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Yang Cheenou - - 2010
This study investigated the effect of SWCNTs' length on their antimicrobial activity to bacterial cells in suspensions. Three different lengths of SWCNTs (<1 μm, 1-5 μm, and ∼5 μm) were tested. At same weight concentration, longer SWCNTs exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity. The fluorescence and SEM images revealed that the longer ...
Dukovcic Stephanie R - - 2010
Chromatophore cells have been investigated as potential biodetectors for function-based detection of chemically and biologically toxic substances. Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon) melanophores, a chromatophore cell type containing brown pigment, rapidly detect the salmonid pathogens Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, and Flavobacterium psychrophilum and the human pathogen Bacillus cereus.
Kinnunen Paivo P The University of Michigan, Department of Chemistry, 930 N. University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055, USA. - - 2011
Continuous growth of individual bacteria has been previously studied by direct observation using optical imaging. However, optical microscopy studies are inherently diffraction limited and limited in the number of individual cells that can be continuously monitored. Here we report on the use of the asynchronous magnetic bead rotation (AMBR) sensor, ...
Shen Da-Kang - - 2010
Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are key determinants of virulence in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Upon cell contact, they inject effector proteins directly into eukaryotic cells through a needle protruding from the bacterial surface. Host cell sensing occurs through a distal needle "tip complex," but how this occurs is not ...
Rechavi Oded - - 2010
Non-cell-autonomous proteins are incorporated into cells that form tight contacts or are invaded by bacteria, but identifying the full repertoire of transferred proteins has been a challenge. Here we introduce a quantitative proteomics approach to sort out non-cell-autonomous proteins synthesized by other cells or intracellular pathogens. Our approach combines stable-isotope ...
Fenton A K - - 2010
The Bdellovibrio are miniature "living antibiotic" predatory bacteria which invade, reseal, and digest other larger Gram-negative bacteria, including pathogens. Nutrients for the replication of Bdellovibrio bacteria come entirely from the digestion of the single invaded bacterium, now called a bdelloplast, which is bound by the original prey outer membrane. Bdellovibrio ...
Ruiz-Ruiz Carmen - - 2011
Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are highly heterogeneous polymers produced by fungi and bacteria and have recently been attracting considerable attention from biotechnologists because of their potential applications in many fields, including biomedicine. We have screened the antitumoural activity of a panel of sulphated EPSs produced by a newly discovered species of ...
Longnecker Krista - - 2010
Microorganisms play key roles in the cycles of carbon and nutrients in the ocean, and identifying the extent to which specific taxa contribute to these cycles will establish their ecological function. We examined the use of (33)P-phosphate to identify heterotrophic bacteria actively involved in the cycling of phosphate, an essential ...
Sacchi Luciano - - 2010
Wolbachia is the most widespread bacterial endosymbiont in insects. It is responsible for a variety of reproductive alterations of the hosts. Wolbachia is transmitted through the germline from mother to offspring and, in rare cases, between individuals. This implies that acquired properties (through symbiosis with Wolbachia) can become heritable. We ...
Liu Shaobin - - 2010
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) exhibit strong antibacterial activities. Direct contact between bacterial cells and SWCNTs may likely induce cell damages. Therefore, the understanding of SWCNT-bacteria interactions is essential in order to develop novel SWCNT-based materials for their potential environmental, imaging, therapeutic, and military applications. In this preliminary study, we utilized ...
Lu Richard R Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2010
As a way of enhancing infections, bacterial pathogens often alter host cell signaling pathways. Here, we describe recent work that highlights a new phosphatase from an intestinal and wound-invading pathogen that manipulates host cell phosphoinositide circuits. Despite the active-site homology between bacterial inositol phosphatases and mammalian phosphatases, sequence differences between ...
Hernández Orville - - 2010
One of the most crucial events during infection with the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is adhesion to pulmonary epithelial cells, a pivotal step in the establishment of disease. In this study, we have evaluated the relevance of a 32-kDa protein, a putative adhesion member of the haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily ...
