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Results 451 - 500 of 1998
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Bhattacharjee Koutilya - - 2008
Immunocompetent cells were isolated from spleen of B. himalayanus and studied surface morphology of the three different cell types--(i) plastic adherent; (ii) nylon wool adherent; and (iii) nylon wool non-adherent cells. As revealed by scanning electron microscopy, they resembled the macrophages, B and T cells, respectively. Presence of such cell ...
Zaidi Tanweer T Channing Laboratory and Hematology Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2008
Pseudomonas aeruginosa enters corneal epithelial cells in vitro via membrane microdomains or lipid rafts. Bacterial entry, mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), promotes infection and disease. This study was conducted to determine whether P. aeruginosa and CFTR are colocalized to rafts in isogenic corneal cells expressing wild-type ...
Handfield M M Department of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, Box 100424 JHMHSC, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0424, USA. - - 2008
In many instances, the encounter between host and microbial cells, through a long-standing evolutionary association, can be a balanced interaction whereby both cell types co-exist and inflict a minimal degree of harm on each other. In the oral cavity, despite the presence of large numbers of diverse organisms, health is ...
Philips Jennifer A - - 2008
Nearly 1.7 billion people are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Its ability to survive intracellularly is thought to be central to its success as a pathogen, but how it does this is poorly understood. Using a Drosophila model of infection, we identify three host cell activities, Rab7, CG8743, and the ESCRT ...
Shi Lei - - 2008
There has been increasing interest in employing electro-bioremediation, a hybrid technology of bioremediation and electrokinetics, to overcome the low bioavailability of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOC) by homogenizing sorption-retarded HOC and immobilised microorganisms. Present electro-remediation approaches mainly aim at macroscale pollutant extraction and tend to neglect possible impacts of direct current ...
Hybiske Kevin - - 2008
The exit of intracellular pathogens from host cells is an important step in the infectious cycle, but is poorly understood. It has recently emerged that microbial exit is a process that can be directed by organisms from within the cell, and is not simply a consequence of the physical or ...
Hughes David T DT Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235, - - 2008
Microorganisms and their hosts communicate with each other through an array of hormonal signals. This cross-kingdom cell-to-cell signalling involves small molecules, such as hormones that are produced by eukaryotes and hormone-like chemicals that are produced by bacteria. Cell-to-cell signalling between bacteria, usually referred to as quorum sensing, was initially described ...
Kim, Nam-Ju
Bifidobacteria has been suggested to exert health promoting effects on the host by maintaining microbial flora and modulating immune functions in the human intestine. We assessed modulatory effects of the different cell fractions of Bifidobacterium sp. BGN4 on macrophage cells and other immune cells from the spleen and Peyer's patches ...
CHUNG, KUN SUB
In a previous study, a biological response modifier (BRM) specifically enhancing the function of B-cells was isolated from Korean fermented soybean paste (Kfsp), but not from non-fermented soybeans. In this study, we attempted to isolate the bacteria producing the BRM from Kfsp (KfspBRM) by ELISA using anti-KfspBRM and by B-cell ...
Kubota Munehiro - - 2008
Zeolites adsorb microbial cells on their surfaces and selective adsorption for specific microorganisms was seen with certain zeolites. Tests for the adsorption ability of zeolites were conducted using various established microbial cell lines. Specific cell lines were shown to selectively absorb to certain zeolites, species to species. In order to ...
Njagi, O N; ;
Besnoitia besnoiti is an obligate intracellular coccidian protozoa of significant economic importance in the regions where it occurs. The parasite exhibits two forms in its intermediate hosts; the rapidly multiplying proliferative forms (merozoites, tachyzoites) and the slowly multiplying or quiescent cyst forms (cystozoites, bradyzoites). Both forms are invasive and possess ...
Borgnia Mario J - - 2008
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus cells are small deltaproteobacterial cells that feed on other gram-negative bacteria, including human pathogens. Using cryo-electron tomography, we demonstrated that B. bacteriovorus cells are capable of substantial flexibility and local deformation of the outer and inner membranes without loss of cell integrity. These shape changes can occur in ...
