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Results 201 - 250 of 1948
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Dashper Stuart - - 2010
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen of chronic periodontitis and exists in a biofilm on the surface of the tooth root. Oxantel, a cholinergic anthelmintic and fumarate reductase inhibitor, significantly inhibited biofilm formation by P. gingivalis and disrupted established biofilms at concentrations below its MIC against planktonic cells. Oxantel was ...
Ibarra J Antonio - - 2010
Salmonella invade non-phagocytic cells by inducing massive actin rearrangements, resulting in membrane ruffle formation and phagocytosis of the bacteria. This process is mediated by a cohort of effector proteins translocated into the host cell by type III secretion system 1, which is encoded by genes in the Salmonella pathogenicity island ...
Liu Shaobin - - 2009
To further our understanding on the antibacterial activity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), high purity SWCNTs with average diameter of 0.83 nm and (7,5) chirality as dominate (n,m) structure were dispersed in a biocompatible surfactant solution. Ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared radiation absorption spectroscopy was employed to monitor the aggregation of SWCNTs. The results ...
Grubman Alexandra - - 2010
The cytosolic innate immune molecule, NOD1, recognizes peptidoglycan (PG) delivered to epithelial cells via the Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI), and has been implicated in host defence against cagPAI(+)H. pylori bacteria. To further clarify the role of NOD1 in host defence, we investigated NOD1-dependent regulation of human beta-defensins (DEFBs) ...
Ravindran J - - 2011
Bioluminescence is a biochemical process occurring in many organisms. Bacterial bioluminescence has been investigated extensively that lead to many applications of such knowledge. Quorum sensing in the bioluminescent bacteria is a chemical signal process to recognize the strength of its own population to start luminescence in harmony. There is a ...
Ganan M - - 2010
The ability of pectic oligosaccharides (POS) to inhibit adherence to and invasion of undifferentiated (UC) and differentiated (DC) Caco-2 cells by Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) was investigated. It was observed that both adherence and invasion were significantly higher in UC than in DC. POS (2.5mg/ml) had no significant effect on ...
Quirin Markus - - 2010
Recent findings associate attachment insecurity (assessed as levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance) with poor emotion regulation. In turn, emotion regulation has been shown to be associated with hippocampus (HC) functioning and structure. Clinical disorders such as depression and PTSD, which have been previously associated with attachment insecurity, are also ...
Lin Zhenyu - - 2010
The present study describes a new electrochemical imaging method for monitoring the population and growth of adherent cells with a novel addressable microelectrode array.
Horn Carsten - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Antibacterial effects of extracorporeal shockwaves (ESWs) have been demonstrated in vitro against bacteria under static and dynamic growth conditions. This study assessed the effects of ESWs on the cell wall integrity of bacteria. MATERIAL/METHODS: Standardized suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus were exposed to various shockwave impulses (2000-12,000) of different energy ...
Menendez Alfredo - - 2009
The gallbladder is often colonized by Salmonella during typhoid fever, yet little is known about bacterial pathogenesis in this organ. With use of a mouse model of acute typhoid fever, we demonstrate that Salmonella infect gallbladder epithelial cells in vivo. Bacteria in the gallbladder showed a unique behavior as they ...
Mart?nez P - - 2009
Wolbachia localization in situ is essential for accurate analysis of the infection and its consequences. Whole cell hybridization is proposed as an easy and rapid method for detecting Wolbachia cells in paraffin embedded tissues or testis squashes of Chorthippus parallelus (Orthoptera). Wolbachia is found in whole gonads and other adjacent ...
Kern Jan Marco - - 2009
Due to its dependence on intracellular development Chlamydia pneumoniae has developed numerous strategies to create an adequate environment within its host cells ensuring both chlamydial reproduction and target cell survival. The bacterium that has been related to atherogenesis due to its presence in vascular tissue is able to enter a ...
Speegle Leslie - - 2009
Membrane filtration has been used to isolate Campylobacter spp. from feces, although approximately 5 log CFU/g must be present in the sample. Few studies have attempted to use filter membranes for the isolation of Campylobacter from foods. We investigated the minimum number of thermotolerant Campylobacter cells that pass through cellulose ...
