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Results 451 - 500 of 1909
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Eichmann Ruth - - 2008
Parasitic powdery mildew fungi have to overcome basic resistance and manipulate host cells to establish a haustorium as a functional feeding organ in a host epidermal cell. Currently, it is of central interest how plant factors negatively regulate basal defense or whether they even support fungal development in compatible interactions. ...
Ly Kim Thien - - 2007
Salmonella enterica is an enteric bacterial pathogen that causes a variety of food and water-borne diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to typhoid fever. Ingested bacteria colonize the intestinal epithelium by triggering their own phagocytosis, using a sophisticated array of effector proteins that are injected into the host cell cytoplasm through a ...
Fujiya Mikihiro - - 2007
Bacteria use quorum-sensing molecules (QSMs) to communicate within as well as across species. However, the effects of QSMs on eukaryotic host cells have received limited attention. We report that the quorum-sensing pentapeptide, competence and sporulation factor (CSF), of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis activates key survival pathways, including p38 MAP ...
Vannini Lucia - - 2007
A new family of putative signaling molecules having a 2(5H)-furanone configuration has been described in this work. They were released during late exponential or stationary phase in different growth media by some gram-positive bacteria, such as Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Enterococcus faecalis, and a gram-negative species, ...
Fruth Ingrid A - - 2007
The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen of humans and animals. Some of the devastating consequences of toxoplasmosis are in part due to the lysis of the host cell during parasite egress. The process of egress is poorly understood and since it is asynchronous in tissue culture ...
Jassim S A A - - 2007
AIMS: To develop a method for rapid detection of bacteria via bacteriophage amplification coupled with exogenous fluorochromic stains. METHODS AND RESULTS: A method for the rapid detection of bacteria was developed which consisted of exposing the sample suspected to contain target cells to host-specific phage. After at least one infection ...
Colombo A V - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Interactions between oral bacteria and gingival epithelial cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. This study used in situ hybridization with 16 rRNA probes and confocal microscopy to detect the periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola within epithelial ...
Purdy Georgiana E - - 2007
A Shigella flexneri degP mutant, which was defective for plaque formation in Henle cell monolayers, had a reduced amount of IcsA detectable on the bacterial surface with antibody. However, the mutant secreted IcsA to the outer membrane at wild-type levels. This suggests that IcsA adopts an altered conformation in the ...
Bachmann Herwig - - 2007
The luminescence signal of luxAB-encoded bacterial luciferase strongly depends on the metabolic state of the host cell, which restricts the use of this reporter system to metabolically active bacteria. Here we show that in stationary-phase cells of Lactococcus lactis, detection of luciferase is significantly improved by the addition of riboflavin ...
Hudson Debra L - - 2007
Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are conserved in many pathogenic gram-negative bacteria. Small molecules that specifically target T3SS in Yersinia and Chlamydia spp. have recently been identified. Here we show that two such compounds inhibit Salmonella T3SS-1, preventing secretion of T3SS-1 effectors, invasion of cultured epithelial cells, and enteritis in ...
Harrison Joe J - - 2007
Many Candida spp. produce surface-adherent biofilm populations that are resistant to antifungal compounds and other environmental stresses. Recently, certain chelating agents have been recognized as having strong antimicrobial activity against biofilms of Candida species. This study investigated and characterized the concentration- and time-dependent killing of Candida biofilms by the chelators ...
Joseph Biju - - 2007
In the past decades impressive knowledge has been accumulated concerning the basic mechanisms of interactions between intracellular bacteria and their host cells. Comparatively little is known on the metabolic requirements necessary for efficient replication of these bacteria within their specific host cell compartments. Recent developments in functional genomics have led ...
Seveau Stéphanie - - 2007
The facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has evolved multiple strategies to invade a large panel of mammalian cells. Host cell invasion is critical for several stages of listeriosis pathology such as the initial crossing of the host intestinal barrier and the successive colonization of diverse target organs including the ...
Cossart Pascale - - 2007
Listeria monocytogenes is an ubiquitous gram positive bacterium responsible for a severe food borne disease in human and animals which has become a multifaceted model. Indeed, it is a facultative intracellular bacterium that induces an amazingly rapid and sterilizing T-cell response and has been--and still is--widely used by immunologists. Listeria's ...
Russell Brooke H - - 2007
The current model for Bacillus anthracis dissemination in vivo focuses on macrophages as carriers. However, recent evidence suggested that other host cells may also play a role in the process. Here, we tested the possibility of B. anthracis being internalized by a human fibroblast cell line, HT1080 and an epithelial ...
Astrauskiene D - - 2007
Persistence of arthritis-triggering bacteria can cause chronization of reactive arthritis (ReA). In the evaluation of bacterial persistence in ReA, the persistence of both the triggering bacteria and also of the other bacteria residing in the foci of chronic infection, are important. Two forms of bacterial persistence, cell wall-deficient bacteria (L-forms) ...