Knodler Leigh A - - 2010
Salmonella enterica is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that resides and proliferates within a membrane-bound vacuole in epithelial cells of the gut and gallbladder. Although essential to disease, how Salmonella escapes from its intracellular niche and spreads to secondary cells within the same host, or to a new host, is not ...
Horst Allison M - - 2010
Engineered nanoparticles are increasingly incorporated into consumer products and are emerging as potential environmental contaminants. Upon environmental release, nanoparticles could inhibit bacterial processes, as evidenced by laboratory studies. Less is known regarding bacterial alteration of nanoparticles, including whether bacteria affect physical agglomeration states controlling nanoparticle settling and bioavailability. Here, the ...
Boulanger Martin J - - 2010
Apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium spp. (malaria) and Toxoplasma gondii (toxoplasmosis) are significant global pathogens of humans and animals. Unlike many intracellular bacterial and viral pathogens that rely on host cell uptake machinery to gain entry, apicomplexan parasites promote recognition, attachment and ultimately invasion of host cells through an orchestrated ...
Xu L - - 2011
Bacteria embedded within biofilms present a challenge to surface decontamination by conventional means. Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma processes have emerged as a promising approach to overcoming this problem. We used atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas (APNPs) to assess planktonic versus biofilm-resident bacterial (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) susceptibility to treatment. The decontamination efficiency of ...
O'Flaherty Sarah J - - 2010
Structural components of the cell surface have an impact on some of the beneficial attributes of probiotic bacteria. In silico analysis of the L. acidophilus NCFM genome sequence revealed the presence of a putative cell surface protein that was predicted to be a myosin cross-reactive antigen (MCRA). As MCRAs are ...
Tao Lin - - 2011
Using food and commensal lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as vehicles for DNA delivery into epithelial cells is a new strategy for vaccine delivery or gene therapy. However, present methods for DNA delivery with LAB have suffered low efficiency. Our goal was to develop a new system to deliver DNA into ...
Alonzo Francis F - - 2010
In the course of establishing its replication niche within the cytosol of infected host cells, the facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes must efficiently regulate the secretion and activity of multiple virulence factors. L. monocytogenes encodes two predicted posttranslocation secretion chaperones, PrsA1 and PrsA2, and evidence suggests that PrsA2 has ...
Rudel Thomas - - 2010
The modulation of host cell death pathways by bacteria has been recognized as a major pathogenicity mechanism. Among other strategies, bacterial pathogens can hijack the cell death machinery of host cells by influencing the signalling pathways that converge on the mitochondria. In particular, many bacterial proteins have evolved to interact ...
Simpson Richard J - - 2010
Bacteria are particularly convenient for producing recombinant proteins for purification purposes. Suitable extraction methods for bacterial cells include sonication, glass bead milling, grinding with alumina or sand, high-pressure shearing using the French pressure cell (French Press), and lysozyme treatment. These procedures are applicable for preparing extracts from a variety of ...
Karpman Diana - - 2010
The typical form of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is associated with enterohemorrhagic ESCHERICHIA COLI (EHEC) infection. The disease process is initiated and perpetuated by interactions between the pathogen or its virulence factors and host cells, as well as the host response. During EHEC-associated HUS, alterations occurring at the intestinal mucosal ...
Silverman Richard J - - 2010
Candida albicans colonizes human mucosa and prosthetic surfaces associated with artificial joints, catheters, and dentures. In the oral cavity, C. albicans coexists with numerous bacterial species, and evidence suggests that bacteria may modulate fungal growth and biofilm formation. Streptococcus gordonii is found on most oral cavity surfaces and interacts with ...
Lutz Kathleen - - 2011
The proteome of Eimeria bovis meront I-carrying host cells was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) at 14 days p.i. and compared to non-infected control cells. A total of 221 protein spots were modulated in their abundance in E. bovis-infected host cells and were subsequently analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ...
