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Collins-Hooper Henry H School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, United - - 2012
Skeletal muscle undergoes a progressive age-related loss in mass and function. Preservation of muscle mass depends in part on satellite cells, the resident stem cells of skeletal muscle. Reduced satellite cell function may contribute to the age-associated decrease in muscle mass. Here, we focused on characterizing the effect of age ...
Liu Jun J Singapore Eye Research Institute, - - 2012
To investigate the effects of SLC4A11 gene depletion in human corneal endothelial cells. To achieve stable downregulation of SLC4A11 gene expression in immortalized human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs), short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeted against SLC4A11 was used. Cell growth and viability were determined using the real-time cell analyzer and trypan blue ...
Song Xiaohong - - 2012
Lens growth involves the proliferation of epithelial cells, followed by their migration to the equator region and differentiation into secondary fiber cells. It is widely accepted that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is required for the differentiation of lens epithelial cells into crystallin-rich fibers, but this signaling is insufficient to ...
Feng Linda - - 2012
The phosphoinositide specific-phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ1 and 2) enzymes are plausible anticancer targets implicated in cell motility important to invasion and dissemination of tumour cells. A host of known PLC-γ2 inhibitors were tested against the NCI60 panel of human tumour cell lines as well as their commercially available structural derivatives. A ...
Torii Tomohiro - - 2012
Proper regulation of morphological changes in neuronal cells is essential for their differentiation. Complex signaling mechanisms mediate a variety of morphological changes such as formation of neurites. It is well established that a number of small GTPases control neurite behavior before the connection with the target tissue. However, their regulatory ...
Fík Zdeněk - - 2012
J Oral Pathol Med (2012) ABSTRACT: Galectins are potent effectors of cell adhesion and growth regulation. Their expression as comples network necessitates systematic study of each member of this family. Toward this aim, we here focus on the tandem-repeat-type galectin-9. Its presence is monitored in normal squamous epithelium of the ...
West Franklin D - - 2012
To assess the potential risks of human exposure to endocrine active compounds (EACs), the mechanisms of toxicity must first be identified and characterized. Currently, there are no robust in vitro models for identifying the mechanisms of toxicity in germ cells resulting from EAC exposure. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can ...
Jakimowicz Dagmara - - 2012
Streptomycetes are antibiotic-producing filamentous microorganisms that have a mycelial life style. In many ways streptomycetes are the odd ones out in terms of cell division. While the basic components of the cell division machinery are similar to those found in rod-shaped bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, many ...
Singh Satyendra K - - 2012
PURPOSE: It has long been known that the proliferation status of a cell is a determinant of radiation response, and the available evidence implicates repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the underlying mechanism. Recent results have shown that a novel, highly error-prone pathway of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) operating ...
Xiao Zhen - - 2012
Although isothiocyanates (ITC), which are found in cruciferous vegetables, have been shown to inhibit carcinogenesis in animal models and induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells, the biochemical mechanisms of cell growth inhibition by these compounds are not fully understood. Studies have reported that ITC binding to intracellular ...
Sweeny Larissa L Department of Surgery, University of Alabama, Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Birmingham, Alabama, USA. - - 2012
The signaling pathways facilitating metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells are not fully understood. CD147 is a transmembrane glycoprotein known to induce cell migration and invasion. AGR2 is a secreted peptide also known to promote cell metastasis. Here we describe their importance in the migration and ...
Donia Marco - - 2012
We have recently shown that covalent attachment of the nitric oxide (NO) moiety to the HIV protease inhibitor Saquinavir (Saq) produced a qualitatively new chemical entity, named Saquinavir-NO (Saq-NO), with enhanced anticancer properties and reduced toxicity both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to address several unanswered ...
Zeng Zih-Ming - - 2012
Tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX; ENOX2) is a growth-related protein expressed in transformed cells. Consistent with this function, tNOX knockdown by RNA interference leads to a significant reduction in cell proliferation and migration in HeLa cells, whereas tNOX overexpression confers an aggressive phenotype. Here, for the first time, we report that ...
