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Jin Hua - - 2010
The photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy as a promising approach for efficiently killing pathogenic microbes is attracting increasing interest. In this study, the cytotoxic and phototoxic effects of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) on the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were investigated. The cell viability was assessed by colony-forming unit method, and the results ...
Sinha Rajeshwari - - 2011
The toxicity of two commonly used nanoparticles, silver and zinc oxide on mesophilic and halophilic bacterial cells has been investigated. Enterobacter sp., Marinobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, halophilic bacterium sp. EMB4, were taken as model systems. The nanotoxicity was more pronounced on Gram negative bacteria. ZnO nanoparticles reduced the growth of ...
Schmidt Frank - - 2010
Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile gram-positive pathogen that gains increasing importance due to the rapid spreading of resistances. Functional genomics technologies can provide new insights into the adaptational network of this bacterium and its response to environmental challenges. While functional genomics technologies, including proteomics, have been extensively used to study ...
Kim Young Ran - - 2010
The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio vulnificus produces cytotoxins that induce the acute death of host cells. However, the secretory mechanisms of such cytotoxins have not been extensively studied. Previously, we reported that substantial amounts of V. vulnificus cytolysin-hemolysin (VvhA) are produced in vivo during the bacterial infection in mice and that ...
Foladori P - - 2010
Technologies proposed in the last decades for the reduction of the sludge production in wastewater treatment plants and based on the mechanism of cell lysis-cryptic growth (physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, oxidative treatments) have been widely investigated at lab-, pilot- and, in some cases, at full-scale but the effects on cellular ...
Pérez L M - - 2010
It is difficult to determine the effects of bactericidal compounds against bacteria in a biofilm because classical procedures for determining cell viability require several working days, multiple complicated steps and are frequently only applicable to cells in suspension. We attempt to develop a compact, inexpensive and versatile system to measure ...
Sutcliffe Iain C - - 2010
Improved understanding of the bacterial phylogenetic tree has allowed the distinction of at least 25 phyla with cultured representatives. This review surveys the diversity of cell envelope types present in these phyla and emphasises that it is important to define bacterial cell envelopes according to whether they have one (monoderm) ...
Taubert Anja - - 2010
Within its life cycle Eimeria bovis undergoes a long lasting intracellular development into large macromeronts in endothelial cells. Since little is known about the molecular basis of E. bovis-triggered host cell regulation we applied a microarray-based approach to define transcript variation in bovine endothelial cells early after sporozoite invasion (4 ...
Bellack Annett - - 2011
A novel chemolithoautotrophic, hyperthermophilic methanogen was isolated from a submarine hydrothermal system at the Kolbeinsey Ridge, north of Iceland. Based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence, the strain belongs to the order Methanococcales within the genus Methanocaldococcus, with approximately 95 % sequence similarity to Methanocaldococcus jannaschii as its closest relative. Cells ...
Pajarinen Jukka - - 2010
Distinction between the two major complications of total hip replacement surgery, septic bacterial culture-positive and aseptic bacterial culture-negative osteolysis and loosening, is difficult due to the eventual role of bacterial remnants and biofilms, which are recognized by cells provided by toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system. It was ...
Rüter Christian - - 2010
Cell-permeable proteins, also called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), have the ability to cross cellular membranes, either alone or in association with bioactive cargo. We identified the Yersinia protein YopM as a novel bacterial cell-permeable protein. Here, we describe the ability of isolated recombinant YopM to enter host cells without a requirement ...
Kolenbrander Paul E - - 2010
Growth of oral bacteria in situ requires adhesion to a surface because the constant flow of host secretions thwarts the ability of planktonic cells to grow before they are swallowed. Therefore, oral bacteria evolved to form biofilms on hard tooth surfaces and on soft epithelial tissues, which often contain multiple ...
Maszewska Agnieszka - - 2010
The entry of Providencia alcalifaciens into the enterocyte-like cell line Caco-2 compared to HEp-2 was studied. Of the 22 P. alcalifaciens strains, 13 and 21 were invasive for Caco-2 and HEp-2 cells, respectively. In contrast to HEp-2 cells, P. alcalifaciens was internalised by Caco-2 cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Tyrosine kinases ...
