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Results 251 - 300 of 2018
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de Souza Wanderley - - 2010
Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, which affects a large number of individuals in Central and South America, is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by blood-sucking insects. This protozoan is an obligate intracellular parasite. The infective forms of the parasite are metacyclic and bloodstream trypomastigote and amastigote. Metacyclic trypomastigotes ...
Furukawa Soichi - - 2010
Mixed-species biofilm was remarkably formed in a static co-culture of Lactobacillus plantarum ML11-11 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y11-43 isolated from brewing samples of Fukuyama pot vinegar. Mixed-species biofilm is probably formed by direct cell-cell contact between ML11-11 and S. cerevisiae including Y11-43 and laboratory yeast strains. Scanning electron microscopic observation suggested ...
Vidakovics Maria Laura A Perez - - 2010
Secretion of outer membrane vesicles (OMV) is an intriguing phenomenon of Gram-negative bacteria and has been suggested to play a role as virulence factors. The respiratory pathogens Moraxella catarrhalis reside in tonsils adjacent to B cells, and we have previously shown that M. catarrhalis induce a T cell independent B ...
Voges Maike - - 2010
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), an immunoglobulin (Ig)-related glycoprotein, serves as cellular receptor for a variety of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens associated with the human mucosa. In particular, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae possess well-characterized CEACAM1-binding adhesins. CEACAM1 is typically involved in cell-cell attachment, epithelial ...
Springer Deborah J - - 2010
Cryptococcus gattii, an emerging fungal pathogen of humans and animals, is found on a variety of trees in tropical and temperate regions. The ecological niche and virulence of this yeast remain poorly defined. We used Arabidopsis thaliana plants and plant-derived substrates to model C. gattii in its natural habitat. Yeast ...
Akimana Christine - - 2010
Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious facultative intracellular bacterium that can be transmitted between mammals by arthropod vectors. Similar to many other intracellular bacteria that replicate within the cytosol, such as Listeria, Shigella, Burkholderia, and Rickettsia, the virulence of F. tularensis depends on its ability to modulate biogenesis of its ...
Sawosz Ewa - - 2010
Rapid development of nanotechnology has recently brought significant attention to the extraordinary biological features of nanomaterials. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate morphological characteristics of the assembles of gold and platinum nanoparticles (nano-Au and nano-Pt respectively), with Salmonella Enteritidis (Gram-negative) and Listeria monocytogenes (Gram-positive), to reveal possibilities ...
Su Pin-Tzu - - 2010
On agar plates, daughter cells of Escherichia coli mutually slide and align side-by-side in parallel during the first round of binary fission. This phenomenon has been previously attributed to an elastic material that restricts apparently separated bacteria from being in string. We hypothesize that the interaction between bacteria and the ...
Barrias Emile S - - 2010
Trypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular parasite that, like some other intracellular pathogens, targets specific proteins of the host cell vesicular transport machinery, leading to a modulation of host cell processes that results in the generation of unique phagosomes. In mammalian cells, several molecules have been identified that selectively regulate the ...
Daher Wassim - - 2010
The invasive forms of apicomplexan parasites share a conserved form of gliding motility that powers parasite migration across biological barriers, host cell invasion and egress from infected cells. Previous studies have established that the duration and direction of gliding motility are determined by actin polymerization; however, regulators of actin dynamics ...
Hoefer Philipp - - 2010
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) serve numerous bacteria as storage compounds. It is generally believed that under unbalanced growth conditions, n-hydroxyalkanoates are synthesized inside the bacterial cells, polymerized to polyesters, and densely packed in granules. In the absence of extracellular carbon, the internally stored PHAs are depolymerized and consequently metabolized to enable cell ...
Hayes Christopher S CS Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, - - 2010
Bacteria have developed remarkable systems that sense neighboring target cells upon contact and initiate a series of events that enhance their survival and growth at the expense of the target cells. Four main classes of bacterial cell surface structures have been identified that interact with prokaryotic or eukaryotic target cells ...