Abbineni Gopal G Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Department of Zoology, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, - - 2010
Filamentous phage as a bacteria-specific virus can be conjugated with an anticancer drug and has been proposed to serve as a carrier to deliver drugs to cancer cells for targeted therapy. However, how cell-targeting filamentous phage alone affects cancer cell biology is unclear. Phage libraries provide an inexhaustible reservoir of ...
van der Merwe Jacques - - 2010
Mycoplasma bovis is a small, cell wall-less bacterium that contributes to a number of chronic inflammatory diseases in both dairy and feedlot cattle, including mastitis and bronchopneumonia. Numerous reports have implicated M. bovis in the activation of the immune system, while at the same time inhibiting immune cell proliferation. However, ...
Nobbs Angela H - - 2010
Colonization and infection of the human host by opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans derive from an ability of this fungus to colonize mucosal tissues and prosthetic devices within the polymicrobial communities present. To determine the functions of C. albicans cell wall proteins in interactions with host or bacterial molecules, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...
Martino Ashley T - - 2011
Chronic lung colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is anticipated in cystic fibrosis (CF). Abnormal terminal glycosylation has been implicated as a candidate for this condition. We previously reported a down-regulation of mannose-6-phosphate isomerase (MPI) for core N-glycan production in the CFTR-defective human cell line (IB3). We found a 40% decrease in ...
Jin Hua - - 2010
The photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy as a promising approach for efficiently killing pathogenic microbes is attracting increasing interest. In this study, the cytotoxic and phototoxic effects of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) on the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were investigated. The cell viability was assessed by colony-forming unit method, and the results ...
Sinha Rajeshwari - - 2011
The toxicity of two commonly used nanoparticles, silver and zinc oxide on mesophilic and halophilic bacterial cells has been investigated. Enterobacter sp., Marinobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, halophilic bacterium sp. EMB4, were taken as model systems. The nanotoxicity was more pronounced on Gram negative bacteria. ZnO nanoparticles reduced the growth of ...
Schmidt Frank - - 2010
Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile gram-positive pathogen that gains increasing importance due to the rapid spreading of resistances. Functional genomics technologies can provide new insights into the adaptational network of this bacterium and its response to environmental challenges. While functional genomics technologies, including proteomics, have been extensively used to study ...
Kim Young Ran - - 2010
The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio vulnificus produces cytotoxins that induce the acute death of host cells. However, the secretory mechanisms of such cytotoxins have not been extensively studied. Previously, we reported that substantial amounts of V. vulnificus cytolysin-hemolysin (VvhA) are produced in vivo during the bacterial infection in mice and that ...
Foladori P - - 2010
Technologies proposed in the last decades for the reduction of the sludge production in wastewater treatment plants and based on the mechanism of cell lysis-cryptic growth (physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, oxidative treatments) have been widely investigated at lab-, pilot- and, in some cases, at full-scale but the effects on cellular ...
Pérez L M - - 2010
It is difficult to determine the effects of bactericidal compounds against bacteria in a biofilm because classical procedures for determining cell viability require several working days, multiple complicated steps and are frequently only applicable to cells in suspension. We attempt to develop a compact, inexpensive and versatile system to measure ...
Sutcliffe Iain C - - 2010
Improved understanding of the bacterial phylogenetic tree has allowed the distinction of at least 25 phyla with cultured representatives. This review surveys the diversity of cell envelope types present in these phyla and emphasises that it is important to define bacterial cell envelopes according to whether they have one (monoderm) ...
Taubert Anja - - 2010
Within its life cycle Eimeria bovis undergoes a long lasting intracellular development into large macromeronts in endothelial cells. Since little is known about the molecular basis of E. bovis-triggered host cell regulation we applied a microarray-based approach to define transcript variation in bovine endothelial cells early after sporozoite invasion (4 ...
Bellack Annett - - 2011
A novel chemolithoautotrophic, hyperthermophilic methanogen was isolated from a submarine hydrothermal system at the Kolbeinsey Ridge, north of Iceland. Based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence, the strain belongs to the order Methanococcales within the genus Methanocaldococcus, with approximately 95 % sequence similarity to Methanocaldococcus jannaschii as its closest relative. Cells ...
