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Results 251 - 300 of 1974
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Graumann Peter L - - 2009
Bacterial cytoskeletal elements are involved in an astonishing spectrum of cellular functions, from cell shape determination to cell division, plasmid segregation, the positioning of membrane-associated proteins and membrane structures, and other aspects of bacterial physiology. Interestingly, these functions are not necessarily conserved, neither between different bacterial species nor between bacteria ...
Waidner Barbara - - 2009
Pathogenicity of the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori relies upon its capacity to adapt to a hostile environment and to escape from the host response. Therefore, cell shape, motility, and pH homeostasis of these bacteria are specifically adapted to the gastric mucus. We have found that the helical shape of H. ...
Scherr Nicole - - 2009
At first glance, bacteria that belong to the two genera Streptomyces and Mycobacterium of the phylum Actinobacteria show no sign of similarity. Whereas Streptomyces species are generally classified as spore-forming, filamentous bacteria, species of the Mycobacterium genus have been considered non-sporulating, rod-like shaped. However, recent studies in genetics and cell ...
Lim Jae Sung - - 2009
Intestinal M cells in Peyer's patches, the specialized antigen-sampling cells of the mucosal immune system, are exploited by Salmonella and other pathogens as a route of invasion. Thus, M cells have attracted lots of attention as a major target of the mucosal immune system. Here, we report that caveolin-1 plays ...
?verland Hanne S - - 2010
Phagocytosis by fish cells has mostly been studied using adherent leucocytes, excluding suspended cells such as the majority of B-cells and neutrophils, but a recent study describes professional phagocytosis of latex beads and bacteria by B-cells from rainbow trout. In the present study, phagocytosis by B-cells and neutrophils from salmon ...
Eswarappa Sandeepa M - - 2010
Salmonella has evolved several strategies to counteract intracellular microbicidal agents like reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. However, it is not yet clear how Salmonella escapes lysosomal degradation. Some studies have demonstrated that Salmonella can inhibit phagolysosomal fusion, whereas other reports have shown that the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) fuses/interacts with lysosomes. ...
Brown Eric L - - 2010
Rifaximin is a poorly absorbed semisynthetic antibiotic derivative of rifampin licensed for use in the treatment of traveler's diarrhea. Rifaximin reduces the symptoms of enteric infection, often without pathogen eradication and with limited effects on intestinal flora. Epithelial cells (HEp-2 [laryngeal], HCT-8 [ileocecal], A549 [lung], and HeLa [cervical]) were pretreated ...
Svensson Lovisa - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous component of the host defence in urinary tract infection, on the adherence of P-fimbriated uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to human renal epithelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two wild-type UPEC strains (AD110 and IA2) and the P-fimbriated recombinant strain HB101pPIL-75 ...
Bauer Rolene - - 2010
Lactic acid bacteria belonging to the genus Lactobacillus are known to convert glycerol into 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) during anaerobic glycerol fermentation. Wine quality can be gravely compromised by the accumulation of 3-HPA, due to its spontaneous conversion to acrolein under wine making conditions. Acrolein is not only a dangerous substance for ...
Zhou Z - - 2009
Furin, a proprotein convertase (PC), is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in many physiological and pathological processes. This study is aimed to identify the role of furin in human trophoblast invasion and migration. Furin was found to be highly expressed in placental villi of both rhesus monkeys and human beings during ...
Foote Jeremy B JB Department of Microbiology, The University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294-2182, - - 2009
B1b B cells generate a novel form of memory and provide Ab mediated-protection to persisting bacterial pathogens. To understand how B1b B cells establish memory to polysaccharide Ags, we studied an oligoclonal B cell response to alpha-1,3 dextran (DEX) expressed on Enterobacter cloacae. B cells specific for DEX enrich in ...
Lamanna Allison C - - 2009
Bacterial cells can differentiate into states that allow them to respond efficiently to their environment. An example of such a transformation is the differentiation of planktonic bacteria into highly motile swarmer cells. The hyperflagellated, filamentous swarmer cells can use coordinated movement to seek out and colonize new sites for pathogenic ...