Fadaee-Shohada Mina J MJ Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester, United - - 2010
Ciliated ependymal cells line the cerebral ventricles and aqueducts separating the infected CSF from the brain parenchyma in meningitis. Investigation of the interaction of Listeria monocytogenes with cultured rat brain ependymal cells showed that certain strains reduced the beat frequency of the cilia but all the strains studied significantly reduced ...
Matus David Q DQ Biology Department, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, - - 2010
Cell invasion through basement membranes during development, immune surveillance, and metastasis remains poorly understood. To gain further insight into this key cellular behavior, we performed an in vivo screen for regulators of cell invasion through basement membranes, using the simple model of Caenorhabditis elegans anchor cell invasion, and identified 99 ...
Schwarz Sandra S Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of - - 2010
Bacteria that live in the environment have evolved pathways specialized to defend against eukaryotic organisms or other bacteria. In this manuscript, we systematically examined the role of the five type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) of Burkholderia thailandensis (B. thai) in eukaryotic and bacterial cell interactions. Consistent with phylogenetic analyses comparing ...
Okagaki Laura H LH Department of Microbiology, Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of - - 2010
Cryptococcus neoformans is a common life-threatening human fungal pathogen. The size of cryptococcal cells is typically 5 to 10 microm. Cell enlargement was observed in vivo, producing cells up to 100 microm. These morphological changes in cell size affected pathogenicity via reducing phagocytosis by host mononuclear cells, increasing resistance to ...
Hubber Andree A Section of Microbial Pathogenesis, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06536, USA. - - 2010
Macrophages and protozoa ingest bacteria by phagocytosis and destroy these microbes using a conserved pathway that mediates fusion of the phagosome with lysosomes. To survive within phagocytic host cells, bacterial pathogens have evolved a variety of strategies to avoid fusion with lysosomes. A virulence strategy used by the intracellular pathogen ...
Sun Jianing N JN Department of Oral Biology, School of Dental Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, New York, United States of - - 2010
Candida albicans Ssa1 and Ssa2 are members of the HSP70 family of heat shock proteins that are expressed on the cell surface and function as receptors for antimicrobial peptides such as histatins. We investigated the role of Ssa1 and Ssa2 in mediating pathogenic host cell interactions and virulence. A C. ...
Jubelin Grégory G INRA, UMR 1225, Toulouse, - - 2010
The cycle inhibiting factors (Cif), produced by pathogenic bacteria isolated from vertebrates and invertebrates, belong to a family of molecules called cyclomodulins that interfere with the eukaryotic cell cycle. Cif blocks the cell cycle at both the G₁/S and G₂/M transitions by inducing the stabilization of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(waf1) ...
Byrd Matthew S MS Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, - - 2010
In order for the opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to cause an airway infection, the pathogen interacts with epithelial cells and the overlying mucous layer. We examined the contribution of the biofilm polysaccharide Psl to epithelial cell adherence and the impact of Psl on proinflammatory signaling by flagellin. Psl has ...
Dashper Stuart - - 2010
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen of chronic periodontitis and exists in a biofilm on the surface of the tooth root. Oxantel, a cholinergic anthelmintic and fumarate reductase inhibitor, significantly inhibited biofilm formation by P. gingivalis and disrupted established biofilms at concentrations below its MIC against planktonic cells. Oxantel was ...
Ibarra J Antonio - - 2010
Salmonella invade non-phagocytic cells by inducing massive actin rearrangements, resulting in membrane ruffle formation and phagocytosis of the bacteria. This process is mediated by a cohort of effector proteins translocated into the host cell by type III secretion system 1, which is encoded by genes in the Salmonella pathogenicity island ...
Liu Shaobin - - 2009
To further our understanding on the antibacterial activity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), high purity SWCNTs with average diameter of 0.83 nm and (7,5) chirality as dominate (n,m) structure were dispersed in a biocompatible surfactant solution. Ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared radiation absorption spectroscopy was employed to monitor the aggregation of SWCNTs. The results ...
Grubman Alexandra - - 2010
The cytosolic innate immune molecule, NOD1, recognizes peptidoglycan (PG) delivered to epithelial cells via the Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI), and has been implicated in host defence against cagPAI(+)H. pylori bacteria. To further clarify the role of NOD1 in host defence, we investigated NOD1-dependent regulation of human beta-defensins (DEFBs) ...