Malfatti Francesca - - 2010
In microbial oceanography, cell size, volume and carbon (C) content of pelagic bacteria and archaea ('bacteria') are critical parameters in addressing the in situ physiology and functions of bacteria, and their role in the food web and C cycle. However, because of the diminutive size of most pelagic bacteria and ...
Baumeister Stefan - - 2010
Apicomplexan parasites obligatorily invade and multiply within eukaryotic cells. Phylogenetically, they are related to a group of algae which, during their evolution, have acquired a secondary endosymbiont. This organelle, which in the parasite is called the apicoplast, is highly reduced compared to the endosymbionts of algae, but still contains many ...
Oliver James D - - 2010
Many bacteria, including a variety of important human pathogens, are known to respond to various environmental stresses by entry into a novel physiological state, where the cells remain viable, but are no longer culturable on standard laboratory media. On resuscitation from this 'viable but nonculturable' (VBNC) state, the cells regain ...
Andrews M - - 2010
The chondracanthid copepod, Chondracanthus goldsmidi is an ectoparasite of gills, inner opercula and nasal cavities of cultured striped trumpeter, Latris lineata (Forster). Whilst often present in high numbers (up to 60 parasites per host), little is known about its effect on striped trumpeter. In this study C. goldsmidi was associated ...
Bridge Dacie R - - 2010
Type III secretion (T3S) functions in establishing infections in a large number of Gram-negative bacteria, yet little is known about how host cell properties might function in this process. We used the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the ability to alter host cell sensitivity to Pseudomonas T3S to explore this ...
Tham To Nam - - 2010
Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that invades epithelial cells by subverting two cellular receptors, E-cadherin and Met. We recently identified type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases alpha and beta (PI4KIIalpha and PI4KIIbeta) as being required for bacterial entry downstream of Met. In this work, we investigated whether tetraspanins CD9, CD63, ...
Lerena Mar?a C - - 2010
The host cell recognition and removal of invading pathogens are crucial for the control of microbial infections. However, several microorganisms have developed mechanisms that allow them to survive and replicate intracellularly. Autophagy is an ubiquitous physiological pathway in eukaryotic cells, which maintains the cellular homeostasis and acts as a cell ...
Koczan Jessica M - - 2009
Erwinia amylovora is a highly virulent, necrogenic, vascular pathogen of rosaceous species that produces the exopolysaccharide amylovoran, a known pathogenicity factor, and levan, a virulence factor. An in vitro crystal violet staining and a bright-field microscopy method were used to demonstrate that E. amylovora is capable of forming a biofilm ...
Norf Helge - - 2009
Biofilm-dwelling consumer communities play an important role in the matter flux of many aquatic ecosystems. Due to their poor accessibility, little is as yet known about the regulation of natural biofilms. Here, a new type of flow cell is presented which facilitates both experimental manipulation and live observation of natural, ...
Dupont Nicolas - - 2009
Shigella, the causative agent of human bacillary dysentery, invades the host cell, rapidly breaking the phagosome and multiplying in the cytosol. Here, we summarize our recent work showing the targeting of the leftover membrane remnants to autophagy together with trapped membrane-associated signaling molecules recruited during the immediate early entry step. ...
Musa H H - - 2009
Adhesion of pathogen to host cells is an important prerequisite for successful colonization and establishment of the pathogenesis. The aim of this study is to examine the function of FimH adhesin in the adherence of avian pathogenic E. coli to porcine intestinal epithelial cell lines (IPEC-J2) and human lung epithelial ...
Graumann Peter L - - 2009
Bacterial cytoskeletal elements are involved in an astonishing spectrum of cellular functions, from cell shape determination to cell division, plasmid segregation, the positioning of membrane-associated proteins and membrane structures, and other aspects of bacterial physiology. Interestingly, these functions are not necessarily conserved, neither between different bacterial species nor between bacteria ...
Waidner Barbara - - 2009
Pathogenicity of the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori relies upon its capacity to adapt to a hostile environment and to escape from the host response. Therefore, cell shape, motility, and pH homeostasis of these bacteria are specifically adapted to the gastric mucus. We have found that the helical shape of H. ...