Berne Cécile - - 2010
Summary In natural systems, bacteria form complex, surface-attached communities known as biofilms. This lifestyle presents numerous advantages compared with unattached or planktonic life, such as exchange of nutrients, protection from environmental stresses and increased tolerance to biocides. Despite such benefits, dispersal also plays an important role in escaping deteriorating environments ...
Ciobotă Valerian - - 2010
Previous studies dealing with bacterial identification by means of Raman spectroscopy have demonstrated that micro-Raman is a suitable technique for single-cell microbial identification. Raman spectra yield fingerprint-like information about all chemical components within one cell, and combined with multivariate methods, differentiation down to species or even strain level is possible. ...
Greif Dominik - - 2010
Life cell imaging of bacterial cells over long times is very challenging because of the small dimensions and the need for a liquid environment assuring cell viability. In order to obtain space- and time-resolved information about protein dynamics, high resolution time-lapse fluorescence images (TLFI) of single bacterial cells were recorded ...
Lin Ann En-Ju - - 2010
Understanding the mechanisms that microbes exploit to invade host cells and cause disease is crucial if we are to eliminate their threat. Although pathogens use a variety of microbial factors to trigger entry into non-phagocytic cells, their targeting of the host cell process of endocytosis has emerged as a common ...
Suwannakul S - - 2010
Bistable populations of bacteria give rise to two or more subtypes that exhibit different phenotypes. We have explored whether the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis exhibits bistable invasive phenotypes. Using a modified cell invasion assay, we show for the first time that there are two distinct subtypes within a population of ...
Luckarift Heather R - - 2010
Populations of metabolically active bacteria were associated at an electrode surface via vapor-deposition of silica to facilitate in situ characterization of bacterial physiology and bio-electrocatalytic activity in microbial fuel cells.
Mishler Dennis M DM Department of Chemistry and Center for Fundamental and Applied Molecular Evolution, Emory University, 1515 Dickey Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, - - 2010
The ability to recognize and react to specific environmental cues allows bacteria to localize to environments favorable to their survival and growth. Synthetic biologists have begun to exploit the chemosensory pathways that control cell motility to reprogram how bacteria move in response to novel signals. Reprograming is often accomplished by ...
Kirkpatrick Clare L - - 2010
Summary Growth in biofilms provides bacterial species with many advantages over growth in suspension, e.g. colonization of nutrient-rich areas. In the alpha-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus biofilm formation is facilitated through its asymmetric cell division, where one daughter cell becomes a motile flagellated swarmer cell able to colonize new surfaces while the ...
Theodoropoulos Georgios - - 2010
The differential effect of fox and pig bile and its corresponding low molecular weight fraction (LMW) was investigated on the in vitro invasion of MDCK-AA7 epithelial cell monolayers by Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae. Seven invasion experiments were performed and a total of 274 cell monolayers were examined. Fox and pig ...
Takahashi-Nakaguchi Azusa - - 2010
The morula-stage embryo of the polyembryonic egg-larval parasitoid Copidosoma floridanum forms outside the host embryo and secondarily invades the host body. Electron microscopic analyses of cellular interactions between the extraembryonic syncytium of the parasitic morula and the host embryonic epithelial cells showed that morula penetration into the host embryo did ...
Castro Felipe D - - 2010
The effects of dissolved oxygen tension during bacterial growth and acclimation on the cell surface properties and biochemical composition of the bacterial pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica are characterized. Three experimental techniques are used in an effort to understand the influence of bacterial growth and acclimation conditions on ...
Novik Veronica - - 2010
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of infectious gastroenteritis in industrialized nations. Its ability to enter and survive within nonphagocytic cells is thought to be very important for pathogenesis. However, little is known about the C. jejuni determinants that mediate these processes. Through an extensive transposon mutagenesis screen, we have ...