Bischofberger Mirko - - 2008
During infection, most pathogenic bacteria deliver proteins to the host cell cytoplasm to manipulate host behavior. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Spanò and colleagues describe a system where a bacterium produces an exotoxin while inside the host cell. Only after this exotoxin is transported to the mammalian ...
McDougald, Diane, Centre for ...
Much of the fundamental understanding of microbial physiology is based on laboratory studies of freely suspended cells. While these studies have been essential for our foundational understanding of the genetics, physiology and behavior of microbes, it is now recognized that a majority of bacterial cells in nature exist in biofilms ...
Lohse Matthew B - - 2008
The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans resides asymptomatically in the gut of most healthy people but causes serious invasive diseases in immunocompromised patients. Many C. albicans strains have the ability to stochastically switch between distinct white and opaque cell types, but it is not known with certainty what role this ...
Montag Thomas - - 2008
Today, sterility of established parenteral drugs including biologicals, such as plasma derived products, is practically guaranteed. Bacterially contaminated products are extremely rare exceptions owing to the efficiency of the manufacturing processes in the pharmaceutical industry. In contrast, the manufacturing processes of cell based medicinal products or tissue preparations show much ...
Jordan Sina - - 2008
The bacterial cell envelope is the first and major line of defence against threats from the environment. It is an essential and yet vulnerable structure that gives the cell its shape and counteracts the high internal osmotic pressure. It also provides an important sensory interface and molecular sieve, mediating both ...
Bozzaro Salvatore - - 2008
Research into phagocytosis and host-pathogen interactions in the lower eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum has flourished in recent years. This chapter presents a glimpse of where this research stands, with emphasis on the cell biology of the phagocytic process and on the wealth of molecular genetic data that have been gathered. The ...
Watson Robert O - - 2008
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the major causes of infectious diarrhea world-wide, although relatively little is know about its mechanisms of pathogenicity. This bacterium can gain entry into intestinal epithelial cells, which is thought to be important for its ability to persistently infect and cause disease. We found that C. ...
Yoshida Nobuko - - 2008
Mammalian cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi is a complex process in which various parasite and host cell components interact, triggering the activation of signaling cascades and Ca2+ mobilization in both cells. Using metacyclic trypomastigotes (MT) generated in vitro and tissue culture-derived trypomastigotes (TCT), as counterparts of insect-borne and bloodstream parasites, ...
Chapeton-Montes Julie A - - 2008
Current methods for evaluating mycobacterial invasion of target cells pose technical difficulties including a long turn-around time. Thus, new methodologies must be developed that allow rapid and reliable monitoring of host cell invasion. Here, the invasion of A549 cell line by SYBR safe-labeled Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) H37Rv was assessed ...
Clements Abigail - - 2008
Analysing the pathogenic mechanisms of a bacterium requires an understanding of the composition of the bacterial cell surface. The bacterial surface provides the first barrier against innate immune mechanisms as well as mediating attachment to cells/surfaces to resist clearance. We utilised a series of Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants in which the ...
Nyholm S V - - 2008
Mutualistic relationships between bacteria and their eukaryotic hosts have existed for millions of years, and such associations can be used to understand the evolution of these beneficial partnerships. The symbiosis between sepiolid squids (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae), and their Vibrio bacteria (gamma Proteobacteria: Vibrionaceae), has been a model system for over 20 ...
van Alphen Lieke B - - 2008
The bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni invades mucosal cells via largely undefined and rather inefficient (0.01-2 bacteria per cell) mechanisms. Here we report a novel, highly efficient C. jejuni infection pathway resulting in 10-15 intracellular bacteria per cell within 3 h of infection. Electron microscopy, pulse-chase infection assays and time-lapse multiphoton ...
O'Hara Steven P - - 2008
Cryptosporidium exhibits a complex strategy to invade and establish productive infection sites, involving complimentary parasite and host cell processes. While the work regarding host cell actin remodeling has greatly enhanced our understanding of the molecular pathways involved in the parasite induced actin reorganization, the specific function of host cell actin ...