Scherr Nicole - - 2009
At first glance, bacteria that belong to the two genera Streptomyces and Mycobacterium of the phylum Actinobacteria show no sign of similarity. Whereas Streptomyces species are generally classified as spore-forming, filamentous bacteria, species of the Mycobacterium genus have been considered non-sporulating, rod-like shaped. However, recent studies in genetics and cell ...
Lim Jae Sung - - 2009
Intestinal M cells in Peyer's patches, the specialized antigen-sampling cells of the mucosal immune system, are exploited by Salmonella and other pathogens as a route of invasion. Thus, M cells have attracted lots of attention as a major target of the mucosal immune system. Here, we report that caveolin-1 plays ...
?verland Hanne S - - 2010
Phagocytosis by fish cells has mostly been studied using adherent leucocytes, excluding suspended cells such as the majority of B-cells and neutrophils, but a recent study describes professional phagocytosis of latex beads and bacteria by B-cells from rainbow trout. In the present study, phagocytosis by B-cells and neutrophils from salmon ...
Eswarappa Sandeepa M - - 2010
Salmonella has evolved several strategies to counteract intracellular microbicidal agents like reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. However, it is not yet clear how Salmonella escapes lysosomal degradation. Some studies have demonstrated that Salmonella can inhibit phagolysosomal fusion, whereas other reports have shown that the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) fuses/interacts with lysosomes. ...
Brown Eric L - - 2010
Rifaximin is a poorly absorbed semisynthetic antibiotic derivative of rifampin licensed for use in the treatment of traveler's diarrhea. Rifaximin reduces the symptoms of enteric infection, often without pathogen eradication and with limited effects on intestinal flora. Epithelial cells (HEp-2 [laryngeal], HCT-8 [ileocecal], A549 [lung], and HeLa [cervical]) were pretreated ...
Svensson Lovisa - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous component of the host defence in urinary tract infection, on the adherence of P-fimbriated uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to human renal epithelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two wild-type UPEC strains (AD110 and IA2) and the P-fimbriated recombinant strain HB101pPIL-75 ...
Bauer Rolene - - 2010
Lactic acid bacteria belonging to the genus Lactobacillus are known to convert glycerol into 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) during anaerobic glycerol fermentation. Wine quality can be gravely compromised by the accumulation of 3-HPA, due to its spontaneous conversion to acrolein under wine making conditions. Acrolein is not only a dangerous substance for ...
Zhou Z - - 2009
Furin, a proprotein convertase (PC), is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in many physiological and pathological processes. This study is aimed to identify the role of furin in human trophoblast invasion and migration. Furin was found to be highly expressed in placental villi of both rhesus monkeys and human beings during ...
Foote Jeremy B JB Department of Microbiology, The University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294-2182, - - 2009
B1b B cells generate a novel form of memory and provide Ab mediated-protection to persisting bacterial pathogens. To understand how B1b B cells establish memory to polysaccharide Ags, we studied an oligoclonal B cell response to alpha-1,3 dextran (DEX) expressed on Enterobacter cloacae. B cells specific for DEX enrich in ...
Lamanna Allison C - - 2009
Bacterial cells can differentiate into states that allow them to respond efficiently to their environment. An example of such a transformation is the differentiation of planktonic bacteria into highly motile swarmer cells. The hyperflagellated, filamentous swarmer cells can use coordinated movement to seek out and colonize new sites for pathogenic ...
Thurston Teresa L M TL Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Division of Protein and Nucleic Acid Chemistry, Cambridge, - - 2009
Cell-autonomous innate immune responses against bacteria attempting to colonize the cytosol of mammalian cells are incompletely understood. Polyubiquitylated proteins can accumulate on the surface of such bacteria, and bacterial growth is restricted by Tank-binding kinase (TBK1). Here we show that NDP52, not previously known to contribute to innate immunity, recognizes ...
