Search Results
Results 101 - 150 of 1998
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Tajik N - - 2011
The effect of sulfur passivation on core-shell p-n junction GaAs nanowire (NW) solar cells has been investigated. Devices of two types were investigated, consisting of indium tin oxide contact dots or opaque Au finger electrodes. Lateral carrier transport from the NWs to the contact fingers was achieved via a p-doped ...
Lin Yun-Wei - - 2011
Chemotherapy for advanced human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) includes platinum-containing compound such as cisplatin in combination with a second- or third-generation cytotoxic agents. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) belongs to anti-metabolite chemotherapeutics, and its mechanism of cytotoxicity is involved in inhibition of thymidylate synthase (TS). TS and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) are key ...
Zhou Yiran - - 2011
We previously demonstrated that the absence of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) led to increased cell death following DNA-damaging treatments. Here, we investigated cell death pathways following UV treatment. Decreased amounts of PARG-null embryonic trophoblast stem (TS) cells were observed following doses of 10-100 J/m2 as compared to wild-type. In wild-type cells, ...
Salomon Dor - - 2011
The gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria is the causal agent of spot disease in tomato and pepper. X. campestris pv. vesicatoria pathogenicity depends on a type III secretion system delivering effector proteins into the host cells. We hypothesized that some X. campestris pv. vesicatoria effectors target conserved eukaryotic cellular ...
Delgoffe Greg M GM Sidney-Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Research Center, Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, - - 2011
The kinase mTOR has emerged as an important regulator of the differentiation of helper T cells. Here we demonstrate that differentiation into the T(H)1 and T(H)17 subsets of helper T cells was selectively regulated by signaling from mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) that was dependent on the small GTPase Rheb. Rheb-deficient ...
Bozhokina Ekaterina S - - 2011
Earlier, we have shown that spontaneously isolated non-pathogenic bacteria Serratia grimesii and Serratia proteamaculans invade eukaryotic cells, provided that they synthesize thermolysin-like metalloproteases ECP32/grimelysin or protealysin characterized by high specificity towards actin. To address the question of whether the proteases are active players in entry of these bacteria into host ...
Askenase Philip W - - 2011
Prior studies of classical 24 hr responses in TNP-Cl (picryl chloride) allergic contact sensitivity (CS), showed mediation by Th1 cells in CBA mice, and established that 24 hr elicitation of responses requires an early 2 hr CS-initiating component dependent on iNKT cells, IL-4 and B-1 B cells. Here, we studied ...
Krijger Peter H L - - 2011
DNA damage tolerance is regulated at least in part at the level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) ubiquitination. Monoubiquitination (PCNA-Ub) at lysine residue 164 (K164) stimulates error-prone translesion synthesis (TLS), Rad5-dependent polyubiquitination (PCNA-Ub(n)) stimulates error-free template switching (TS). To generate high affinity antibodies by somatic hypermutation (SHM), B cells ...
Asanoma Kazuo K Institute for Reproductive Health and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Pathology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, - - 2011
Differentiated trophoblast cell lineages arise from trophoblast stem (TS) cells. To date such a stem cell population has only been established in the mouse. The objective of this investigation was to establish TS cell populations from rat blastocysts. Blastocysts were cultured individually on a feeder layer of rat embryonic fibroblasts ...
Zhang Qiang - - 2011
Thymidylate synthase (TS) is a key regulatory enzyme for de novo DNA synthesis. TS activity is also an important determinant of the response to chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidine prodrugs, and its expression may be affected by gene polymorphisms. In this study, we investigated the associations between polymorphisms of the TS gene ...
Deveau Aurélie - - 2011
Candida albicans biofilms are surface-associated, structured communities composed of yeast, hyphal, and pseudohyphal cells surrounded by an extracellular matrix. C. albicans biofilms often lead to life-threatening systemic infections and are particularly difficult to eradicate because of their high levels of resistance to antibiotics. Farnesol, an autoregulatory molecule secreted by C. ...
Afonso Philippe V - - 2011
Although the spatiotemporal activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) at the leading edge of chemotaxing cells represents a key marker of polarity, both Dictyostelium discoideum and neutrophils lacking measurable PI3K activity can still migrate directionally under certain conditions. Evidence from various papers suggests that the differentiation state of cells or their ...