Kausar Hina - - 2012
Berry anthocyanidins (cyanidin, malvidin, peonidin, petunidin and delphinidin) have increasingly been explored for their anticancer effects; however their combinatorial effects as a mixture, as present in blueberry, bilberry and Indian blackberry ('Jamun') remain untested. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the combination of sub-optimal concentrations of ...
Pickard Adam - - 2012
Stromal-derived growth factors are required for normal epithelial growth but are also implicated in tumour progression. We have observed inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb), through phosphorylation, in cancer-associated fibroblasts in oro-pharyngeal cancer specimens. Rb is well known for its cell-autonomous effects on cancer initiation and progression; however, cell non-autonomous ...
Stasinopoulos Ioannis - - 2012
Products of the COX reaction are frequently elevated in solid tumors and their roles in the malignant phenotype have been extensively investigated. We have shown that COX-2 is essential for the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells in the fat pad of SCID mice and for their extrapulmonary colonization following injection in ...
Wang Yang - - 2012
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a potent regulator in promoting the invasion and proliferation of breast cancer cells. Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is a tight junction protein that displays an inverse relationship to cell invasiveness in breast cancer cells. Whether TGF-β1 signaling induces alteration of JAM-A expression leading to cell ...
Billingham C - - 2012
Aim:  Microglia form a high proportion of cells in glial tumours but their role in supporting or inhibiting tumour growth is unclear. Here we describe the establishment of an in vitro model to investigate their role in astrocytomas. Methods:  Rat hippocampal slices were prepared and, after 7 days to allow ...
Banfi Stefano - - 2012
Eight BODIPY dyes were synthesized and used as photosensitizers (PSs) on the human colon carcinoma cell line HCT116. In this panel of molecules, the structure varies in the substituents on pyrrole 2, 6 positions and on the phenyl ring at the indacene 8 position. For these compounds relevant physico-chemical parameters, ...
- - 2012
OBJECTIVES: Schwann cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of several neuropathies, such as those linked to an excess of d-glucose. Indeed, hyperglicemic condition can often result in the production of high reactive/nitrosative oxygen species concentration and possible damage of several cell structures. In the present work attention has been ...
Feng Chao - - 2012
Heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), such as glypican, plays a role as a co-receptor for growth factor to influence cells proliferation. However the mechanism is still vague. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell proliferation. Their capacity to direct the translation and stability of targeted transcripts can dramatically influence cellular physiological function. To explore ...
Fernandez-Gonzalez Rodrigo - - 2012
Tissues develop in confined volumes that can impose mechanical constraints on their growth, but it is unclear how cells respond to these limits to regulate tissue size and shape. Two papers show that overcrowding and cell deformation lead to the shedding of live cells to maintain homeostasis in epithelial cell ...
Guo Li-da - - 2012
Curcumin, a natural plant extract from Curcuma longa, is known for its anti-carcinogenic and chemopreventive effects on a variety of experimental cancer models. In this study, we evaluated the effects of curcumin and elucidated its mechanism in human colorectal carcinoma cells. Cell viability assay showed that curcumin significantly inhibited the ...
Kim Ju Yeon - - 2012
Xanthorrhizol, a natural sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb, has been known to inhibit the growth of human colon, breast, liver and cervical cancer cells. In this study, xanthorrhizol decreased cell viability, induced apoptosis and decreased the level of full-length PARP in SCC-15 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. ...
Abety Anna N - - 2012
ADAMs are members of the zinc metalloproteinase superfamily characterized by the presence of disintegrin and metalloprotease domains. In human melanoma, ADAM-9 is expressed in focalized areas of the tumor-stroma border in both melanoma and stromal cells. However, the role of ADAM-9 in melanoma progression remains elusive. To analyze the role ...
Richterová-Kučerová Danica - - 2012
Biologically active galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMOs) alone or in combination with IBA stimulate primary root elongation and inhibit hypocotyl elongation in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) seedlings. For a more detailed view of GGMOs effect in these processes, the present work is focused on cell growth in selected tissues (epidermis ...