Thurston Teresa L M TL Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Division of Protein and Nucleic Acid Chemistry, Cambridge, - - 2009
Cell-autonomous innate immune responses against bacteria attempting to colonize the cytosol of mammalian cells are incompletely understood. Polyubiquitylated proteins can accumulate on the surface of such bacteria, and bacterial growth is restricted by Tank-binding kinase (TBK1). Here we show that NDP52, not previously known to contribute to innate immunity, recognizes ...
Martinez Luis R - - 2010
The use of indwelling medical devices (e.g. pacemakers, prosthetic joints, catheters, etc) continues to increase, yet these devices are all too often complicated by infections with biofilm-forming microbes with increased resistance to antimicrobial agents and host defense mechanisms. We investigated the ability of chitosan, a polymer isolated from crustacean exoskeletons, ...
Roetzer Andreas - - 2010
The opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is confronted with phagocytic cells of the host defence system. Survival of internalized cells is thought to contribute to successful dissemination. We investigated the reaction of engulfed C. glabrata cells using fluorescent protein fusions of the transcription factors CgYap1 and CgMig1 and catalase ...
Mostowy Serge - - 2009
The study of an infection process can reveal how microbes exploit the host, and can illuminate unknown host cellular functions. Invasive pathogens have evolved efficient strategies to promote their internalization within normally non-phagocytic host cells. The so-called "zippering" bacteria present to host cell receptors molecules that mimic endogenous ligands, thereby ...
Omori S - - 2009
When titanium is anodized by discharge in NaCl solution, both antimicrobial activity and osteoconductivity are conferred. The viability of adherent micro-organisms and cells on antimicrobial titanium remains uncertain. We hypothesized that a thin peroxidation barrier would efficiently destroy adherent bacteria, whereas adherent osteoblastic cells would be viable, since these cells ...
Cunliffe Michael - - 2009
The bacterioneuston is the community of Bacteria present in surface microlayers, the thin surface film that forms the interface between aquatic environments and the atmosphere. In this study we compared bacterial cell abundances and bacterial community structures of the bacterioneuston and the bacterioplankton (from the subsurface water column) during a ...
Caldas Lucio Ayres - - 2009
The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects its host cells through an active mechanism. In this work, we obtained evidence that host cells also play a fundamental role during the infection process. We found that previous incubation of the host cells, but not the parasites, with Dynasore, a small molecule that ...
Rickard A H AH Department of Biological Sciences, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 13902, USA. - - 2010
To (i) identify chronic wound bacteria and to test their ability to produce acyl-homoserine-lactones (AHLs) and autoinducer-2 (AI-2) cell-cell signalling molecules and (ii) determine whether chronic wound debridement samples might contain these molecules. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed the identity of 46 chronic wound strains belonging to nine genera. ...
Furuta Nobumichi - - 2009
Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, secretes outer membrane vesicles (MVs) that contain major virulence factors, including proteases termed gingipains (Arg-gingipain [Rgp] and Lys-gingipain [Kgp]). We recently showed that P. gingivalis MVs swiftly enter host epithelial cells via an endocytosis pathway and are finally sorted to lytic compartments. However, it remains ...
B??hme Linda - - 2009
Elimination of infected cells via programmed cell death plays a fundamental role in the defense of multicellular organisms against bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Several pathogens have therefore evolved sophisticated strategies to modulate the host cell death programme for their survival. This review aims to summarize recent findings on how bacterial ...
Midlej V - - 2010
This study reports that the cytopathic effect of Trichomonas vaginalis, an important human parasite of the urogenital tract, occurs due to mechanical stress and subsequent phagocytosis of the necrotic cells. The investigation was done using a primary culture of bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOECs), grown either in monolayers or as ...
Moura Marcos de Assis Mde - - 2009
The primary culture of intestinal epithelial cells from domestic cats is an efficient cellular model to study the enteric cycle of Toxoplasma gondii in a definitive host. The parasite-host cell ratio can be pointed out as a decisive factor that determines the intracellular fate of bradyzoites forms. The development of ...
