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Results 401 - 450 of 4271
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Li Mao - - 2012
The biological microenvironment is interrupted when tumour masses are introduced because of the strong competition for oxygen. During the period of avascular growth of tumours, capillaries that existed play a crucial role in supplying oxygen to both tumourous and healthy cells. Due to limitations of oxygen supply from capillaries, healthy ...
Niu Xubo - - 2012
The Sec13-Sec31 heterotetramer serves as the outer coat in the COPII complex, which mediates protein trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus. Although it has been studied in depth in yeast and cultured cells, the role of COPII in organogenesis in a multicellular organism has not. We ...
Wang Yue - - 2012
It has been widely reported that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is overexpressed in the serum and ascites of ovarian cancer (OVCA) patients, and elevated IL-6 level correlates with poor prognosis and survival. However, the exact role that IL-6 plays in this malignancy or whether IL-6 can regulate tumorigenic properties has not been ...
Neufeld Thomas P - - 2012
As a response to nutrient deprivation and other cell stresses, autophagy is often induced in the context of reduced or arrested cell growth. A plethora of signaling molecules and pathways have been shown to have opposing effects on cell growth and autophagy, and results of recent functional screens on a ...
Blandino-Rosano Manuel - - 2012
The capacity of β cells to expand in response to insulin resistance is a critical factor in the development of type 2 diabetes. Proliferation of β cells is a major component for these adaptive responses in animal models. The extracellular signals responsible for β-cell expansion include growth factors, such as ...
Patel Ashish S AS King's College London, BHF Centre of Research Excellence & NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at King's Health Partners, Academic Department of Surgery, St Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH, United - - 2012
Therapeutic neovascularisation using angiogenic cells has been hampered by the loss of cells from the target tissue. Encapsulation of these cells within a semi-permeable membrane could improve their retention within the ischaemic tissue without affecting the excretion of the angiogenic growth factors produced. Bio-spraying is a novel cell-handling technique that ...
Elshazley Momen M Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Aichi, - - 2012
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive neoplasm arising from the mesothelial cells lining the parietal pleura and it exhibits poor prognosis. Although there has been significant progress in MPM treatment, development of more efficient therapeutic approaches is needed. BMAL1 is a core component of the circadian clock machinery ...
Clément-Schatlo Virginie V Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Service of Neurosurgery, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 4, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland. - - 2012
Evidence has emerged that the initiation and growth of gliomas is sustained by a subpopulation of cancer-initiating cells (CICs). Because of the difficulty of using markers to tag CICs in gliomas, we have previously exploited more robust phenotypic characteristics, including a specific morphology and intrincic autofluorescence, to identify and isolate ...
Muller P A J PA The Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Glasgow, - - 2013
Tumour-derived mutant p53 proteins promote invasion, in part, by enhancing Rab coupling protein (RCP)-dependent receptor recycling. Here we identified MET as an RCP-binding protein and showed that mutant p53 promoted MET recycling. Mutant p53-expressing cells were more sensitive to hepatocyte growth factor, the ligand for MET, leading to enhanced MET ...
Yano Masato - - 2012
The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family members, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and TGF-β that signal via the receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads) induce bone formation in vivo. The inhibitory Smads (I-Smads), Smad6 and Smad7, negatively regulate TGF-β family ligand signaling by competing with R-Smads for binding to activated type I receptors, and ...
Feng Chenzhuo - - 2012
Regulatory factor X (RFX) proteins are transcription factors. Seven mammalian RFX proteins have been identified. RFX1 is the prototype RFX. However, its biological functions are not known. Here, RFX1 overexpression reduced fetal bovine serum-stimulated proliferation of SH-SY5Y cells, a human neuroblastoma cell line. This inhibition is associated with decreased transforming ...
Bragança de Moraes Cristina Machado - - 2012
The phenolic compounds present in cocoa seeds have been studied regarding health benefits, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Fibrosis is a wound healing response that occurs in almost all patients with chronic liver injury. A large number of cytokines and soluble intercellular mediators are related to changes in the ...