Li Yanchun - - 2012
AIMS: Andrographolide, a principal diterpenoid lactone isolated from the traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, has been reported to show anti-tumor activity. Since the high lipid solubility of andrographolide permits it to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and concentrate in the brain, we hypothesized that andrographolide may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent ...
Chen Hai-Ying - - 2012
This study was aimed to investigate the effect of down-regulating the CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) expression on cell proliferation, invasion and migration of human ovarian cancer cell line SW626. The CXCR4 specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmid vector was constructed and then transfected into the SW626 cells. The expression of ...
Wanat Jennifer J - - 2012
Previous studies in mice have demonstrated antagonistic effects of telomerase loss on carcinogenesis. Telomere attrition can promote genome instability, thereby stimulating initiation of early-stage cancers, but can also inhibit tumorigenesis by promoting permanent cell growth arrest or death. Human cancers likely develop in cell lineages with low levels of telomerase, ...
Zhang Yuanxin - - 2012
Silibinin, a flavonoid compound, has shown to be of chemopreventive potential against many cancers. However, its efficacy against gastric cancer has not been well elucidated. Here, we assessed the activity of Silibinin on apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in human gastric cells culture system using SGC-7901 as the model. Silibinin treatment ...
Nakamura Shuhei - - 2012
The function of AMH (Anti-Müllerian hormone), a phylogenetically ancient member of the TGFβ family of proteins, in lower vertebrates is largely unknown. Previously, we have shown that the gene encoding the type II anti-Müllerian hormone receptor, amhrII, is responsible for excessive germ cell proliferation and male-to-female sex reversal in the ...
Yuen John Shyi Peng - - 2012
Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, is currently used as monotherapy for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, adverse effects associated with its use have been experienced by some patients. In this study, we examined the antitumor and antiangiogenic activities of low-dose sorafenib in combination with the MEK inhibitor AZD6244 (sorafenib/AZD6244) in ...
Kullberg Max - - 2012
Bleomycin is a membrane impermeable chemotherapeutic agent that is relatively innocuous extracellularly but highly cytotoxic when delivered directly to the cytoplasm. We report on the development of a liposome delivery system that targets Her-2 overexpressing breast cancer cells and breaches the endosomal barrier, delivering bleomycin to the cytoplasm. The liposomes ...
Rohrbeck Astrid - - 2012
Background:  Low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family control the organization of the actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. Dramatic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is caused by C3 exoenzyme derived from Clostridium botulinum (C3), based on ADP-ribosylation of RhoA / B / C. In addition, wild type as ...
Kawano Hiroki - - 2012
Bidirectional signals via Eph receptors/ephrins have been recognized as major forms of contact-dependent cell communications such as cell attraction and repulsion. T cells express EphBs, and their ligands, the ephrin-Bs, have been known as costimulatory molecules for T-cell proliferation. Recently, another remarkable feature of ephrin-As has emerged in the form ...
Kim Jinyoung - - 2012
During the periimplantation period of pregnancy, pig blastocysts undergo morphological changes and differentiation requiring secretion and transport of nutrients (histotroph) into the uterine lumen. Of these nutrients, glucose is converted to fructose, an isomer of glucose, by conceptus trophectoderm. Although glucose is an energy source for proliferation and growth of ...
Kroeze Stephanie G C - - 2012
What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Thermal ablation influences the local tissue microenvironment. Several studies have reported that residual tumour cells may exhibit a more aggressive phenotype. This study shows that incomplete CA and RFA cause an increased proliferation and decreased apptosis of residual renal ...
De La Garza Elizabeth M - - 2012
Endometriosis is a hormone-sensitive gynecological disorder characterized by the benign growth of endometrial-like tissue in the pelvic cavity. Endometriotic lesions composed of endometrial stromal cells (ESC) and glandular epithelial cells (EEC) are thought to arise from menstrual endometrial tissue reaching the pelvic cavity via retrograde menstruation. The cause of endometriotic ...