Samba-Louaka Ascel - - 2009
During coevolution with their hosts, bacteria have developed functions that allow them to interfere with the mechanisms controlling the proliferation of eukaryotic cells. Cycle inhibiting factor (Cif) is one of these cyclomodulins, the family of bacterial effectors that interfere with the host cell cycle. Acquired early during evolution by bacteria ...
Pérez María Teresa - - 2010
We examined the ability of different freshwater bacterial groups to take up leucine and thymidine in two lakes. Utilization of both substrates by freshwater bacteria was examined at the community level by looking at bulk incorporation rates and at the single-cell level by combining fluorescent in situ hybridization and signal ...
Cogo Karina - - 2009
Smoking is a risk factor for development of periodontitis. Porphyromonas gingivalis is an important colonizer of the subgingival crevice and is a major pathogenic agent in the initiation and progression of severe forms of periodontal disease. However, the effect of major cigarette's derivatives on P. gingivalis is poorly understood. The ...
Fujie Makoto - - 2010
We monitored growth and movement of Ralstonia solanacearum harboring the plasmid pRSS12 in tomato seedlings. The plasmid contains a gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and is stably maintained in R. solanacearum cells without selection pressure. Bacteria harboring the plasmid can be tracked in planta by visualizing GFP fluorescence. Stems ...
Chtanova Tatyana T Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Life Sciences Addition, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, - - 2009
Memory T cells circulate through lymph nodes where they are poised to respond rapidly upon re-exposure to a pathogen; however, the dynamics of memory T cell, antigen-presenting cell, and pathogen interactions during recall responses are largely unknown. We used a mouse model of infection with the intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma ...
Borowski H - - 2010
Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that mainly affects the ileum of humans and livestock, with the potential to cause severe enteric disease. We describe the complete life cycle of C. parvum in an in vitro system. Infected cultures of the human ileocecal epithelial cell line (HCT-8) were observed ...
Bernal-Bayard Joaquín - - 2009
Salmonella enterica encodes two virulence-related type III secretion systems in Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2, respectively. These systems mediate the translocation of protein effectors into the eukaryotic host cell, where they alter cell signaling and manipulate host cell functions. However, the precise role of most effectors remains unknown. Using ...
Crane John K JK Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA. - - 2009
Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) is a common cause of diarrhea in children in developing countries. After adhering to intestinal cells, EPEC secretes effector proteins into host cells, causing cell damage and eventually death. We previously showed that EPEC infection triggers the release of ATP from host cells and that ATP ...
Martin Bruno B Division of Molecular Immunology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, - - 2009
Gammadelta T cells are an innate source of interleukin-17 (IL-17), preceding the development of the adaptive T helper 17 (Th17) cell response. Here we show that IL-17-producing T cell receptor gammadelta (TCRgammadelta) T cells share characteristic features with Th17 cells, such as expression of chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6), retinoid orphan ...
Atkinson Steve - - 2009
For many years, bacterial cells were considered primarily as selfish individuals, but, in recent years, it has become evident that, far from operating in isolation, they coordinate collective behaviour in response to environmental challenges using sophisticated intercellular communication networks. Cell-to-cell communication between bacteria is mediated by small diffusible signal molecules ...
Balder Rachel - - 2009
Moraxella catarrhalis is a human pathogen causing otitis media in infants and respiratory infections in adults, particularly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The surface protein Hag (also designated MID) has previously been shown to be a key adherence factor for several epithelial cell lines relevant to pathogenesis by M. ...
Williams Bryony A P - - 2009
Microsporidia are intracellular parasites of all major animal lineages and have a described diversity of over 1200 species and an actual diversity that is estimated to be much higher. They are important pathogens of mammals, and are now one of the most common infections among immunocompromised humans. Although related to ...
Sen Adrish - - 2009
Rotavirus host range restriction forms a basis for strain attenuation although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In mouse fibroblasts, the inability of rotavirus NSP1 to mediate interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) degradation correlates with IFN-dependent restricted replication of the bovine UK strain but not the mouse EW and simian ...