Pajarinen Jukka - - 2010
Distinction between the two major complications of total hip replacement surgery, septic bacterial culture-positive and aseptic bacterial culture-negative osteolysis and loosening, is difficult due to the eventual role of bacterial remnants and biofilms, which are recognized by cells provided by toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system. It was ...
Rüter Christian - - 2010
Cell-permeable proteins, also called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), have the ability to cross cellular membranes, either alone or in association with bioactive cargo. We identified the Yersinia protein YopM as a novel bacterial cell-permeable protein. Here, we describe the ability of isolated recombinant YopM to enter host cells without a requirement ...
Kolenbrander Paul E - - 2010
Growth of oral bacteria in situ requires adhesion to a surface because the constant flow of host secretions thwarts the ability of planktonic cells to grow before they are swallowed. Therefore, oral bacteria evolved to form biofilms on hard tooth surfaces and on soft epithelial tissues, which often contain multiple ...
Maszewska Agnieszka - - 2010
The entry of Providencia alcalifaciens into the enterocyte-like cell line Caco-2 compared to HEp-2 was studied. Of the 22 P. alcalifaciens strains, 13 and 21 were invasive for Caco-2 and HEp-2 cells, respectively. In contrast to HEp-2 cells, P. alcalifaciens was internalised by Caco-2 cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Tyrosine kinases ...
Berne Cécile - - 2010
Summary In natural systems, bacteria form complex, surface-attached communities known as biofilms. This lifestyle presents numerous advantages compared with unattached or planktonic life, such as exchange of nutrients, protection from environmental stresses and increased tolerance to biocides. Despite such benefits, dispersal also plays an important role in escaping deteriorating environments ...
Ciobotă Valerian - - 2010
Previous studies dealing with bacterial identification by means of Raman spectroscopy have demonstrated that micro-Raman is a suitable technique for single-cell microbial identification. Raman spectra yield fingerprint-like information about all chemical components within one cell, and combined with multivariate methods, differentiation down to species or even strain level is possible. ...
Greif Dominik - - 2010
Life cell imaging of bacterial cells over long times is very challenging because of the small dimensions and the need for a liquid environment assuring cell viability. In order to obtain space- and time-resolved information about protein dynamics, high resolution time-lapse fluorescence images (TLFI) of single bacterial cells were recorded ...
Lin Ann En-Ju - - 2010
Understanding the mechanisms that microbes exploit to invade host cells and cause disease is crucial if we are to eliminate their threat. Although pathogens use a variety of microbial factors to trigger entry into non-phagocytic cells, their targeting of the host cell process of endocytosis has emerged as a common ...
Suwannakul S - - 2010
Bistable populations of bacteria give rise to two or more subtypes that exhibit different phenotypes. We have explored whether the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis exhibits bistable invasive phenotypes. Using a modified cell invasion assay, we show for the first time that there are two distinct subtypes within a population of ...
Luckarift Heather R - - 2010
Populations of metabolically active bacteria were associated at an electrode surface via vapor-deposition of silica to facilitate in situ characterization of bacterial physiology and bio-electrocatalytic activity in microbial fuel cells.
Mishler Dennis M DM Department of Chemistry and Center for Fundamental and Applied Molecular Evolution, Emory University, 1515 Dickey Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, - - 2010
The ability to recognize and react to specific environmental cues allows bacteria to localize to environments favorable to their survival and growth. Synthetic biologists have begun to exploit the chemosensory pathways that control cell motility to reprogram how bacteria move in response to novel signals. Reprograming is often accomplished by ...
Kirkpatrick Clare L - - 2010
Summary Growth in biofilms provides bacterial species with many advantages over growth in suspension, e.g. colonization of nutrient-rich areas. In the alpha-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus biofilm formation is facilitated through its asymmetric cell division, where one daughter cell becomes a motile flagellated swarmer cell able to colonize new surfaces while the ...
Theodoropoulos Georgios - - 2010
The differential effect of fox and pig bile and its corresponding low molecular weight fraction (LMW) was investigated on the in vitro invasion of MDCK-AA7 epithelial cell monolayers by Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae. Seven invasion experiments were performed and a total of 274 cell monolayers were examined. Fox and pig ...
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