Bisson-Boutelliez C C Laboratoire de Bactériologie-UMR CNRS 7565, Faculté de Médecine, Nancy Université, Nancy, - - 2010
Desulfovibrio are sulfate-reducing anaerobic gram-negative rods that have been proposed as potential periodontopathogens. We investigated the capacity of Desulfovibrio to invade epithelial cells and induce cytokine secretion from these cells. Desulfovibrio strains were co-cultured with KB cells and counts of intracellular bacteria evaluated up to 3 days after infection. Desulfovibrio ...
Agarwal Vaibhav - - 2010
Streptococcus pneumoniae, a human pathogen, recruits complement regulator factor H to its bacterial cell surface. The bacterial PspC protein binds Factor H via short consensus repeats (SCR) 8-11 and SCR19-20. In this study, we define how bacterially bound Factor H promotes pneumococcal adherence to and uptake by epithelial cells or ...
Cruz Andreia - - 2012
The effect of tributyltin (TBT) on growth and metabolic activity of three estuarine bacteria with different TBT resistance profiles was investigated in an organic-rich culture medium (TSB) and in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) buffer. Exposure to TBT was assessed by determining its effect on growth (OD(600 nm) measurement), bacterial productivity ...
Kalman Daniel - - 2010
Pathogens such as Listeria have been used to define host factors regulating actin dynamics, including the Arp2/3 complex. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Serio et al. (2010) use Rickettsia to identify a new complex, based on profilin, which regulates actin dynamics in normal cells and which may ...
Sakurai Atsuo - - 2010
Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus (GAS)) is a pathogen that invades non-phagocytic host cells, and causes a variety of acute infections such as pharyngitis. Our group previously reported that intracellular GAS is effectively degraded by the host-cell autophagic machinery, and that a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, streptolysin O (SLO), is associated with ...
Kleijn J Mieke - - 2010
In this paper we explored the use of an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to follow the development of electrochemically active biofilms on electrodes. With this technique it should be possible to monitor simultaneously the increase in biomass and the current generated by the electrogenic bacteria in the biofilm. We ...
Sinha Joy J Department of Chemistry and Center for Fundamental and Applied Molecular Evolution, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, - - 2010
A major goal of synthetic biology is to reprogram cells to perform complex tasks. Here we show how a combination of in vitro and in vivo selection rapidly identifies a synthetic riboswitch that activates protein translation in response to the herbicide atrazine. We further demonstrate that this riboswitch can reprogram ...
Severson Kari M - - 2010
Intestinal bacteria drive the formation of lymphoid tissues, and in rabbit, bacteria also promote development of the preimmune Ab repertoire and positive selection of B cells in GALT. Previous studies indicated that Bacillus subtilis promotes B cell follicle formation in GALT, and we investigated the mechanism by which B. subtilis ...
Asare Rexford R Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville College of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292, - - 2010
Arthropod vectors are important vehicles for transmission of Francisella tularensis between mammals, but very little is known about the F. tularensis-arthropod vector interaction. Drosophila melanogaster has been recently developed as an arthropod vector model for F. tularensis. We have shown that intracellular trafficking of F. tularensis within human monocytes-derived macrophages ...
- - 2010
News:Ethanol biofuels from orange peels - Targeting leukaemia's gene addiction - Pea-derived solar cells - HIV is a kick in the head - Nano-scale DNA reader - Membrane in black - Cheese improves the immune response of elderly - Synthetic proteins built from standard parts - Therapeutic proteins produced in ...
Feng Du - - 2010
Exosomes play important roles in many physiological and pathological processes. However, the exosome-cell interaction mode and the intracellular trafficking pathway of exosomes in their recipient cells remain unclear. Here, we report that exosomes derived from K562 or MT4 cells are internalized more efficiently by phagocytes than by non-phagocytic cells. Most ...
Hörtnagl Paul - - 2010
We assessed the physicochemical properties of the surface microlayer (SML: first 900 mum) and its underlying water (ULW: 0.2-0.5-m depth) and compared the composition and activity of their bacterial communities in six lakes located across an altitude gradient. Activity was assessed at both the community level, by measuring leucine bulk ...