Zilm Peter S - - 2007
Fusobacterium nucleatum is a Gram-negative anaerobic organism considered to play an important role in the progression of periodontal disease and is commonly found in clinical infections of other body sites. Apart from its metabolic versatility, its cell-surface properties enable it to attach to epithelial cells, collagen, gingival epithelial cells and ...
Rice Kelly C - - 2007
The Staphylococcus aureus cidA and lrgA genes have been shown to affect cell lysis under a variety of conditions during planktonic growth. It is hypothesized that these genes encode holins and antiholins, respectively, and may serve as molecular control elements of bacterial cell lysis. To examine the biological role of ...
Liu Yunying - - 2007
Interactions of virulent Leptospira interrogans with murine monocyte-macrophage-like J774A.1 cells and Vero (African green monkey kidney fibroblasts) cells from attachment to internalization were investigated by a series of morphological analysis. Fontana silver staining revealed that only the pathogenic leptospires were able to attach to host cells and the attachment pattern ...
Sotirova A - - 2009
The effect of rhamnolipid-biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas sp. PS-17 on cell surface structures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa NBIMCC 1390 was studied. The results demonstrated that the rhamnolipid at concentrations below and above CMC provoked a multi-component response of the bacterial cells without affecting their growth and viability. Above CMC, the rhamnolipid ...
Sperandio Vanessa - - 2007
The growing challenge of antimicrobial resistance and the paucity of novel antibiotics underscore the importance of developing novel therapeutics. Bacterial cell-to-cell signaling constitutes a novel drug target. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell signaling mechanism that refers to the ability of bacteria to respond to chemical hormone-like molecules called autoinducers. ...
Wagner Jennifer K - - 2007
Understanding the mechanisms underlying the establishment of different bacterial cell shapes and the advantage that a particular shape imparts is one of the most fascinating and challenging areas of study in microbiology. One remarkable example of bacterial morphogenesis is the elaboration of long, tubular extensions of the cell envelope of ...
Alonso-Sáez Laura - - 2007
We analyzed the contributions of different heterotrophic bacterial groups to the uptake of several low-molecular weight compounds during a seasonal cycle on the northwestern Mediterranean coast (Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory). The bacterial assemblage structure had been shown to change substantially year-round for this site, but whether changes in the activities ...
Scheurwater Edie - - 2008
Lytic transglycosylases are an important class of bacterial enzymes that act on peptidoglycan with the same substrate specificity as lysozyme. Unlike the latter enzymes, however, the lytic transglycosylases are not hydrolases but instead cleave the glycosidic linkage between N-actetylmuramoyl and N-acetylglucosaminyl residues with the concomitant formation of a 1,6-anydromuramoyl product. ...
Hanne Halliger
Several cells of the parasitic flagellate (arrow) Pirsonia mucosa attached to its diatom host Rhizosolenia imbricata.
Ude Susanne - - 2007
Although plasmids are ubiquitous amongst phytosphere pseudomonads, the advantage and costs of plasmids for the bacterial host remain unclear. The application of single-cell Raman spectral analysis to plasmid-bacterial systems under different environmental conditions offers a new means of determining the impact of plasmids on host cell physiology, metabolic status, and ...
Flekna Gabriele - - 2007
Recently, ethidium monoazide (EMA) has been proposed as a means of reducing the real-time PCR signal originating from free DNA and dead bacterial cells by selectively entering damaged cells and blocking the DNA for PCR amplification via photoactivation. The present study investigated the effect of EMA on viable and dead ...
Huang Wei E - - 2007
Biofilms, and other bacterial aggregations, are of significance in both environmental microbiology and in plant and human pathogenesis. Comparative single-cell Raman spectral analysis can differentiate between planktonic bacteria and those recovered from biofilms and appears to offer a new means by which to investigate bacterial cell physiology, metabolic status, and ...
Pathirana Rishi D - - 2007
By using fluorescence microscopy, fluorescently labeled Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 was shown to adhere to oral epithelial (KB) cells as discrete cells or small cell aggregates, whereas P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 bound as large cell aggregates. Flow cytometric analysis showed that for P. gingivalis W50 there was a logarithmic relationship between ...
He Miao - - 2007
Most manifestations of candidiasis are associated with biofilm formation occurring on the surfaces of host tissues and medical devices. Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated causative pathogen of candidiasis, and the biofilms display significantly increased levels of resistance to the conventional antifungal agents. Eugenol, the major phenolic component of ...
Cheung H-Y - - 2007
AIMS: To investigate the morphological and chemical changes in attached cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 14886) at different stages of biofilm development on two different types of substrata. METHODS AND RESULTS: The development of primary biofilm on aluminium plates representing metals and on CaF(2) discs representing dielectric materials was monitored ...
Jing Y J - - 2007
Chitosan was obtained from cuticles of the housefly (Musca domestica) larvae. Antibacterial activities of different Mw chitosans were examined against six bacteria. Antibacterial mechanisms of chitosan were investigated by measuring permeability of bacterial cell membranes and observing integrity of bacterial cells. Results show that the antibacterial activity of chitosan decreased ...