Steele-Mortimer Olivia - - 2011
A variety of bacterial intracellular pathogens target the host cell ubiquitin system during invasion, a process that involves transient but fundamental changes in the actin cytoskeleton and plasma membrane. These changes are induced by bacterial proteins, which can be surface associated, secreted or injected directly into the host cell. Here, ...
Vaysse Pierre-Joseph - - 2011
Biofilm formation by marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria is commonly observed and has been recognized as an important mechanism for the biodegradation of hydrocarbons. In order to colonize new oil-water interfaces, surface-attached communities of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria must release cells into the environment. Here we explored the physiology of cells freshly dispersed from ...
Mostowy Serge S Unité des Interactions Bactéries-Cellules, Institut Pasteur, Paris F-75015, France. - - 2010
Actin-based motility is used by various pathogens for dissemination within and between cells. Yet host factors restricting this process have not been identified. Septins are GTP-binding proteins that assemble as filaments and are essential for cell division. However, their role during interphase has remained elusive. Here, we report that septin ...
Lelong Emmanuelle - - 2011
Bacterial ingestion and killing by phagocytic cells are essential processes to protect the human body from infectious microorganisms. However, only few proteins implicated in intracellular bacterial killing have been identified to date. We used Dictyostelium discoideum, a phagocytic bacterial predator, to study intracellular killing. In a random genetic screen we ...
Theron Michel - - 2010
Plasmodium falciparum genotyping has recently undergone a revolution, and genome-wide genotype datasets are now being collected for large numbers of parasite isolates. By contrast, phenotyping technologies have lagged behind, with few high throughput phenotyping platforms available. Invasion of human erythrocytes by Plasmodium falciparum is a phenotype of particular interest because ...
Habimana Olivier - - 2011
Diffusion of entities inside biofilm triggers most mechanisms involved in biofilm-specific phenotypes. Using genetically engineered hydrophilic and hydrophobic cells of Lactococcus lactis yielding similar biofilm architectures, we demonstrated by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy that bacterial surface properties affect diffusion of nanoparticles through the biofilm matrix.
Senesi Sonia - - 2010
When propagated on solid surfaces, Bacillus cereus can produce differentiated swarm cells under a wide range of growth conditions. This behavioural versatility is ecologically relevant, since it allows this bacterium to adapt swarming to environmental changes. Swarming by B. cereus is medically important: swarm cells are more virulent and particularly prone ...
Hebert Colin G - - 2010
In order to control the behavior of bacteria present at the surface of human epithelial cells, we have created a biological "nanofactory" construct that "coats" the epithelial cells and "activates" the surface to produce the bacterial quorum sensing signaling molecule, autoinducer-2 (AI-2). Specifically, we demonstrate directed modulation of signaling among ...
Poole Anthony M - - 2011
An archaeal origin of eukaryotes is often equated with the engulfment of the bacterial ancestor of mitochondria by an archaeon. Such an event is problematic in that it is not supported by archaeal cell biology. We show that placing phylogenetic results within a stem-and-crown framework eliminates such incompatibilities, and that ...
Premanathan Mariappan - - 2011
Nanoparticles are increasingly recognized for their utility in biological applications including nanomedicine. The present study investigated the toxicity of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles toward prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Cytotoxicity of ZnO to mammalian cells was studied using human myeloblastic leukemia cells (HL60) and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Antibacterial ...
Melamed Sahar - - 2011
The last decade has witnessed a significant increase in interest in whole-cell biosensors for diverse applications, as well as a rapid and continuous expansion of array technologies. The combination of these two disciplines has yielded the notion of whole-cell array biosensors. We present a potential manifestation of this idea by ...
Teramoto Jun - - 2010
Laboratory cultures of a single species of bacteria harboring the same genetic background include heterogeneous cell populations, each differing in apparent morphology and physiology, as found in natural environments. To get insights into difference in the genome expression between individual cells, we constructed various types of the cell chip for ...
Yang Cheenou - - 2010
This study investigated the effect of SWCNTs' length on their antimicrobial activity to bacterial cells in suspensions. Three different lengths of SWCNTs (<1 μm, 1-5 μm, and ∼5 μm) were tested. At same weight concentration, longer SWCNTs exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity. The fluorescence and SEM images revealed that the longer ...
