This study reports that the cytopathic effect of Trichomonas vaginalis, an important human parasite of the urogenital tract, occurs due to mechanical stress and subsequent phagocytosis of the necrotic cells. The investigation was done using a primary culture of bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOECs), grown either in monolayers or as ...
Moura Marcos de Assis Mde - - 2009
The primary culture of intestinal epithelial cells from domestic cats is an efficient cellular model to study the enteric cycle of Toxoplasma gondii in a definitive host. The parasite-host cell ratio can be pointed out as a decisive factor that determines the intracellular fate of bradyzoites forms. The development of ...
Samba-Louaka Ascel - - 2009
During coevolution with their hosts, bacteria have developed functions that allow them to interfere with the mechanisms controlling the proliferation of eukaryotic cells. Cycle inhibiting factor (Cif) is one of these cyclomodulins, the family of bacterial effectors that interfere with the host cell cycle. Acquired early during evolution by bacteria ...
Pérez María Teresa - - 2010
We examined the ability of different freshwater bacterial groups to take up leucine and thymidine in two lakes. Utilization of both substrates by freshwater bacteria was examined at the community level by looking at bulk incorporation rates and at the single-cell level by combining fluorescent in situ hybridization and signal ...
Cogo Karina - - 2009
Smoking is a risk factor for development of periodontitis. Porphyromonas gingivalis is an important colonizer of the subgingival crevice and is a major pathogenic agent in the initiation and progression of severe forms of periodontal disease. However, the effect of major cigarette's derivatives on P. gingivalis is poorly understood. The ...
Fujie Makoto - - 2010
We monitored growth and movement of Ralstonia solanacearum harboring the plasmid pRSS12 in tomato seedlings. The plasmid contains a gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and is stably maintained in R. solanacearum cells without selection pressure. Bacteria harboring the plasmid can be tracked in planta by visualizing GFP fluorescence. Stems ...
Chtanova Tatyana T Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Life Sciences Addition, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, - - 2009
Memory T cells circulate through lymph nodes where they are poised to respond rapidly upon re-exposure to a pathogen; however, the dynamics of memory T cell, antigen-presenting cell, and pathogen interactions during recall responses are largely unknown. We used a mouse model of infection with the intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma ...
Borowski H - - 2010
Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that mainly affects the ileum of humans and livestock, with the potential to cause severe enteric disease. We describe the complete life cycle of C. parvum in an in vitro system. Infected cultures of the human ileocecal epithelial cell line (HCT-8) were observed ...
Bernal-Bayard Joaquín - - 2009
Salmonella enterica encodes two virulence-related type III secretion systems in Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2, respectively. These systems mediate the translocation of protein effectors into the eukaryotic host cell, where they alter cell signaling and manipulate host cell functions. However, the precise role of most effectors remains unknown. Using ...
Crane John K JK Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA. - - 2009
Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) is a common cause of diarrhea in children in developing countries. After adhering to intestinal cells, EPEC secretes effector proteins into host cells, causing cell damage and eventually death. We previously showed that EPEC infection triggers the release of ATP from host cells and that ATP ...
Martin Bruno B Division of Molecular Immunology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, - - 2009
Gammadelta T cells are an innate source of interleukin-17 (IL-17), preceding the development of the adaptive T helper 17 (Th17) cell response. Here we show that IL-17-producing T cell receptor gammadelta (TCRgammadelta) T cells share characteristic features with Th17 cells, such as expression of chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6), retinoid orphan ...
Atkinson Steve - - 2009
For many years, bacterial cells were considered primarily as selfish individuals, but, in recent years, it has become evident that, far from operating in isolation, they coordinate collective behaviour in response to environmental challenges using sophisticated intercellular communication networks. Cell-to-cell communication between bacteria is mediated by small diffusible signal molecules ...
Balder Rachel - - 2009
Moraxella catarrhalis is a human pathogen causing otitis media in infants and respiratory infections in adults, particularly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The surface protein Hag (also designated MID) has previously been shown to be a key adherence factor for several epithelial cell lines relevant to pathogenesis by M. ...
Williams Bryony A P - - 2009
Microsporidia are intracellular parasites of all major animal lineages and have a described diversity of over 1200 species and an actual diversity that is estimated to be much higher. They are important pathogens of mammals, and are now one of the most common infections among immunocompromised humans. Although related to ...
Sen Adrish - - 2009
Rotavirus host range restriction forms a basis for strain attenuation although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In mouse fibroblasts, the inability of rotavirus NSP1 to mediate interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) degradation correlates with IFN-dependent restricted replication of the bovine UK strain but not the mouse EW and simian ...
Johnson Timothy J - - 2009
This paper highlights the distinctions between the infrared (IR) absorption spectra of vegetative versus sporulated Bacillus bacteria. It is observed that there are unique signatures clearly associated with either the sporulated or vegetative state and that vegetative cells (or cell debris) can contribute to the spore spectra. A distinct feature ...