Sato Atsuki - - 2012
Nestin expression reportedly correlates with aggressive growth, metastasis, poor prognosis and presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in various tumors. In this study, we determined the expression and role of nestin in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. We performed immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analyses of nestin in 26 ...
Mai Hoa Bach Thi - - 2012
The proline analog cis-4-hydroxy-l-proline (CHOP), which inhibits the biosynthesis of collagen, has been evaluated as an anticancer, antifibrosis, and antihypertension drug. However, its water solubility and low molecular weight limit its therapeutic potential since it is rapidly excreted. In addition, CHOP is considered to be too toxic due primarily to ...
Kitayoshi Misaho - - 2012
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors belong to G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors (LPA receptors; LPA(1) to LPA(6)). They indicate a variety of cellular response by the interaction with LPA, including cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Recently, we have reported that constitutive active mutated LPA(1) induced the strong biological effects of rat neuroblastoma ...
Wang Yue - - 2012
It has been shown that IL-8 is elevated in ovarian cyst fluid, ascites, serum, and tumor tissue from ovarian cancer (OVCA) patients, and increased IL-8 expression correlates with poor prognosis and survival. However, the exact role that IL-8 plays in this malignancy or whether IL-8 can regulate malignant behavior has ...
Satoh Kimihiko - - 2012
We investigated the process of induction of preneoplastic cells positive for glutathione S-transferase P-form (GST-P) in the rat liver. AAF (2-Acetylaminofluorene) mixed with normal rat chow at high concentration (0.04%) induced 517,000±86,000 GST-P(+) single hepatocytes/g liver after 2 weeks followed by induction of a few foci and nodules after 4-6 ...
Pollard Luther W - - 2012
Cell morphogenesis is a complex process that relies on a diverse array of proteins and pathways. We have identified a transglutaminase-like protein (Cyk3p) that functions in fission yeast morphogenesis. The phenotype of a cyk3 knockout strain indicates a primary role for Cyk3p in cytokinesis. Correspondingly, Cyk3p localizes both to the ...
Szarama Katherine B - - 2012
Correct patterning of the inner ear sensory epithelium is essential for the conversion of sound waves into auditory stimuli. Although much is known about the impact of the developing cytoskeleton on cellular growth and cell shape, considerably less is known about the role of cytoskeletal structures on cell surface mechanical ...
Burns Joseph C - - 2012
The regeneration of mechanoreceptive hair cells occurs throughout life in non-mammalian vertebrates and allows them to recover from hearing and balance deficits that affect humans and other mammals permanently. The irreversibility of comparable deficits in mammals remains unexplained, but often has been attributed to steep embryonic declines in cellular production. ...
Kelly Michael C - - 2012
Hearing impairment due to the loss of sensory hair cells is permanent in humans. Considerable interest targets the hair cell differentiation factor Atoh1 as a potential tool with which to promote hair cell regeneration. We generated a novel mouse model to direct the expression of Atoh1 in a spatially and ...
Chen Mengfei - - 2012
Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from somatic cells by defined factors is a mechanism-unknown, yet extremely time-consuming process. Inefficient reprogramming leads to prolonged periods of in vitro iPSC selection, resulting in subtle genetic and epigenetic abnormalities. To facilitate pluripotent reprogramming, we have identified the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) as ...
Hutton Daphne L - - 2012
Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are a promising cell source for vascular-based approaches to clinical therapeutics, as they have been shown to give rise to both endothelial and perivascular cells. While it is well known that ASCs can present a heterogeneous phenotypic profile, spontaneous interactions among these subpopulations that result in ...
Aguiari Gianluca G Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Ferrara, via Fossato di Mortara, 74, 44121 Ferrara, Italy. - - 2012
In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), renal cyst development and enlargement, as well as cell growth, are associated with alterations in several pathways, including cAMP and activator protein 1 (AP1) signalling. However, the precise mechanism by which these molecules stimulate cell proliferation is not yet fully understood. We now ...