Martinez Luis R - - 2010
The use of indwelling medical devices (e.g. pacemakers, prosthetic joints, catheters, etc) continues to increase, yet these devices are all too often complicated by infections with biofilm-forming microbes with increased resistance to antimicrobial agents and host defense mechanisms. We investigated the ability of chitosan, a polymer isolated from crustacean exoskeletons, ...
Roetzer Andreas - - 2010
The opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is confronted with phagocytic cells of the host defence system. Survival of internalized cells is thought to contribute to successful dissemination. We investigated the reaction of engulfed C. glabrata cells using fluorescent protein fusions of the transcription factors CgYap1 and CgMig1 and catalase ...
Mostowy Serge - - 2009
The study of an infection process can reveal how microbes exploit the host, and can illuminate unknown host cellular functions. Invasive pathogens have evolved efficient strategies to promote their internalization within normally non-phagocytic host cells. The so-called "zippering" bacteria present to host cell receptors molecules that mimic endogenous ligands, thereby ...
Omori S - - 2009
When titanium is anodized by discharge in NaCl solution, both antimicrobial activity and osteoconductivity are conferred. The viability of adherent micro-organisms and cells on antimicrobial titanium remains uncertain. We hypothesized that a thin peroxidation barrier would efficiently destroy adherent bacteria, whereas adherent osteoblastic cells would be viable, since these cells ...
Cunliffe Michael - - 2009
The bacterioneuston is the community of Bacteria present in surface microlayers, the thin surface film that forms the interface between aquatic environments and the atmosphere. In this study we compared bacterial cell abundances and bacterial community structures of the bacterioneuston and the bacterioplankton (from the subsurface water column) during a ...
Caldas Lucio Ayres - - 2009
The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects its host cells through an active mechanism. In this work, we obtained evidence that host cells also play a fundamental role during the infection process. We found that previous incubation of the host cells, but not the parasites, with Dynasore, a small molecule that ...
Rickard A H AH Department of Biological Sciences, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 13902, USA. - - 2010
To (i) identify chronic wound bacteria and to test their ability to produce acyl-homoserine-lactones (AHLs) and autoinducer-2 (AI-2) cell-cell signalling molecules and (ii) determine whether chronic wound debridement samples might contain these molecules. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed the identity of 46 chronic wound strains belonging to nine genera. ...
Furuta Nobumichi - - 2009
Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, secretes outer membrane vesicles (MVs) that contain major virulence factors, including proteases termed gingipains (Arg-gingipain [Rgp] and Lys-gingipain [Kgp]). We recently showed that P. gingivalis MVs swiftly enter host epithelial cells via an endocytosis pathway and are finally sorted to lytic compartments. However, it remains ...
B??hme Linda - - 2009
Elimination of infected cells via programmed cell death plays a fundamental role in the defense of multicellular organisms against bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Several pathogens have therefore evolved sophisticated strategies to modulate the host cell death programme for their survival. This review aims to summarize recent findings on how bacterial ...
Midlej V - - 2010
This study reports that the cytopathic effect of Trichomonas vaginalis, an important human parasite of the urogenital tract, occurs due to mechanical stress and subsequent phagocytosis of the necrotic cells. The investigation was done using a primary culture of bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOECs), grown either in monolayers or as ...
Moura Marcos de Assis Mde - - 2009
The primary culture of intestinal epithelial cells from domestic cats is an efficient cellular model to study the enteric cycle of Toxoplasma gondii in a definitive host. The parasite-host cell ratio can be pointed out as a decisive factor that determines the intracellular fate of bradyzoites forms. The development of ...
Samba-Louaka Ascel - - 2009
During coevolution with their hosts, bacteria have developed functions that allow them to interfere with the mechanisms controlling the proliferation of eukaryotic cells. Cycle inhibiting factor (Cif) is one of these cyclomodulins, the family of bacterial effectors that interfere with the host cell cycle. Acquired early during evolution by bacteria ...
Pérez María Teresa - - 2010
We examined the ability of different freshwater bacterial groups to take up leucine and thymidine in two lakes. Utilization of both substrates by freshwater bacteria was examined at the community level by looking at bulk incorporation rates and at the single-cell level by combining fluorescent in situ hybridization and signal ...
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