Harsha T S - - 2007
This is the first comprehensive study on planktonic heterotrophic bacterial cell size in the river Cauvery and its important tributaries in Karnataka State, India. The initial hypothesis that the mean cell size of planktonic heterotrophic bacteria in the four tributaries are markedly different from each other and also from that ...
Veenendaal Andreas K J AK Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, - - 2007
Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are essential virulence determinants of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The Shigella T3SS consists of a cytoplasmic bulb, a transmembrane region and a hollow 'needle' protruding from the bacterial surface. Physical contact with host cells initiates secretion and leads to assembly of a pore, formed by ...
Jonge R de
In human gastrointestinal disease caused by Salmonella, transepithelial migration of neutrophils follows the attachment of bacteria to epithelial tissue. This migration of neutrophils is stimulated by the release of chemokines, including interleukin-8 (Il -8), from the epithelial cells. We have developed an in vitro model system (human epithelial monolayers, among ...
Bachtiar Boy M - - 2007
Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of bacterial enteritis. The surface capsular polysaccharides are important for this bacterium to survive in the environment, but little is known about their involvement in bacterium-host interactions. This study showed that the C. jejuni capsular polysaccharides play an important role in adherence to and ...
Botić Tanja - - 2007
As shown in many intervention studies, probiotic bacteria can have a beneficial effect on rotavirus and HIV-induced diarrhoea. In spite of that fact, antiviral effects of probiotic bacteria have not been systematically studied yet. Non-tumorigenic porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and alveolar macrophages (3D4/2) were treated in different experimental designs ...
Mikkelsen H - - 2007
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacterium and an opportunistic human pathogen that causes chronic infections in immunocompromised individuals. These infections are hard to treat, partly due to the high intrinsic resistance of the bacterium to clinically used antibiotics and partly due to the formation of antibiotic-tolerant biofilms. The three most ...
Morris D J - - 2007
Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is the myxozoan parasite responsible for proliferative kidney disease (PKD) of salmonid fishes. This disease affects farmed species in North America and Western Europe where it results in significant economic losses for the rainbow trout industry. The parasite has two hosts in its life cycle, salmonid fish, and ...
Bullard, Brian
Moraxella catarrhalis is a Gram-negative unencapsulated pathogen of the human respiratory system. This pathogen is responsible for ~20% of the otitis media cases and ~10% of all exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the United States. To complicate matters, greater than 90% of all M. catarrhalis isolates examined to ...
Barraud, Nicolas
In nature bacteria predominantly live on surfaces, in matrix-encased communities called biofilms. Biofilm formation displays dynamic developmental patterns resembling those of multicellular organisms. Using cooperative traits such as cell&#150;cell signaling, bacteria in biofilms form complex architectures, known as microcolonies, in which cells become highly differentiated from their planktonic counterparts. Microcolonies ...
Anaya Cecilia - - 2007
A rapid method of detection and identification of bacterial cell surface proteins is needed to better understand the interaction of bacteria with host components. To detect cell surface proteins, we have labeled cells of the Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, Porphyromonas gingivalis, with fluorescent cyanine dyes, Cy3 and Cy5. We demonstrate that ...
Dzitko Katarzyna - - 2007
In the present paper we focused on the potential role of human lactoferrin for the intracellular replication rate of T. gondii BK tachyzoites following our earlier observation that Toxoplasma gondii was able to bind human lactoferrin but not serum transferrin. The study was performed in vitro on human CaCo-2 epithelial ...
Sutrina Sarah L - - 2007
This review will examine the connection between the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system and biofilms. We will consider both the primary role of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system in sugar uptake by biofilm cells and its possible role in regulatory processes in cells growing as biofilms, and in establishment and maintenance of ...
Jonas Kristina - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Curli, cellulose and the cell surface protein BapA are matrix components in Salmonella biofilms. In this study we have investigated the roles of these components for the morphology of bacteria grown as colonies on agar plates and within a biofilm on submerged mica surfaces by applying atomic force microscopy ...
Rozhok Sergey - - 2006
Construction of biomotors is an exciting area of scientific research that holds great promise for the development of new technologies with broad potential applications in areas such as the energy industry and medicine. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of prealigned microarrays of motile Escherichia coli bacterial cells on SiOx substrates. ...
Lee Vincent T - - 2007
A number of bacterial pathogens utilize the type III secretion pathway to deliver effector proteins directly into the host cell cytoplasm. Certain strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with acute infections express a potent cytotoxin, exoenzyme U (ExoU), that is delivered via the type III secretion pathway directly into contacting host ...
Tabak Mina - - 2007
Triclosan is a potent biocide that is included in a diverse range of products. This research was aimed to investigate the susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm-associated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to triclosan, and to identify potential mechanisms of adaptation. The effect of triclosan was studied on planktonic Salmonella (log and ...
Lewis Kim - - 2007
Several well-recognized puzzles in microbiology have remained unsolved for decades. These include latent bacterial infections, unculturable microorganisms, persister cells and biofilm multidrug tolerance. Accumulating evidence suggests that these seemingly disparate phenomena result from the ability of bacteria to enter into a dormant (non-dividing) state. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the ...
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