Johnson Timothy J - - 2009
This paper highlights the distinctions between the infrared (IR) absorption spectra of vegetative versus sporulated Bacillus bacteria. It is observed that there are unique signatures clearly associated with either the sporulated or vegetative state and that vegetative cells (or cell debris) can contribute to the spore spectra. A distinct feature ...
Medrano Micaela - - 2009
The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of kefiran to antagonize cytopathic effects triggered by Bacillus cereus strain B10502 on cultured human enterocytes (Caco-2 cells). Cell damage was evaluated by F-actin labelling, scanning electron microscopy and determination of ratios of necrotic and detached cells. To assess the ...
Lau Aldrich N K - - 2009
Optoelectronic tweezers enables parallel manipulation of individual single cells using optical addressing and optically induced dielectrophoretic force. This provides a useful platform for performing a variety of biological functions, such as cell manipulation, cell sorting, and cell electroporation. However, in order to obtain more reliable cellular manipulation, especially of adherent ...
Yang Liju - - 2009
This study integrated dielectrophoresis (DEP) with non-flow through biochips to enhance the immuno-capture and detection of foodborne pathogenic bacteria. It demonstrated two major functions provided by DEP to improve the chip performance: (i) concentrating bacterial cells from the suspension to different locations on the chip surface by positive and negative ...
Potter Adam J AJ The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, - - 2009
estD encodes a carboxylic ester hydrolase and is part of the NmlR regulon in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. An estD mutant was found to be susceptible to nitrite and to S-nitrosoglutathione. This mutant was also unable to infect and survive within human cervical epithelial cells, and it showed reduced ability to form ...
Troese Matthew J - - 2009
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects granulocytes to cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis. The susceptibilities of human neutrophils and promyelocytic HL-60 cells to A. phagocytophilum are linked to bacterial usage of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) as a receptor for adhesion and entry. A. phagocytophilum undergoes a biphasic ...
Ojha S - - 2010
Actinobacillus suis is an important opportunistic pathogen of swine that can cause disease in pigs of all ages, especially in high-health status herds. Although A. suis shares many virulence factors in common with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and can cause a haemorrhagic pleuropneumonia similar to that caused by A. pleuropneumoniae, A. suis ...
Hasegawa Yoshiaki Y Department of Microbiology, School of Dentistry, Aichi-Gakuin University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan. - - 2009
Porphyromonas gingivalis, a causative agent of periodontitis, has at least two types of thin, single-stranded fimbriae, termed FimA and Mfa1 (according to the names of major subunits), which can be discriminated by filament length and by the size of their major fimbrilin subunits. FimA fimbriae are long filaments that are ...
Vadillo-Rodriguez Virginia - - 2009
We used a novel atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based technique to compare the local viscoelastic properties of individual gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) bacterial cells. We found that the viscoelastic properties of the bacterial cells are well described by a three-component mechanical model that combines an instantaneous elastic response ...
Alves Maria Julia Manso - - 2009
Since the discovery of Trypanosoma cruzi and the brilliant description of the then-referred to 'new tripanosomiasis' by Carlos Chagas 100 years ago, a great deal of scientific effort and curiosity has been devoted to understanding how this parasite invades and colonises mammalian host cells. This is a key step in ...
Davidov Yaacov - - 2009
Accumulating data suggest that the eukaryotic cell originated from a merger of two prokaryotes, an archaeal host and a bacterial endosymbiont. However, since prokaryotes are unable to perform phagocytosis, the means by which the endosymbiont entered its host is an enigma. We suggest that a predatory or parasitic interaction between ...
Alves Maria Julia Manso - - 2009
Since the discovery of Trypanosoma cruzi and the brilliant description of the then-referred to 'new tripanosomiasis' by Carlos Chagas 100 years ago, a great deal of scientific effort and curiosity has been devoted to understanding how this parasite invades and colonises mammalian host cells. This is a key step in ...
Jan Gaelle - - 2009
Toxoplasma gondii is a human protozoan parasite that belongs to the phylum of Apicomplexa and causes toxoplasmosis. As the other members of this phylum, T. gondii obligatory multiplies within a host cell by a peculiar type of mitosis that leads to daughter cell assembly within a mother cell. Although parasite ...
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