Medrano Micaela - - 2009
The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of kefiran to antagonize cytopathic effects triggered by Bacillus cereus strain B10502 on cultured human enterocytes (Caco-2 cells). Cell damage was evaluated by F-actin labelling, scanning electron microscopy and determination of ratios of necrotic and detached cells. To assess the ...
Lau Aldrich N K - - 2009
Optoelectronic tweezers enables parallel manipulation of individual single cells using optical addressing and optically induced dielectrophoretic force. This provides a useful platform for performing a variety of biological functions, such as cell manipulation, cell sorting, and cell electroporation. However, in order to obtain more reliable cellular manipulation, especially of adherent ...
Yang Liju - - 2009
This study integrated dielectrophoresis (DEP) with non-flow through biochips to enhance the immuno-capture and detection of foodborne pathogenic bacteria. It demonstrated two major functions provided by DEP to improve the chip performance: (i) concentrating bacterial cells from the suspension to different locations on the chip surface by positive and negative ...
Potter Adam J AJ The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, - - 2009
estD encodes a carboxylic ester hydrolase and is part of the NmlR regulon in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. An estD mutant was found to be susceptible to nitrite and to S-nitrosoglutathione. This mutant was also unable to infect and survive within human cervical epithelial cells, and it showed reduced ability to form ...
Troese Matthew J - - 2009
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects granulocytes to cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis. The susceptibilities of human neutrophils and promyelocytic HL-60 cells to A. phagocytophilum are linked to bacterial usage of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) as a receptor for adhesion and entry. A. phagocytophilum undergoes a biphasic ...
Ojha S - - 2010
Actinobacillus suis is an important opportunistic pathogen of swine that can cause disease in pigs of all ages, especially in high-health status herds. Although A. suis shares many virulence factors in common with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and can cause a haemorrhagic pleuropneumonia similar to that caused by A. pleuropneumoniae, A. suis ...
Hasegawa Yoshiaki Y Department of Microbiology, School of Dentistry, Aichi-Gakuin University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan. - - 2009
Porphyromonas gingivalis, a causative agent of periodontitis, has at least two types of thin, single-stranded fimbriae, termed FimA and Mfa1 (according to the names of major subunits), which can be discriminated by filament length and by the size of their major fimbrilin subunits. FimA fimbriae are long filaments that are ...
Vadillo-Rodriguez Virginia - - 2009
We used a novel atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based technique to compare the local viscoelastic properties of individual gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) bacterial cells. We found that the viscoelastic properties of the bacterial cells are well described by a three-component mechanical model that combines an instantaneous elastic response ...
Alves Maria Julia Manso - - 2009
Since the discovery of Trypanosoma cruzi and the brilliant description of the then-referred to 'new tripanosomiasis' by Carlos Chagas 100 years ago, a great deal of scientific effort and curiosity has been devoted to understanding how this parasite invades and colonises mammalian host cells. This is a key step in ...
Davidov Yaacov - - 2009
Accumulating data suggest that the eukaryotic cell originated from a merger of two prokaryotes, an archaeal host and a bacterial endosymbiont. However, since prokaryotes are unable to perform phagocytosis, the means by which the endosymbiont entered its host is an enigma. We suggest that a predatory or parasitic interaction between ...
Alves Maria Julia Manso - - 2009
Since the discovery of Trypanosoma cruzi and the brilliant description of the then-referred to 'new tripanosomiasis' by Carlos Chagas 100 years ago, a great deal of scientific effort and curiosity has been devoted to understanding how this parasite invades and colonises mammalian host cells. This is a key step in ...
Jan Gaelle - - 2009
Toxoplasma gondii is a human protozoan parasite that belongs to the phylum of Apicomplexa and causes toxoplasmosis. As the other members of this phylum, T. gondii obligatory multiplies within a host cell by a peculiar type of mitosis that leads to daughter cell assembly within a mother cell. Although parasite ...
Passerat Julien - - 2009
The existence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium viable-but-nonculturable (VBNC) cells is a public health concern since they could constitute unrecognized sources of infection if they retain their pathogenicity. To date, many studies have addressed the ability of S. Typhimurium VBNC cells to remain infectious, but their conclusions are conflicting. An ...
Hotomi Muneki - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to examine the internalization of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) into human epithelial cells. METHODS: Bactericidal assay was applied to examine the effects of antibiotics against cell-adherent NTHi using HEp-2 cells. A trans-well chamber assay was applied to examine the internalization and penetration of ...
Burrack Laura S LS Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2009
Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterial pathogen that replicates within the cytosol of infected host cells. The ability to rapidly escape the phagocytic vacuole is essential for efficient intracellular replication. In the murine model of infection, the pore-forming cytolysin listeriolysin O (LLO) is absolutely required for vacuolar dissolution, as LLO-deficient (DeltaLLO) ...