Steele-Mortimer Olivia - - 2008
Salmonella enterica serovars cause a variety of diseases ranging from self-limiting gastroenteritis to severe systemic infections. Virulence of these facultative intracellular pathogens is dependent on their ability to invade and replicate within non-phagocytic cells, and cultured epithelial cell systems have been used extensively to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved. For ...
Mott G Adam - - 2008
The cell-invasive, trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi exhibits a unique relationship with lysosomes in target host cells. In contrast to many intracellular pathogens that are adept at avoiding contact with lysosomes, T. cruzi requires transient residence within this acidic organelle for productive infection. The low pH environment of lysosomes facilitates ...
Coudeyras Sophie - - 2008
The ability of a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain (Lcr35) to adhere to cervical and vaginal cells and to affect the viability of two main vaginosis-associated pathogens, Prevotella bivia, Gardnerella vaginalis, as well as Candida albicans was investigated. Adhesion ability was determined in vitro with immortalized epithelial cells from the endocervix, ...
Fishman Yelena - - 2008
Algal-cnidarian symbiosis is one of the main factors contributing to the success of cnidarians, and is crucial for the maintenance of coral reefs. While loss of the symbionts (such as in coral bleaching) may cause the death of the cnidarian host, over-proliferation of the algae may also harm the host. ...
Balraj Premanand - - 2008
Rickettsia raoultii is a novel Rickettsia species recently isolated from Dermacentor ticks and classified within the spotted fever group (SFG). The inability of R. raoultii to spread within L929 cells suggests that this bacterium is unable to polymerize host cell actin, a property exhibited by all SFG rickettsiae except R. ...
Mally Manuela - - 2008
Capnocytophaga canimorsus, a commensal bacterium of the canine oral flora, has been repeatedly isolated since 1976 from severe human infections transmitted by dog bites. Here, we show that C. canimorsus exhibits robust growth when it is in direct contact with mammalian cells, including phagocytes. This property was found to be ...
Choi Chul Hee - - 2008
Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen of increasing importance, but the pathogenic mechanism of this microorganism has not been fully explored. This study investigated the potential of A. baumannii to invade epithelial cells and determined the role of A. baumannii outer membrane protein A (AbOmpA) in interactions with epithelial cells. ...
Li Ling - - 2008
Porphyromonas gingivalis is associated with periodontal disease and invades different cell types including epithelial, endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In addition to P. gingivalis DNA, we have previously identified live invasive bacteria in atheromatous tissue. However, the mechanism of persistence of this organism in vascular tissues remains unclear. Therefore, the ...
Nadell Carey D - - 2008
Bacteria have fascinating and diverse social lives. They display coordinated group behaviors regulated by quorum-sensing systems that detect the density of other bacteria around them. A key example of such group behavior is biofilm formation, in which communities of cells attach to a surface and envelope themselves in secreted polymers. ...
Slaney Jennifer M JM Centre for Infectious Disease, Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Queen Mary's School of Medicine and Dentistry, 4 Newark Street, London E1 2AT, - - 2008
The complement system is an important host response to invading bacteria. Activation leads to deposition on the bacterial surface of C3b and its' inactivation products and phagocytosis of the opsonised bacteria by host cells. Alternatively the entire complement pathway including terminal components C5b-9 may be activated on the cell surface ...
Dowse Timothy J TJ Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College, London, - - 2008
Apicomplexan pathogens replicate exclusively within the confines of a host cell. Entry into (invasion) and exit from (egress) these cells requires an array of specialized parasite molecules, many of which have long been considered to have potential as targets of drug or vaccine-based therapies. In this chapter the authors discuss ...
Liao Anne P AP Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology Division, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, United States of - - 2008
Salmonella Typhimurium is a major cause of human gastroenteritis. The Salmonella type III secretory system secretes virulence proteins, called effectors. Effectors are responsible for the alteration of tight junction (TJ) structure and function in intestinal epithelial cells. AvrA is a newly described bacterial effector found in Salmonella. We report here ...