Zhen-Jun Shao - - 2012
β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin(DA) is a major component of Radix Lithosperm erythrorhizon and has various biological activities. We have investigated the inhibitory effect of DA on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Notch signaling plays a critical role in maintaining the balance between cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Hence, ...
Caja Laia - - 2012
The transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) family embraces many growth factors including the Activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). The pathways mediated by these growth factors are implicated in many fundamental biological processes such as early embryonic development, organ morphogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis and in a large number of ...
Azuma Morio - - 2012
Somatolactin (SL) is a pituitary hormone belonging to the growth hormone/prolactin family of adenohypophyseal hormones. In teleost fish, SL is encoded by one or two paralogous genes, namely SL-α and -β. Our previous studies have revealed that pituitary adenylate-cyclase-activating polypeptide stimulates SL release from cultured goldfish pituitary cells, whereas melanin-concentrating ...
Prabhu Rachana V - - 2012
To find the incidence of different types of lip patterns, the dominant pattern, quadrant wise, amongst the Goan population. To assess, the quadrant wise differences in lip patterns among males and females and to report new lip print pattern in Goan population. Lip prints of 100 students studying in Goa ...
Nadakuduti Satya Swathi - - 2012
Plant epidermal cells have evolved specialist functions associated with adaptation to stress. These include the synthesis and deposition of specialized metabolites such as waxes and cutin together with flavonoids and anthocyanins, which have important roles in providing a barrier to water loss and protection against UV radiation, respectively. Characterization of ...
Banzhaf Manuel - - 2012
Growth of the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan sacculus requires the coordinated activities of peptidoglycan synthases, hydrolases and cell morphogenesis proteins, but the details of these interactions are largely unknown. We now show that the Escherichia coli peptidoglycan glycosyltrasferase-transpeptidase PBP1A interacts with the cell elongation specific transpeptidase PBP2 in vitro and ...
Schröder H C - - 2012
It has been shown that inorganic monomeric and polymeric silica/silicate, in the presence of the biomineralization cocktail, increases the expression of OPG (osteoprotegerin) in osteogenic SaOS-2 sarcoma cells in vitro. In contrast, silicate does not affect the steady-state gene expression level of the osteoclastogenic ligand RANKL (receptor activator of NF-κB ...
Castillo-Lluva S S Cell Signalling Group, Cancer Research UK Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, The University of Manchester, Manchester, - - 2013
The small GTPase Rac1 is a key regulator of cell motility. Multiple mechanisms regulate Rac1 activity including its ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation. Here, we identify the tumour suppressor HACE1 (HECT domain and Ankyrin repeat Containing E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase 1) as an E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for Rac1 degradation following activation ...
Miri Ammar - - 2012
AIM: To evaluate the effect of gravity on corneal epithelial cell migration in vitro. METHODS: Fourteen donor peripheral corneoscleral rims were used. Twenty explants were chosen of which 10 were placed vertically and 10 were placed horizontally during culture. Analyses were performed to investigate the effect of gravity on epithelial ...
Labour Marie-Noëlle - - 2012
Designing synthetic microenvironments for cellular investigations is a very active area of research at the crossroad of cell biology and materials science. The present work describes the design and functionalization of a 3D culture support dedicated to the study of neurite outgrowth from neural cells. It is based on a ...
Shabani Iman - - 2012
Electrospinning is currently used to fabricate nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. The major problem of these scaffolds is their intrinsically two-dimensional nature which inhibits cellular migration and in-growth. In this study, we have introduced a modified setup of electrospinning to produce three-dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds which allows improved infiltration of ...
Ylä-Outinen Laura - - 2012
The future of tissue engineering applications for neuronal cells will require a supportive 3D matrix. This particular matrix should be soft, elastic and supportive for cell growth. In this study, we characterized the suitability of a 3D synthetic hydrogel matrix, PuraMatrix™, as a growth platform for human embryonic stem cell ...
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