Bini Francesca - - 2012
1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), a crucial regulator of calcium/phosphorus homeostasis, has important physiological effects on growth and differentiation in a variety of malignant and non-malignant cells. Synthetic structural hormone analogues, with lower hypercalcemic side effects, are currently under clinical investigation. Sphingolipids appear to be crucial bioactive factors in the control of ...
Ma Brigette B Y - - 2012
This study evaluated the preclinical activity of selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142866), an inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK or MEK1/2) in 6 nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) cell lines. Selumetinib could achieve up to 90 % inhibition of cell growth with the respective IC(50) values in NPC cell lines as follow: HK1 = 0.04 μM, ...
Grigoryan Marine - - 2012
Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-2 are hormones secreted by intestinal L cells that stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion and regulate intestinal growth, respectively. Mice with deletion of the glucagon receptor (Gcgr) have high levels of circulating GLP-1 and GLP-2. We sought to determine whether the increased level of the glucagon-like ...
Shen Wei - - 2012
Primordial germ cell (PGC) development is an area of research that is hampered by low cell numbers as well as difficulty in isolation. They are, however, required for the production of gametes and as such represent an important area of understanding that has widespread implications for fertility and reproductive technologies. ...
Chien An-Chun - - 2012
Like eukaryotes, bacteria must coordinate division with growth to ensure cells are the appropriate size for a given environmental condition or developmental fate. As single-celled organisms, nutrient availability is one of the strongest influences on bacterial cell size. Classic physiological experiments conducted over four decades ago first demonstrated that cell ...
Qamar Aneela - - 2012
The fmtA gene is a member of the Staphylococcus aureus core cell wall stimulon. The FmtA protein interacts with β-lactams through formation of covalent species. Here, we show that FmtA has weak D-Ala-D-Ala-carboxypeptidase activity and is capable of covalently incorporating C14-Gly into cell walls. The fluorescence microscopy study showed that ...
Jiang Lei L Laboratory of Internal Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang Province, - - 2012
To investigate the role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-inducible early gene 1 (TIEG1) in TGF-β-induced growth inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Human hepatocyte and HCC cell lines with varied susceptibilities to TGF-β1 were tested by methylthiazoletetrazolium (MTT) assay. The expression changes of Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, Smad7, TIEG1 and TIEG2 ...
Dennis Miranda M Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095, - - 2012
The presence of regional metastases in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a common and adverse event associated with poor prognosis. The authors' recent work on human HNSCC tissues underlies Snail's role as a molecular prognostic marker for HNSCC. Snail positivity is significantly predictive of poorly ...
Shen Yuqing - - 2012
Current studies are ongoing to find new drugs for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The discovery of drugs depends on the identification of molecules that can play essential roles in the development of liver cancer, for example, Notch pathway molecules. γ-Secretase inhibitors (GSIs) can inhibit the cleavage of intramembranous ...
Zhang Haipeng - - 2012
Malignant glioma is the most devastating and aggressive tumor in brain, characterized by rapid proliferation and diffuse invasion. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the pivotal strategies after surgery; however, high drug resistance of malignant glioma and the blood-brain barrier usually render chemotherapy drugs ineffective. Here, we find that triptolide, a small ...
Brindley David A - - 2012
In the first quarter of 2012, publicly traded companies in the cell-based therapy industry continued to show promising overall growth. Highlights included $85 million in new capital investment and steady clinical trial progress.
Zhu Qingyao - - 2012
Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) is a G-coupled membrane protein, which is involved in physiological and malignant invasion processes. It is activated by serine proteases such as thrombin through a unique form or by specific synthetic peptides. In this study, we determined the expression of PAR-1 in five nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) ...
Chai Renjie - - 2012
Inner ear hair cells are specialized sensory cells essential for auditory function. Previous studies have shown that the sensory epithelium is postmitotic, but it harbors cells that can behave as progenitor cells in vitro, including the ability to form new hair cells. Lgr5, a Wnt target gene, marks distinct supporting ...
Hart Yuval - - 2012
Biological systems display complex networks of interactions both at the level of molecules inside the cell and at the level of interactions between cells. Networks of interacting molecules, such as transcription networks, have been shown to be composed of recurring circuits called network motifs, each with specific dynamical functions. Much ...