Rieger Tomás T Charles University in Prague; Department of Philosophy and History of - - 2008
The bacterium Serratia marcescens produces a plethora of multicellular shapes of different colorations on solid substrates, allowing immediate visual detection of varieties. Such a plasticity allows studies on multicellular community scale spanning two extremes, from well-elaborated individual colonies to undifferentiated cell mass.For a single strain and medium, we obtained a ...
Maier Valerie Helene - - 2008
Cathelicidins are antimicrobial peptides indicated as important in the control of the natural microflora as well as in the fight against bacterial invasion in mammals. Little is known about cathelicidins in fish and here the Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) embryo cell line (CHSE-214) was used as a model system to ...
Lefebvre Christophe C Université de Lille 1, Laboratoire de Neuroimmunologie des Annélides, FRE 2933 Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), IFR147, Bâtiment SN3, Université de Lille1, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq cedex, France. - - 2008
Previous studies evidenced that cystatin B-like gene is specifically expressed and induced in large circulating coelomic cells following bacterial challenge in the leech Theromyzon tessulatum. In order to understand the role of that cysteine proteinase inhibitor during immune response, we investigated the existence of members of cathepsin family. We cloned ...
Bao Ning - - 2008
Bacterial counts provide important information during the processes such as pathogen detection and hygiene inspection and these processes are critical for public health and food/pharmaceutical production. In this study, we demonstrate the quantification of the number of bacterial cells based on the autofluorescence from the cell lysate on a microfluidic ...
Janse Chris J - - 2007
Malaria parasites must invade the erythrocytes of its host, to be able to grow and multiply. Having depleted the host cell of its nutrients, the parasites break out to invade new erythrocytes. In this issue of Cell, Yeoh et al. (2007) discover a new organelle, the exoneme, that contains a ...
Kim Kwang-Pyo - - 2008
Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that causes systemic bacteremia and meningitis with high mortality, and powdered infant formula is a frequent source of this bacterium. However, the mechanisms that this organism uses to invade and translocate through the intestinal barrier are unknown. Using Caco-2 epithelial cells, we were able ...
Norman R Sean - - 2008
Increases in the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria require new approaches for the treatment of infectious bacterial pathogens. It is now clear that a nanotechnology-driven approach using nanoparticles to selectively target and destroy pathogenic bacteria can be successfully implemented. We have explored this approach by using gold nanorods that have ...
Russell Brooke H BH Center for Extracellular Matrix Biology, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2008
Dissemination of Bacillus anthracis spores from the lung is a critical early event in the establishment of inhalational anthrax. We recently reported that B. anthracis could adhere to and be internalized by cultured intestinal epithelial and fibroblast cells. Here, using gentamicin protection assays and/or electron microscopy, we found that Sterne ...
大島, 隆幸
Thesis (Ph. D. in Agriculture)--University of Tsukuba, (A), no. 2552, 2001.3.23
Das Sarita - - 2007
The present investigation deals with the effect of the chloroform fraction composed of sterols and fatty acids isolated from Hemidesmus indicus root extract (CHI) on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium)-induced cytotoxicity in a human intestinal epithelial cell line (Int 407). The optimum dose was fixed as 100 microg/mL for ...
Eyngor Marina - - 2007
By constructing a biological model based on in vitro culture of polarized rainbow trout primary skin epithelial cell monolayers, the series of early events that precede Streptococcus iniae infection, particularly colonization and translocation through external barriers, were analyzed. Streptococcus iniae promptly invades skin epithelial cells, but the rapid decline of ...
Kankanala, Prasanna
Rice blast is a major fungal disease on rice, caused by the hemibiotrophic filamentous ascomycete fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. This disease accounts for 157 million tons of grain loss annually. The fungus produces a specialized cell called appressorium to penetrate the host surface barrier and enter inside. It produces intracellular Invasive ...
Cisz Michelle - - 2008
Type III secretion is used by many gram-negative bacterial pathogens to directly deliver protein toxins (effectors) into targeted host cells. In all cases, secretion of effectors is triggered by host cell contact, although the mechanism is unclear. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, expression of all type III secretion-related genes is up-regulated when ...
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