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Sweeney Kristin R - - 2010
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that invades and replicates within most nucleated cells of warm-blooded animals. The basis for this wide host cell tropism is unknown but could be because parasites invade host cells using distinct pathways and/or repertoires of host factors. Using synchronized parasite invasion assays, ...
Polonais Valerie - - 2010
Members of the phylum Apicomplexa are motile and rapidly dividing intracellular parasites, able to occupy a large spectrum of niches by infecting diverse hosts and invading various cell types. As obligate intracellular parasites, most apicomplexans only survive for a short period extracellularly, and, during this time, have a high energy ...
Dingle Tanis - - 2010
Herein we describe a real-time quantitative PCR assay for evaluating the adherence of Clostridium difficile to differentiated human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Our investigations demonstrated that the method, employing the C. difficile-specific triose-phosphate isomerase gene, is as reliable but less time-consuming than counting c.f.u. We conclude that the method will be ...
Dzitko Katarzyna - - 2010
During the development and effector phases of the anti-Toxoplasma response, the immunological system of a host is involved in several complex interactions with the endocrine system, and prolactin (PRL) is one of the most important hormones involved in immunoregulation. In this work, the influence of the recombinant human prolactin (rhPRL) ...
Morris David J - - 2010
Eukaryotes form new cells through the replication of nuclei followed by cytokinesis. A notable exception is reported from the class Myxosporea of the phylum Myxozoa. This assemblage of approximately 2310 species is regarded as either basal bilaterian or cnidarian, depending on the phylogenetic analysis employed. For myxosporeans, cells have long ...
Collins Tracy L - - 2010
Current studies have indicated the utility of photodynamic therapy using porphyrins in the treatment of bacterial infections. Photoactivation of porphyrins results in the production of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) that damages biomolecules associated with cells and biofilms, e.g., proteins, polysaccharides, and DNA. The effect of a cationic porphryin on P. aeruginosa ...
Tong Meiping - - 2010
The significance of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on cell transport and retained bacteria profiles in packed porous media (quartz sand) was examined by direct comparison of the overall deposition kinetics and retained profiles of untreated bacteria (with EPS) versus those of treated cells (without EPS) from the same cell type. ...
Khang Chang Hyun - - 2010
Knowledge remains limited about how fungal pathogens that colonize living plant cells translocate effector proteins inside host cells to regulate cellular processes and neutralize defense responses. To cause the globally important rice blast disease, specialized invasive hyphae (IH) invade successive living rice (Oryza sativa) cells while enclosed in host-derived extrainvasive ...
Buguliskis Jeffrey S - - 2010
Host cell attachment by Toxoplasma gondii is dependent on polarized secretion of apical adhesins released from the micronemes. Subsequent translocation of these adhesive complexes by an actin-myosin motor powers motility and host cell invasion. Invasion and motility are also accompanied by shedding of surface adhesins by intramembrane proteolysis. Several previous ...
Shames Stephanie R - - 2010
Enterohaemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC and EPEC respectively) are diarrhoeal pathogens that cause the formation of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions on infected host cells. These pathogens encode a type III secretion system (T3SS) used to inject effector proteins directly into host cells, an essential requirement for virulence. In ...
Magassa N'Goundo - - 2010
Bacterial toxin injection into the host cell is required for the virulence of numerous pathogenic bacteria. Cytolysin-mediated translocation (CMT) of Streptococcus pyogenes uses streptolysin O (SLO) to translocate the S. pyogenes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-glycohydrolase (SPN) into the host cell cytosol, resulting in the death of the host cell. Although SLO ...
Mazariego-Espinosa Karina - - 2010
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in the developing world, as well as the most common cause of traveler's diarrhea. The main hallmarks of this type of bacteria are the expression of one or more enterotoxins and fimbriae used for attachment to host intestinal cells. ...
Bernal-Bayard Joaquín - - 2010
Effectors of the type III secretion systems (T3SS) are key elements in the interaction between many Gram-negative pathogens and their hosts. SlrP is an effector that is translocated into the eukaryotic host cell through the two virulence-associated T3SS of Salmonella enterica. We found previously that this effector is an E3 ...
Alemka Abofu - - 2010
The HT29MTXE12 (E12) cell line harbors an adherent mucus layer, providing a novel technique to model mucosal infection in vitro. In this study, we have characterized the interaction of Campylobacter jejuni with the E12 cell line and exploited its unique mucus layer to examine the potential efficacy of probiotic treatment ...
Van Engelenburg Schuyler B - - 2010
The type-III secretion system (T3SS) enables gram-negative bacteria to inject effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. Upon entry, T3SS effectors work cooperatively to reprogram host cells, enabling bacterial survival. Progress in understanding when and where effectors localize in host cells has been hindered by a dearth of tools to study ...
Prakasan M R Sabari - - 2010
Cells and metabolic products of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans were successfully used to separate quartz from hematite through environmentally benign microbially induced flotation. Bacterial metabolic products such as extracellular proteins and polysaccharides were isolated from both unadapted and mineral-adapted bacterial metabolite and their basic characteristics were studied in order to get insight ...
Liu Wei - - 2010
The target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is the central controller of growth in eukaryotic cells. As one of the downstream targets of TORC1, the protein kinase ScSch9p plays multiple roles in stress resistance, longevity and nutrient sensing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we demonstrate that Candida albicans cells ...
Heussler Volker - - 2010
Intracellular pathogens are known to inhibit host cell apoptosis efficiently to ensure their own survival. However, following replication within a cell, they typically need to egress in order to infect new cells. For a long time it was assumed that this happens by simply disrupting the host cell and in ...
Steck Eric - - 2010
Xenotransplantation of human cells into immune compromised host species is an important experimental setup to follow the faith of implanted cells and the contribution of host cells to tissue regenerates. In this context, it is of major relevance to discriminate between transplanted and host cells. Labeling techniques of donor cells ...
Kim Kyoungtae - - 2010
In this study, the drop-on-demand patterning of bacterial cells on a raw silicon wafer was newly conducted with an electrospray pulsed jet. We produced various sized line patterns and spot patterns of bacterial cells on the silicon wafer under varying experimental conditions of frequency, flow rate, and translational speed of ...
Rennenberg Annika - - 2010
Plasmodium parasites must control cysteine protease activity that is critical for hepatocyte invasion by sporozoites, liver stage development, host cell survival and merozoite liberation. Here we show that exoerythrocytic P. berghei parasites express a potent cysteine protease inhibitor (PbICP, P. berghei inhibitor of cysteine proteases). We provide evidence that it ...
Uppuluri Priya - - 2010
Biofilms are dynamic microbial communities in which transitions between planktonic and sessile modes of growth occur interchangeably in response to different environmental cues. In the last decade, early events associated with C. albicans biofilm formation have received considerable attention. However, very little is known about C. albicans biofilm dispersion or ...
Wright C - - 2010
AIMS: To develop a rapid method to quantify the attachment of the cystic fibrosis pathogen, Burkholderia multivorans, to lung epithelial cells (16HBE14o(-)) using real-time PCR with a view to monitoring potential inhibition of lung cell attachment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mammalian and bacterial DNA were purified from bacteria attached to lung ...
Bueno Susan M - - 2010
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium can enter non-phagocytic cells, such as intestinal epithelial cells, by virtue of a Type Three Secretion System (TTSS) encoded in the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1), which translocates bacterial effector molecules into the host cell. Salmonella can also be taken up by dendritic cells (DCs). Although ...
Torrent Marc - - 2010
The eosinophil cationic protein/RNase 3 and the skin-derived RNase 7 are two human antimicrobial RNases involved in host innate immunity. Both belong to the RNase A superfamily and share a high cationicity and a common structural architecture. However, they present significant divergence at their primary structures, displaying either a high ...
Riley Sean P SP Department of Microbiology, University of Chicago, 920 E. 58th Street, Cummings Life Sciences Center, 707A, Chicago, IL 60637, - - 2010
The pathogenesis of spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia species, including R. conorii and R. rickettsii, is acutely dependent on adherence to and invasion of host cells, including cells of the mammalian endothelial system. Bioinformatic analyses of several rickettsia genomes revealed the presence of a cohort of genes designated sca genes ...
Fernandes Rohan - - 2010
The emergence of bacteria that evade antibiotics has accelerated research on alternative approaches that do not target cell viability. One such approach targets cell-cell communication networks mediated by small molecule signaling. In this report, we assemble biological nanofactories within a bioMEMS device to capture and manipulate the behavior of quorum ...
Nieuwland Rienk - - 2010
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells release vesicles into their environment. To answer the question why eukaryotic cells release vesicles, we may learn from prokaryotes. Bacteria release outer membrane vesicles, resembling microparticles, which act as "multi-purpose carriers". They contain signalling molecules for other bacteria, deliver toxins to host cells and exchange DNA ...
Durand Enrique A - - 2010
Type III secretion systems deliver effector proteins from Gram-negative bacterial pathogens into host cells, where they disarm host defences, allowing the pathogens to establish infection. Although Yersinia pseudotuberculosis delivers its effector proteins, called Yops, into numerous cell types grown in culture, we show that during infection Y. pseudotuberculosis selectively targets ...
García Véscovi Eleonora - - 2010
Despite being considered a relatively simple form of life, bacteria have revealed a high degree of structural organization, with the spatial destination of their components precisely regulated within the cell. Nevertheless, the primary signals that dictate differential distribution of cellular building blocks and physiological processes remain in most cases largely ...
Aguilar Julieta - - 2010
The genetic transformation of plant cells by Agrobacterium tumefaciens results from the transfer of DNA and proteins via a specific virulence (vir) -induced type IV secretion system (T4SS). To better understand T4SS function, we analyzed the localization of its structural components and substrates by deconvolution fluorescence microscopy. GFP fusions to ...
von Muhlinen Natalia N MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Division of Protein and Nucleic Acid Chemistry, Cambridge, - - 2010
Autophagy functions as a cell-autonomous effector mechanism of innate immunity by separating bacteria from cytosolic resources and delivering them for lysosomal destruction. How cytosolic bacteria are targeted for autophagy is incompletely understood. We recently discovered that Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and Streptococcus pyogenes are detected by NDP52 (nuclear dot protein ...
Rada Balázs - - 2010
Hydrogen peroxide production by the NADPH oxidase Duox1 occurs during activation of respiratory epithelial cells stimulated by purified bacterial ligands, such as lipopolysaccharide. Here, we characterize Duox activation using intact bacterial cells of several airway pathogens. We found that only Pseudomonas aeruginosa, not Burkholderia cepacia or Staphylococcus aureus, triggers H2O2 ...
Roehrich A Dorothea AD Departments of Cellular & Molecular Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Walk, BS8 1TD Bristol, United - - 2010
Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are widely distributed virulence determinants of Gram-negative bacteria. They translocate bacterial proteins into host cells to manipulate them during infection. The Shigella T3SS consists of a cytoplasmic bulb, a transmembrane region, and a hollow needle protruding from the bacterial surface. The distal tip of mature, ...
Mahmoud Khaled K - - 2010
Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) are obligate prokaryotic predators of other Gram-negative bacteria. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is the most studied organism among BALOs. It has a periplasmic life cycle with two major stages: a motile, non-replicative stage spent searching for prey (the attack phase) and a stage spent inside the periplasm ...
Papasergi Salvatore - - 2010
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The ability of this bacterium to adhere to epithelial cells is considered as an essential early step in colonization and infection. By screening a whole genome phage display library with sera from infected patients, we previously identified three antigenic ...
Hull Vance Stacy - - 2010
Lancefield group A streptococci consists of a Streptococcus pyogens (GAS), which is associated with variety of superlative infections. GAS has the capacity to trigger post infectious syndromes of acute rheumatic fever and post streptococcal glomerulonephritis. GAS is one of the most common human pathogens, and is the most frequent cause ...
Bonomi Hernán Ruy - - 2010
Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis that affects livestock and humans and is caused by closely related Brucella spp., which are adapted to intracellular life within cells of a large variety of mammals. Brucella can be considered a furtive pathogen that infects professional and non-professional phagocytes. In these cells Brucella survives ...
Okagaki Laura H - - 2010
[This corrects the article on p. e1000953 in vol. 6.].
Varela Cristian - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a polymer of tens or hundreds of phosphate residues linked by ATP-like bonds, is found in all organisms and performs a wide variety of functions. PolyP is synthesized in bacterial cells by the actions of polyphosphate kinases (PPK1 and PPK2) and degraded by exopolyphosphatase (PPX). Bacterial ...
Jang Kihoon - - 2010
Recently, interest in single cell analysis has increased because of its potential for improving our understanding of cellular processes. Single cell operation and attachment is indispensable to realize this task. In this paper, we employed a simple and direct method for single-cell attachment and culture in a closed microchannel. The ...
de Souza Wanderley - - 2010
Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, which affects a large number of individuals in Central and South America, is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by blood-sucking insects. This protozoan is an obligate intracellular parasite. The infective forms of the parasite are metacyclic and bloodstream trypomastigote and amastigote. Metacyclic trypomastigotes ...
Hubber Andree - - 2010
Macrophages and protozoa ingest bacteria by phagocytosis and destroy these microbes using a conserved pathway that mediates fusion of the phagosome with lysosomes. To survive within phagocytic host cells, bacterial pathogens have evolved a variety of strategies to avoid fusion with lysosomes. A virulence strategy used by the intracellular pathogen ...
Furukawa Soichi - - 2010
Mixed-species biofilm was remarkably formed in a static co-culture of Lactobacillus plantarum ML11-11 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y11-43 isolated from brewing samples of Fukuyama pot vinegar. Mixed-species biofilm is probably formed by direct cell-cell contact between ML11-11 and S. cerevisiae including Y11-43 and laboratory yeast strains. Scanning electron microscopic observation suggested ...
Vidakovics Maria Laura A Perez - - 2010
Secretion of outer membrane vesicles (OMV) is an intriguing phenomenon of Gram-negative bacteria and has been suggested to play a role as virulence factors. The respiratory pathogens Moraxella catarrhalis reside in tonsils adjacent to B cells, and we have previously shown that M. catarrhalis induce a T cell independent B ...
Voges Maike - - 2010
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), an immunoglobulin (Ig)-related glycoprotein, serves as cellular receptor for a variety of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens associated with the human mucosa. In particular, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae possess well-characterized CEACAM1-binding adhesins. CEACAM1 is typically involved in cell-cell attachment, epithelial ...
Okagaki Laura H - - 2010
Cryptococcus neoformans is a common life-threatening human fungal pathogen. The size of cryptococcal cells is typically 5 to 10 microm. Cell enlargement was observed in vivo, producing cells up to 100 microm. These morphological changes in cell size affected pathogenicity via reducing phagocytosis by host mononuclear cells, increasing resistance to ...
Springer Deborah J - - 2010
Cryptococcus gattii, an emerging fungal pathogen of humans and animals, is found on a variety of trees in tropical and temperate regions. The ecological niche and virulence of this yeast remain poorly defined. We used Arabidopsis thaliana plants and plant-derived substrates to model C. gattii in its natural habitat. Yeast ...
Akimana Christine - - 2010
Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious facultative intracellular bacterium that can be transmitted between mammals by arthropod vectors. Similar to many other intracellular bacteria that replicate within the cytosol, such as Listeria, Shigella, Burkholderia, and Rickettsia, the virulence of F. tularensis depends on its ability to modulate biogenesis of its ...
Byrd Matthew S - - 2010
In order for the opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to cause an airway infection, the pathogen interacts with epithelial cells and the overlying mucous layer. We examined the contribution of the biofilm polysaccharide Psl to epithelial cell adherence and the impact of Psl on proinflammatory signaling by flagellin. Psl has ...
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