Tsaplina O A - - 2009
The ability of protealysin, a thermolysin-like metallopeptidase from Serratia proteamaculans 94, to cleave actin and matrix metalloprotease MMP2 is reported. In globular actin, protealysin and S. proteamaculans 94 cell extracts are shown to hydrolyze the Gly42-Val43 peptide bond within the DNase-binding loop and the Gly63-Ile64 and Thr66-Ile67 peptide bonds within ...
Norris Vic - - 2009
In the "ecosystems-first" approach to the origins of life, networks of non-covalent assemblies of molecules (composomes), rather than individual protocells, evolved under the constraints of molecular complementarity. Composomes evolved into the hyperstructures of modern bacteria. We extend the ecosystems-first approach to explain the origin of eukaryotic cells through the integration ...
Gaddy Jennifer A JA Department of Microbiology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056, - - 2009
The ability of Acinetobacter baumannii to adhere to and persist on surfaces as biofilms could be central to its pathogenicity. The production of pili and a biofilm-associated protein and the expression of antibiotic resistance are needed for robust biofilm formation on abiotic and biotic surfaces. This multistep process also depends ...
Gaspar Emanuelle Baldo - - 2009
Trypanosoma cruzi is an obligate intracellular organism in vertebrate hosts. Lysosomes are involved in parasite invasion. LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 are the most abundant glycoproteins of the lysosomal membrane. This study is the first report on the invasion of T. cruzi extracellular amastigotes (EA) in single LAMP-1 or LAMP-2 knockouts, respectively, ...
Parthasarathy G G Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Comparative Enteric Diseases Laboratory, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, - - 2009
Campylobacter jejuni, a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, has a diverse spectrum of disease expression. Polymicrobial infections may contribute to this, such as Trichuris, which elicits type 2 cytokines (including IL-4) and downregulates type 1 immunity. In previous studies, gnotobiotic piglets infected with C. jejuni and Trichuris suis had bloody ...
Kastbjerg Vicky G - - 2009
Listeria monocytogenes has a remarkable ability to survive and persist in food production environments. The purpose of the present study was to determine if cells in a population of L. monocytogenes differ in sensitivity to disinfection agents as this could be a factor explaining persistence of the bacterium. In situ ...
Ohkusa Toshifumi - - 2009
Interleukin 2 (IL-2)- and IL-10-knockout mice develop spontaneous colitis under conventional but not germ-free conditions, suggesting that commensal bacteria play an important role in the pathogenesis of colitis. However, interactions between commensal bacteria and colonic epithelial cells have not been fully investigated. We therefore assessed the ability of various commensal ...
Ikegami Akihiko - - 2009
Fusobacterium nucleatum is a gram-negative oral anaerobe implicated in periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcome. The organism colonizes the mouse placenta, causing localized infection and inflammation. The mechanism of placental colonization has not been elucidated. Previous studies identified a novel adhesin from F. nucleatum, FadA, as being involved in the ...
Schofield D A - - 2009
AIMS: Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a serious human pathogen. The aim of this study was to provide the proof of principle results for the development of a 'bioluminescent' reporter bacteriophage that was capable of specifically detecting B. anthracis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The reporter phage was engineered ...
Jamet Anne - - 2009
In order to adapt to changing environments, bacteria have evolved two-component systems (TCSs) that are able to sense and respond to environmental stimuli. The signal perception relies on a sensor protein whose activation allows rapid adaptation through transcriptional regulation achieved by the regulatory protein. The ability to adhere to and ...
Starnes G Lucas GL Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63130-1093, - - 2009
Apicomplexan parasites rely on actin-based motility to drive host cell invasion. Prior in vitro studies implicated aldolase, a tetrameric glycolytic enzyme, in coupling actin filaments to the parasite's surface adhesin microneme protein 2 (MIC2). Here, we test the essentiality of this interaction in host cell invasion. Based on in vitro ...
Straza Tiffany R A - - 2009
Biovolume is an important characteristic of cells that shapes the contribution of microbes to total biomass and biogeochemical cycling. Most studies of bacterial cell volumes use DAPI (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole), which stains nucleic acids and therefore only a portion of the cell. We used SYPRO Ruby protein stain combined with fluorescence in ...
Jendholm Johan - - 2009
Classical B lymphocyte activation is dependent on BCR cross-linking in combination with physical interaction with Th cells. Other B cell molecules that contribute to the activation are complement, cytokine, and TLRs recognizing specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis is a common Gram-negative respiratory pathogen that induces proliferation in human ...
Lara-Tejero María M Section of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, Boyer Center for Molecular Medicine, New Haven, CT 06536, - - 2009
Delivery of bacterial proteins into mammalian cells by type III secretion systems (TTSS) is thought to require the intimate association of bacteria with target cells. The molecular bases of this intimate association appear to be different in different bacteria involving TTSS components, as well as surface determinants not associated with ...
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