Sweeney Kristin R KR Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, 73104, - - 2010
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that invades and replicates within most nucleated cells of warm-blooded animals. The basis for this wide host cell tropism is unknown but could be because parasites invade host cells using distinct pathways and/or repertoires of host factors. Using synchronized parasite invasion assays, ...
Polonais Valerie - - 2010
Members of the phylum Apicomplexa are motile and rapidly dividing intracellular parasites, able to occupy a large spectrum of niches by infecting diverse hosts and invading various cell types. As obligate intracellular parasites, most apicomplexans only survive for a short period extracellularly, and, during this time, have a high energy ...
Dingle Tanis - - 2010
Herein we describe a real-time quantitative PCR assay for evaluating the adherence of Clostridium difficile to differentiated human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Our investigations demonstrated that the method, employing the C. difficile-specific triose-phosphate isomerase gene, is as reliable but less time-consuming than counting c.f.u. We conclude that the method will be ...
Dzitko Katarzyna - - 2010
During the development and effector phases of the anti-Toxoplasma response, the immunological system of a host is involved in several complex interactions with the endocrine system, and prolactin (PRL) is one of the most important hormones involved in immunoregulation. In this work, the influence of the recombinant human prolactin (rhPRL) ...
Morris David J - - 2010
Eukaryotes form new cells through the replication of nuclei followed by cytokinesis. A notable exception is reported from the class Myxosporea of the phylum Myxozoa. This assemblage of approximately 2310 species is regarded as either basal bilaterian or cnidarian, depending on the phylogenetic analysis employed. For myxosporeans, cells have long ...
Collins Tracy L - - 2010
Current studies have indicated the utility of photodynamic therapy using porphyrins in the treatment of bacterial infections. Photoactivation of porphyrins results in the production of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) that damages biomolecules associated with cells and biofilms, e.g., proteins, polysaccharides, and DNA. The effect of a cationic porphryin on P. aeruginosa ...
Tong Meiping - - 2010
The significance of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on cell transport and retained bacteria profiles in packed porous media (quartz sand) was examined by direct comparison of the overall deposition kinetics and retained profiles of untreated bacteria (with EPS) versus those of treated cells (without EPS) from the same cell type. ...
Khang Chang Hyun - - 2010
Knowledge remains limited about how fungal pathogens that colonize living plant cells translocate effector proteins inside host cells to regulate cellular processes and neutralize defense responses. To cause the globally important rice blast disease, specialized invasive hyphae (IH) invade successive living rice (Oryza sativa) cells while enclosed in host-derived extrainvasive ...
Buguliskis Jeffrey S - - 2010
Host cell attachment by Toxoplasma gondii is dependent on polarized secretion of apical adhesins released from the micronemes. Subsequent translocation of these adhesive complexes by an actin-myosin motor powers motility and host cell invasion. Invasion and motility are also accompanied by shedding of surface adhesins by intramembrane proteolysis. Several previous ...
Shames Stephanie R - - 2010
Enterohaemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC and EPEC respectively) are diarrhoeal pathogens that cause the formation of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions on infected host cells. These pathogens encode a type III secretion system (T3SS) used to inject effector proteins directly into host cells, an essential requirement for virulence. In ...
Magassa N'Goundo - - 2010
Bacterial toxin injection into the host cell is required for the virulence of numerous pathogenic bacteria. Cytolysin-mediated translocation (CMT) of Streptococcus pyogenes uses streptolysin O (SLO) to translocate the S. pyogenes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-glycohydrolase (SPN) into the host cell cytosol, resulting in the death of the host cell. Although SLO ...
Mazariego-Espinosa Karina - - 2010
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in the developing world, as well as the most common cause of traveler's diarrhea. The main hallmarks of this type of bacteria are the expression of one or more enterotoxins and fimbriae used for attachment to host intestinal cells. ...
Bernal-Bayard Joaquín - - 2010
Effectors of the type III secretion systems (T3SS) are key elements in the interaction between many Gram-negative pathogens and their hosts. SlrP is an effector that is translocated into the eukaryotic host cell through the two virulence-associated T3SS of Salmonella enterica. We found previously that this effector is an E3 ...
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