Ravindran J - - 2011
Bioluminescence is a biochemical process occurring in many organisms. Bacterial bioluminescence has been investigated extensively that lead to many applications of such knowledge. Quorum sensing in the bioluminescent bacteria is a chemical signal process to recognize the strength of its own population to start luminescence in harmony. There is a ...
Ganan M - - 2010
The ability of pectic oligosaccharides (POS) to inhibit adherence to and invasion of undifferentiated (UC) and differentiated (DC) Caco-2 cells by Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) was investigated. It was observed that both adherence and invasion were significantly higher in UC than in DC. POS (2.5mg/ml) had no significant effect on ...
Quirin Markus - - 2010
Recent findings associate attachment insecurity (assessed as levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance) with poor emotion regulation. In turn, emotion regulation has been shown to be associated with hippocampus (HC) functioning and structure. Clinical disorders such as depression and PTSD, which have been previously associated with attachment insecurity, are also ...
Lin Zhenyu - - 2010
The present study describes a new electrochemical imaging method for monitoring the population and growth of adherent cells with a novel addressable microelectrode array.
Horn Carsten - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Antibacterial effects of extracorporeal shockwaves (ESWs) have been demonstrated in vitro against bacteria under static and dynamic growth conditions. This study assessed the effects of ESWs on the cell wall integrity of bacteria. MATERIAL/METHODS: Standardized suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus were exposed to various shockwave impulses (2000-12,000) of different energy ...
Menendez Alfredo - - 2009
The gallbladder is often colonized by Salmonella during typhoid fever, yet little is known about bacterial pathogenesis in this organ. With use of a mouse model of acute typhoid fever, we demonstrate that Salmonella infect gallbladder epithelial cells in vivo. Bacteria in the gallbladder showed a unique behavior as they ...
Mart?nez P - - 2009
Wolbachia localization in situ is essential for accurate analysis of the infection and its consequences. Whole cell hybridization is proposed as an easy and rapid method for detecting Wolbachia cells in paraffin embedded tissues or testis squashes of Chorthippus parallelus (Orthoptera). Wolbachia is found in whole gonads and other adjacent ...
Kern Jan Marco - - 2009
Due to its dependence on intracellular development Chlamydia pneumoniae has developed numerous strategies to create an adequate environment within its host cells ensuring both chlamydial reproduction and target cell survival. The bacterium that has been related to atherogenesis due to its presence in vascular tissue is able to enter a ...
Speegle Leslie - - 2009
Membrane filtration has been used to isolate Campylobacter spp. from feces, although approximately 5 log CFU/g must be present in the sample. Few studies have attempted to use filter membranes for the isolation of Campylobacter from foods. We investigated the minimum number of thermotolerant Campylobacter cells that pass through cellulose ...
Malfatti Francesca - - 2010
In microbial oceanography, cell size, volume and carbon (C) content of pelagic bacteria and archaea ('bacteria') are critical parameters in addressing the in situ physiology and functions of bacteria, and their role in the food web and C cycle. However, because of the diminutive size of most pelagic bacteria and ...
Baumeister Stefan - - 2010
Apicomplexan parasites obligatorily invade and multiply within eukaryotic cells. Phylogenetically, they are related to a group of algae which, during their evolution, have acquired a secondary endosymbiont. This organelle, which in the parasite is called the apicoplast, is highly reduced compared to the endosymbionts of algae, but still contains many ...
Oliver James D - - 2010
Many bacteria, including a variety of important human pathogens, are known to respond to various environmental stresses by entry into a novel physiological state, where the cells remain viable, but are no longer culturable on standard laboratory media. On resuscitation from this 'viable but nonculturable' (VBNC) state, the cells regain ...
Andrews M - - 2010
The chondracanthid copepod, Chondracanthus goldsmidi is an ectoparasite of gills, inner opercula and nasal cavities of cultured striped trumpeter, Latris lineata (Forster). Whilst often present in high numbers (up to 60 parasites per host), little is known about its effect on striped trumpeter. In this study C. goldsmidi was associated ...