Dukovcic Stephanie R - - 2010
Chromatophore cells have been investigated as potential biodetectors for function-based detection of chemically and biologically toxic substances. Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon) melanophores, a chromatophore cell type containing brown pigment, rapidly detect the salmonid pathogens Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, and Flavobacterium psychrophilum and the human pathogen Bacillus cereus.
Kinnunen Paivo P The University of Michigan, Department of Chemistry, 930 N. University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055, USA. - - 2011
Continuous growth of individual bacteria has been previously studied by direct observation using optical imaging. However, optical microscopy studies are inherently diffraction limited and limited in the number of individual cells that can be continuously monitored. Here we report on the use of the asynchronous magnetic bead rotation (AMBR) sensor, ...
Shen Da-Kang - - 2010
Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are key determinants of virulence in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Upon cell contact, they inject effector proteins directly into eukaryotic cells through a needle protruding from the bacterial surface. Host cell sensing occurs through a distal needle "tip complex," but how this occurs is not ...
Rechavi Oded - - 2010
Non-cell-autonomous proteins are incorporated into cells that form tight contacts or are invaded by bacteria, but identifying the full repertoire of transferred proteins has been a challenge. Here we introduce a quantitative proteomics approach to sort out non-cell-autonomous proteins synthesized by other cells or intracellular pathogens. Our approach combines stable-isotope ...
Fenton A K - - 2010
The Bdellovibrio are miniature "living antibiotic" predatory bacteria which invade, reseal, and digest other larger Gram-negative bacteria, including pathogens. Nutrients for the replication of Bdellovibrio bacteria come entirely from the digestion of the single invaded bacterium, now called a bdelloplast, which is bound by the original prey outer membrane. Bdellovibrio ...
Ruiz-Ruiz Carmen - - 2011
Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are highly heterogeneous polymers produced by fungi and bacteria and have recently been attracting considerable attention from biotechnologists because of their potential applications in many fields, including biomedicine. We have screened the antitumoural activity of a panel of sulphated EPSs produced by a newly discovered species of ...
Longnecker Krista - - 2010
Microorganisms play key roles in the cycles of carbon and nutrients in the ocean, and identifying the extent to which specific taxa contribute to these cycles will establish their ecological function. We examined the use of (33)P-phosphate to identify heterotrophic bacteria actively involved in the cycling of phosphate, an essential ...
Sacchi Luciano - - 2010
Wolbachia is the most widespread bacterial endosymbiont in insects. It is responsible for a variety of reproductive alterations of the hosts. Wolbachia is transmitted through the germline from mother to offspring and, in rare cases, between individuals. This implies that acquired properties (through symbiosis with Wolbachia) can become heritable. We ...
Liu Shaobin - - 2010
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) exhibit strong antibacterial activities. Direct contact between bacterial cells and SWCNTs may likely induce cell damages. Therefore, the understanding of SWCNT-bacteria interactions is essential in order to develop novel SWCNT-based materials for their potential environmental, imaging, therapeutic, and military applications. In this preliminary study, we utilized ...
Lu Richard R Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2010
As a way of enhancing infections, bacterial pathogens often alter host cell signaling pathways. Here, we describe recent work that highlights a new phosphatase from an intestinal and wound-invading pathogen that manipulates host cell phosphoinositide circuits. Despite the active-site homology between bacterial inositol phosphatases and mammalian phosphatases, sequence differences between ...
Hernández Orville - - 2010
One of the most crucial events during infection with the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is adhesion to pulmonary epithelial cells, a pivotal step in the establishment of disease. In this study, we have evaluated the relevance of a 32-kDa protein, a putative adhesion member of the haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily ...
Knodler Leigh A - - 2010
Salmonella enterica is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that resides and proliferates within a membrane-bound vacuole in epithelial cells of the gut and gallbladder. Although essential to disease, how Salmonella escapes from its intracellular niche and spreads to secondary cells within the same host, or to a new host, is not ...