Chang Yun C - - 2012
Cryptococcus neoformans, the etiologic agent of cryptococcosis, is an obligately aerobic yeast that inhabits an environmental niche exposed to ambient air. The cell doubling time was significantly prolonged under 1% O(2) relative to that under normoxic conditions. No apparent cell cycle arrest occurred following a shift from ambient air to ...
Denton D D Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, South Australia, - - 2012
Autophagy has been implicated in both cell survival and programmed cell death (PCD), and this may explain the apparently complex role of this catabolic process in tumourigenesis. Our previous studies have shown that caspases have little influence on Drosophila larval midgut PCD, whereas inhibition of autophagy severely delays midgut removal. ...
Chang Seung-Hee SH Laboratory of Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, - - 2012
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases [ARS]-interacting multifunctional protein 2 (AIMP2) has been implicated in the control of cell fate and lung cell differentiation. A variant of AIMP2 lacking exon 2 (AIMP2-DX2) is expressed in different cancer cells. We previously studied the expression level of AIMP2-DX2 in several lung cell lines and reported elevated ...
Shimomoto Takasumi - - 2012
We examined the effects of hyperglycemic conditions on liver metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Angiotensin (A)-II increased growth, invasion, and anti-apoptotic survival in HT29 and CT26 cells. In contrast, angiotensinogen (ATG) increased these features in HT29 cells but not in CT26 cells. HT29 cells expressed A-II type 1 receptor, chymase, ...
Thorsen Michael - - 2012
Arsenic is an environmental toxin and a world-wide health hazard. Since this metalloid is ubiquitous in nature, virtually all living organisms require systems for detoxification and tolerance acquisition. Here, we show that during chronic exposure to arsenite [As(III)], Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) export and accumulate the low-molecular-weight thiol molecule glutathione ...
Jiang Qin - - 2012
Death receptor 5 (DR5) antibody (D-6) is a monoclonal antibody directed against DR5. The aim of this study was to explore the apoptosis-inducing effects of DR5 (D-6), alone or in combination with cisplatin, on A2780 ovarian cancer cells. The cells were treated with various concentrations of cisplatin and/or DR5 (D-6), ...
Kinast Liz - - 2012
Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) deficiency results in Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND). The link between the HPRT defect and the self-injurious behavior in LND is still unknown. HPRT-deficient rat B103 neuroblastoma cells serve as a model system for LND. In B103 cell membranes, HPRT deficiency is associated with a decrease of basal ...
Nagai Hiroki - - 2012
Pemetrexed (PEM) is a novel, multitargeted, antifolate, antineoplastic agent for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Additional effects of nitric oxide (NO) donors on the chemosensitivity of cancers have been reported. However, the effects of an NO donor on PEM-induced cytotoxicity remain unknown. In this study, we ...
Aliee Maryam - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Separating cells with distinct identities and fates by straight and sharp compartment boundaries is important for growth and pattern formation during animal development. The physical mechanisms shaping compartment boundaries, however, are not fully understood. RESULTS: We combine theory and quantitative experiments to investigate the roles of different mechanisms to ...
Kang Pil Jung - - 2012
Cell polarization occurs along a single axis that is generally determined by a spatial cue. Cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae select a site for polarized growth in a specific pattern depending on cell type. Haploid a and α cells bud in the axial budding pattern, which depends on ...
Tuson Hannah H HH Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, - - 2012
Although bacterial cells are known to experience large forces from osmotic pressure differences and their local microenvironment, quantitative measurements of the mechanical properties of growing bacterial cells have been limited. We provide an experimental approach and theoretical framework for measuring the mechanical properties of live bacteria. We encapsulated bacteria in ...
Jube Sandro S University of Hawai'i Cancer Center, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813, - - 2012
Human malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive and highly lethal cancer that is believed to be caused by chronic exposure to asbestos and erionite. Prognosis for this cancer is generally poor because of late-stage diagnosis and resistance to current conventional therapies. The damage-associated molecular pattern protein HMGB1 has been implicated previously ...
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