Bridge Dacie R - - 2010
Type III secretion (T3S) functions in establishing infections in a large number of Gram-negative bacteria, yet little is known about how host cell properties might function in this process. We used the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the ability to alter host cell sensitivity to Pseudomonas T3S to explore this ...
Tham To Nam - - 2010
Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that invades epithelial cells by subverting two cellular receptors, E-cadherin and Met. We recently identified type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases alpha and beta (PI4KIIalpha and PI4KIIbeta) as being required for bacterial entry downstream of Met. In this work, we investigated whether tetraspanins CD9, CD63, ...
Lerena Mar?a C - - 2010
The host cell recognition and removal of invading pathogens are crucial for the control of microbial infections. However, several microorganisms have developed mechanisms that allow them to survive and replicate intracellularly. Autophagy is an ubiquitous physiological pathway in eukaryotic cells, which maintains the cellular homeostasis and acts as a cell ...
Koczan Jessica M - - 2009
Erwinia amylovora is a highly virulent, necrogenic, vascular pathogen of rosaceous species that produces the exopolysaccharide amylovoran, a known pathogenicity factor, and levan, a virulence factor. An in vitro crystal violet staining and a bright-field microscopy method were used to demonstrate that E. amylovora is capable of forming a biofilm ...
Norf Helge - - 2009
Biofilm-dwelling consumer communities play an important role in the matter flux of many aquatic ecosystems. Due to their poor accessibility, little is as yet known about the regulation of natural biofilms. Here, a new type of flow cell is presented which facilitates both experimental manipulation and live observation of natural, ...
Dupont Nicolas - - 2009
Shigella, the causative agent of human bacillary dysentery, invades the host cell, rapidly breaking the phagosome and multiplying in the cytosol. Here, we summarize our recent work showing the targeting of the leftover membrane remnants to autophagy together with trapped membrane-associated signaling molecules recruited during the immediate early entry step. ...
Musa H H - - 2009
Adhesion of pathogen to host cells is an important prerequisite for successful colonization and establishment of the pathogenesis. The aim of this study is to examine the function of FimH adhesin in the adherence of avian pathogenic E. coli to porcine intestinal epithelial cell lines (IPEC-J2) and human lung epithelial ...
Graumann Peter L - - 2009
Bacterial cytoskeletal elements are involved in an astonishing spectrum of cellular functions, from cell shape determination to cell division, plasmid segregation, the positioning of membrane-associated proteins and membrane structures, and other aspects of bacterial physiology. Interestingly, these functions are not necessarily conserved, neither between different bacterial species nor between bacteria ...
Waidner Barbara - - 2009
Pathogenicity of the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori relies upon its capacity to adapt to a hostile environment and to escape from the host response. Therefore, cell shape, motility, and pH homeostasis of these bacteria are specifically adapted to the gastric mucus. We have found that the helical shape of H. ...
Scherr Nicole - - 2009
At first glance, bacteria that belong to the two genera Streptomyces and Mycobacterium of the phylum Actinobacteria show no sign of similarity. Whereas Streptomyces species are generally classified as spore-forming, filamentous bacteria, species of the Mycobacterium genus have been considered non-sporulating, rod-like shaped. However, recent studies in genetics and cell ...
Lim Jae Sung - - 2009
Intestinal M cells in Peyer's patches, the specialized antigen-sampling cells of the mucosal immune system, are exploited by Salmonella and other pathogens as a route of invasion. Thus, M cells have attracted lots of attention as a major target of the mucosal immune system. Here, we report that caveolin-1 plays ...
?verland Hanne S - - 2010
Phagocytosis by fish cells has mostly been studied using adherent leucocytes, excluding suspended cells such as the majority of B-cells and neutrophils, but a recent study describes professional phagocytosis of latex beads and bacteria by B-cells from rainbow trout. In the present study, phagocytosis by B-cells and neutrophils from salmon ...
Eswarappa Sandeepa M - - 2010
Salmonella has evolved several strategies to counteract intracellular microbicidal agents like reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. However, it is not yet clear how Salmonella escapes lysosomal degradation. Some studies have demonstrated that Salmonella can inhibit phagolysosomal fusion, whereas other reports have shown that the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) fuses/interacts with lysosomes. ...
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