Horst Allison M - - 2010
Engineered nanoparticles are increasingly incorporated into consumer products and are emerging as potential environmental contaminants. Upon environmental release, nanoparticles could inhibit bacterial processes, as evidenced by laboratory studies. Less is known regarding bacterial alteration of nanoparticles, including whether bacteria affect physical agglomeration states controlling nanoparticle settling and bioavailability. Here, the ...
Boulanger Martin J - - 2010
Apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium spp. (malaria) and Toxoplasma gondii (toxoplasmosis) are significant global pathogens of humans and animals. Unlike many intracellular bacterial and viral pathogens that rely on host cell uptake machinery to gain entry, apicomplexan parasites promote recognition, attachment and ultimately invasion of host cells through an orchestrated ...
Xu L - - 2011
Bacteria embedded within biofilms present a challenge to surface decontamination by conventional means. Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma processes have emerged as a promising approach to overcoming this problem. We used atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas (APNPs) to assess planktonic versus biofilm-resident bacterial (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) susceptibility to treatment. The decontamination efficiency of ...
O'Flaherty Sarah J - - 2010
Structural components of the cell surface have an impact on some of the beneficial attributes of probiotic bacteria. In silico analysis of the L. acidophilus NCFM genome sequence revealed the presence of a putative cell surface protein that was predicted to be a myosin cross-reactive antigen (MCRA). As MCRAs are ...
Tao Lin - - 2011
Using food and commensal lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as vehicles for DNA delivery into epithelial cells is a new strategy for vaccine delivery or gene therapy. However, present methods for DNA delivery with LAB have suffered low efficiency. Our goal was to develop a new system to deliver DNA into ...
Alonzo Francis F - - 2010
In the course of establishing its replication niche within the cytosol of infected host cells, the facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes must efficiently regulate the secretion and activity of multiple virulence factors. L. monocytogenes encodes two predicted posttranslocation secretion chaperones, PrsA1 and PrsA2, and evidence suggests that PrsA2 has ...
Rudel Thomas - - 2010
The modulation of host cell death pathways by bacteria has been recognized as a major pathogenicity mechanism. Among other strategies, bacterial pathogens can hijack the cell death machinery of host cells by influencing the signalling pathways that converge on the mitochondria. In particular, many bacterial proteins have evolved to interact ...
Simpson Richard J - - 2010
Bacteria are particularly convenient for producing recombinant proteins for purification purposes. Suitable extraction methods for bacterial cells include sonication, glass bead milling, grinding with alumina or sand, high-pressure shearing using the French pressure cell (French Press), and lysozyme treatment. These procedures are applicable for preparing extracts from a variety of ...
Karpman Diana - - 2010
The typical form of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is associated with enterohemorrhagic ESCHERICHIA COLI (EHEC) infection. The disease process is initiated and perpetuated by interactions between the pathogen or its virulence factors and host cells, as well as the host response. During EHEC-associated HUS, alterations occurring at the intestinal mucosal ...
Silverman Richard J - - 2010
Candida albicans colonizes human mucosa and prosthetic surfaces associated with artificial joints, catheters, and dentures. In the oral cavity, C. albicans coexists with numerous bacterial species, and evidence suggests that bacteria may modulate fungal growth and biofilm formation. Streptococcus gordonii is found on most oral cavity surfaces and interacts with ...
Lutz Kathleen - - 2011
The proteome of Eimeria bovis meront I-carrying host cells was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) at 14 days p.i. and compared to non-infected control cells. A total of 221 protein spots were modulated in their abundance in E. bovis-infected host cells and were subsequently analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ...
Abbineni Gopal G Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Department of Zoology, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, - - 2010
Filamentous phage as a bacteria-specific virus can be conjugated with an anticancer drug and has been proposed to serve as a carrier to deliver drugs to cancer cells for targeted therapy. However, how cell-targeting filamentous phage alone affects cancer cell biology is unclear. Phage libraries provide an inexhaustible reservoir of ...
van der Merwe Jacques - - 2010
Mycoplasma bovis is a small, cell wall-less bacterium that contributes to a number of chronic inflammatory diseases in both dairy and feedlot cattle, including mastitis and bronchopneumonia. Numerous reports have implicated M. bovis in the activation of the immune system, while at the same time inhibiting immune cell proliferation. However, ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >