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Results 451 - 500 of 4263
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Domingos J A - - 2012
In this study, a flow-cytometric cell cycle analysis method to assess instantaneous growth rate of whole larvae of the Australian barramundi Lates calcarifer was developed and validated. High-resolution DNA measurements of either fresh, frozen or RNAlater-preserved larvae (gap0-gap1, G(0) -G(1) , coefficient of variation (c.v.) < 3, 4 and 5%, ...
Cooper Gregory M - - 2012
Cells within the dura mater have been implicated in the determination of suture patency and fusion. Craniosynostosis (CS), the premature fusion of 1 or more of the cranial sutures, could result from abnormal control over the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells from the dura mater. This study tested whether dura mater ...
Mathews Marlon S - - 2012
We study the use of photochemical internalization (PCI) for enhancing chemotherapeutic response to malignant glioma cells in vitro. Two models are studied: monolayers consisting of F98 rat glioma cells and human glioma spheroids established from biopsy-derived glioma cells. In both cases, the cytotoxicity of aluminum phthalocyanine disulfonate (AlPcS2a)-based PCI of ...
Liu Jingxuan - - 2012
A decrease in the expression of Islet-1 (Isl-1), an islet transcription factor, has been reported in several physiological settings of reduced β-cell function. Here, we investigate whether an increased level of Isl-1 in islet cells can enhance β-cell function and/or mass. We demonstrate that transgenic mice with Isl-1 overexpression display ...
Green Jesse A - - 2012
Germinal centers (GCs) are sites of rapid B-cell proliferation and somatic mutation. These ovoid structures develop within the center of follicles and grow to a stereotypic size. The cell migration and interaction dynamics underlying GC B-cell selection events are currently under intense scrutiny. In recent study, we identified a role ...
Nanjappa Manjunatha K - - 2012
The presence of bisphenol A (BPA) in consumer products has raised concerns about potential adverse effects on reproductive health. Testicular Leydig cells are the predominant source of the male sex steroid hormone testosterone, which supports the male phenotype. The present report describes the effects of developmental exposure of male rats ...
Hu Yan-hong - - 2012
The incidence of after-cataracts [also known as posterior capsular opacification (PCO)] is between 30% and 50% three years following cataract surgery. Suppressing the proliferation of lens epithelial cells (LECs) is a primary goal in preventing PCO. Here, we investigated the proteomic regulation of the inhibitory effects of curcumin (Cur) on ...
Farris Alton B - - 2012
Tubulointerstitial injury in the kidney is complex, involving a number of independent and overlapping cellular and molecular pathways, with renal interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA) as the final common pathway. Furthermore, there are multiple ways to assess IFTA. Cells involved include tubular epithelial cells, fibroblasts, fibrocytes, myofibroblasts, monocyte/macrophages, and ...
de Beco Simon - - 2012
Cellular communication is at the heart of animal development, and guides the specification of cell fates, the movement of cells within and between tissues, and the coordinated arrangement of different body parts. During organ and tissue growth, cell-cell communication plays a critical role in decisions that determine whether cells survive ...
Tripathi Ashootosh - - 2012
Lagunamides A (1) and B (2) are potent cytotoxic cyclic depsipeptides isolated from the filamentous marine cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula, from Pulau Hantu, Singapore. These compounds are structurally related to the aurilide-class of molecules, which have been reported to possess exquisite antiproliferative activities against cancer cells. The present study presents preliminary ...
Hoshi Namiko - - 2012
The normally harmless behavior of bacteria in the intestinal tract is maintained by community structure and the integrity of host defenses. When either or both of these are compromised, a few disgruntled outcasts can cause a riot, taking down the whole neighborhood (pages 799-806).
Blickwedehl Jennifer J Department of Immunology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York, - - 2012
The cellular response to ionizing radiation (IR) involves a variety of mechanisms to repair damage and maintain cell survival. We previously reported that the proteasome activator PA200 promotes long-term cell survival after IR exposure. The molecular function of PA200 is to enhance proteasome-mediated cleavage after glutamate; however, it is not ...
Chen Li - - 2012
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is a pattern-recognizing receptor that is involved in immune signaling and plays a crucial role in survival by being able to recognize various viral components including double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). TLR3 expression and function in cancer cells are not well understood. In this study, we investigated whether ...
Tanaka Yoshikazu - - 2012
ABSTRACT: The feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is a member of the feline coronavirus family that causes FIP, which is incurable and fatal in cats. Cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressive agent that targets the nuclear factor pathway of activated T-cells (NF-AT) to bind cellular cyclophilins (CyP), dose-dependently inhibited FIPV replication ...
Li Xin-Li - - 2012
In the present study, we investigated the role of UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like protein containing PHD and RING finger domains 1) in proliferation, invasion and migration of breast cancer cells, and the potential mechanisms were also explored. Cell proliferation was examined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; cell cycle distribution and apoptosis ...
Zaarour Nancy - - 2012
Glucose transporter GLUT4 is responsible for the insulin-induced uptake of glucose by muscle and fat cells. In non-stimulated (basal) cells, GLUT4 is retained intracellularly, while insulin stimulation leads to its translocation from storage compartments towards the cell surface. How GLUT4 is retained intracellularly is largely unknown. Previously, aberrant GLUT4 N-glycosylation ...
Mikuła-Pietrasik Justyna - - 2012
Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene; RVT) is a natural phytoestrogen known to modulate the rate of senescence in cultured cells. The mechanism by which RVT affects this process is still elusive. In this paper we used human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) to examine the effect of RVT (0.5 and 10 μM) on their ...
Jagan I - - 2013
Disruption of glandular architecture associates with poor clinical outcome in high-grade colorectal cancer (CRC). Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) regulates morphogenic growth of benign MDCK (Madin Darby Canine Kidney) cells through effects on the Rho-like GTPase cdc42 (cell division cycle 42). This study investigates PTEN-dependent morphogenesis ...
Mitrović Olivera - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Since reports on endocrine cells and their kinetics in the corpus of the human stomach are limited, the aim of this study was to examine the appearance, localization, density, and the relationship among the endocrine cell types in the corpus of the human stomach during prenatal and early postnatal ...
Williams Headley E - - 2012
Microbes monitor their population density through a mechanism termed quorum sensing. It is believed that quorum-sensing molecules diffuse from the microbial cells and circulate in the surrounding environment as a function of cell density. When these molecules reach a threshold concentration, the gene expression of the entire population is altered ...
Wang Xiao-Tong XT Department of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, - - 2012
To investigate the effects of small interference RNA (siRNA) targeting of Cdx2 on human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells in vitro and in vivo. The recombinant pSilencer 4.1-Cdx2 siRNA plasmids were constructed and transfected into gastric cancer MGC-803 cells in vitro. The stable transfectants were selected. The effects of Cdx2 siRNA ...
Orvis Grant D GD Developmental Biology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, - - 2012
The layered cortex of the cerebellum is folded along the anterior-posterior axis into lobules separated by fissures, allowing the large number of cells needed for advanced cerebellar functions to be packed into a small volume. During development, the cerebellum begins as a smooth ovoid structure with two progenitor zones, the ...
Singh Preetinder P - - 2012
Osteoclast formation is central to bone metabolism, occurring when myelomonocytic progenitors are stimulated by membrane-bound receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL) on osteoblasts. Osteolytic hormones induce osteoblast RANKL expression, and reduce production of RANKL decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG). However, rather than RANKL and OPG mRNA or protein levels, to measure ...
Herman Indria - - 2012
In this paper we have demonstrated the simple, low cost, low temperature, hydrothermal growth of weeping willow ZnO nano-trees with very long branches to realize high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We also discuss the effects of branching on solar cell efficiency. By introducing branched growth on the backbone ZnO ...
Somjen Dalia - - 2012
Background: Estrogens may enhance thyroid cancer cell growth. We have recently reported that a novel isoflavone-derived anti-estrogenic compound developed in our laboratory, the N-t-boc-hexylenediamine derivative of 7-(O)-carboxymethyl daidzein [cD-tboc] can induce apoptosis and retard growth in human thyroid carcinoma cell lines through inhibitory interaction on estrogen receptor β . Here ...
Wang Hanning - - 2012
SIRT1 is the human orthologue of SIR2, a conserved NAD-dependent protein deacetylase that regulates longevity in yeast and in Caenorhabditis elegans. Overexpression of SIRT1 in cancer tissue, compared with normal tissue, has been demonstrated, suggesting that SIRT1 may act as a tumor promoter. The function of SIRT1 in liver cancer ...
Bao Fazhen - - 2012
β-Elemene is extracted from the Chinese medicinal herb Curcuma Wenyujin. It has a broad-spectrum antitumor effect on many types of cancer. However, the exact mechanism of action of β-elemene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. Histone H1 is thought to act as a repressor of transcription by promoting the compaction ...
Rangel Maria C - - 2012
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical multistep process that converts epithelial cells to more motile and invasive mesenchymal cells, contributing to body patterning and morphogenesis during embryonic development. In addition, both epithelial plasticity and increased motility and invasiveness are essential for the branching morphogenesis that occurs during development of the ...
Schwartz Catherine M - - 2012
Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived dopaminergic (DA) neurons hold potential for treating Parkinson's disease (PD) through cell replacement therapy. Generation of DA neurons from hESCs has been achieved by coculture with the stromal cell line PA6, a source of stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA). However, the factors produced by stromal ...
de Almeida Marcilio - - 2012
The direct induction of adventitious buds and somatic embryos from explants is a morphogenetic process that is under the influence of exogenous plant growth regulators and its interactions with endogenous phytohormones. We performed an in vitro histological analysis in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) shoot apexes and determined that the ...
Fumel Betty - - 2012
Hypo- and hyperthyroidism alter testicular functions in the young. Among T3 receptors, TRalpha1 is ubiquitous and its previously described total deletion (KO) leads to an increase in testis weight and sperm production. We tested, for the first time, the hypothesis that TRalpha1-dependent regulation of Sertoli cell proliferation was directly regulated ...
Ekino Shigeo - - 2012
The bursa of Fabricius of the chicken is known as a primary lymphoid organ for B-cell development. Morphologically, the origin of IgG-containing cells in the bursa has not been clear until now, because abundant maternal IgG (MIgG) is transported to the chick embryo and distributed to the bursal tissue around ...
Yasukagawa Tamami - - 2012
It has been demonstrated that potassium channels (K(+) channels) play significant roles in some malignant phenotypes. Here, we provide the first evidence that treatment with glybenclamide, an ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker, inhibited cell migration in an ovarian clear cell carcinoma cell line, ES-2. Treatment with glybenclamide or knockdown by siRNA ...
Zhu Xiao Fang - - 2012
The physiological and molecular mechanisms leading to the competitive interactions between phosphorus (P) and metal elements are a matter of debate. In this study, we found that P deficiency can alleviate cadmium (Cd) toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0). Under P deficiency (-P), less Cd was accumulated in the plants and ...
Zou Meijuan - - 2012
Autophagy is a tightly-regulated catabolic process that involves the degradation of intracellular components via lysosomes. Although the pivotal role of autophagy in cell growth, development, and homeostasis has been well understood, its function in cancer prevention and intervention remains to be delineated. The aim of this study was to investigate ...
Drabovich Andrei P - - 2012
To investigate the quantitative response of energy metabolic pathways in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells to hypoxia, glucose deprivation, and estradiol stimulation, we developed a targeted proteomics assay for accurate quantification of protein expression in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle, and pentose phosphate pathways. Cell growth conditions were selected to roughly mimic ...
Palin Robert - - 2012
The presence of a polysaccharidic cell wall distinguishes plant cells from animal cells and is responsible for fundamental mechanistic differences in organ development between the two kingdoms. Due to the presence of this wall, plant cells are unable to crawl and contract. On the other hand, plant cell size can ...
Faezizadeh Zohreh - - 2012
Telomerase has been proposed as a novel and potentially selective target in cancer therapy. Silymarin, which is a standardized mixture of flavonolignans from the medical plant Silybum marianum, has potent effects against various types of cancer cells, but its effect on telomerase activity in the human leukemia cell line K562 ...
Gruson Damien - - 2012
Galectins are carbohydrate binding proteins involved in several biological functions such as intracellular signaling, cell to cell interaction and exchanges between cells and the extracellular matrix. Galectins are therefore participating to the control of gene expression, the regulation of immune response and the control of cell growth and viability. Galectins ...
Motaln Helena - - 2012
In contrast to the application of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in regenerative medicine, only a limited number of studies are addressing their use in anti-cancer therapy. As the latter may represent a new hope to improve the survival of patients with glioblastoma multiformae (GBM) - the most common and ...
Mansell Jason Peter - - 2012
The simplest signalling lipid Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) elicits pleiotropic actions upon most mammalian cell types. Although LPA has an established role in many biological processes, particularly wound healing and cancer, the function of LPA for human osteoblast (hOB) biology is still unravelling. Early studies, identified in this review, gave a ...
Hatano H - - 2012
Oral Diseases (2012) Objectives:  An odontoma, which shows proliferating odontogenic epithelium and mesenchymal tissue, is one of the most common odontogenic tumors encountered. These are commonly found in tooth-bearing regions, although the etiology remains unknown. There are no previous reports of an established line of immortalized human odontoma cells. Methods:  ...
Tan Jiali - - 2012
Upregulation of miR-34a by p53 is recently believed to be a key mediator in the pro-apoptotic effects of this tumor suppressor. We sought to determine whether restoration of miR-34a levels in p53 deficient cells could rescue the response to DNA damage. Compared with the p53 wildtype U2OS cells, miR-34a expression ...
Modglin Vernon C - - 2012
This in vitro study was performed to evaluate the ability of two types of porous bioactive glass scaffolds to support the growth and differentiation of an established osteogenic cell line. The two scaffold types tested included 13-93 glass fiber and trabecular-like scaffolds seeded with murine MLO-A5 cells and cultured for ...
Hiyoshi H - - 2012
Cellular quiescence is a state of reversible proliferation arrest that is induced by anti-mitogenic signals. The endogenous cardiac glycoside ouabain is a specific ligand of the ubiquitous sodium pump, Na,K-ATPase, also known to regulate cell growth through unknown signalling pathways. To investigate the role of ouabain/Na,K-ATPase in uncontrolled neuroblastoma growth ...
Kalra Neetu N Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-4264, - - 2012
Insulin growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) is expressed in mesothelioma and therefore an attractive target for therapy. The antitumor activity of cixutumumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to IGF-IR, in mesothelioma and relationship to IGF-IR expression was investigated using eight early passage tumor cells obtained from patients, nine established cell lines and ...
Cai Qing Q Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, - - 2012
There is a reciprocal interaction between pancreatic islet cells and vascular endothelial cells (EC) in which EC-derived signals promote islet cell differentiation and islet development while islet cell-derived angiogenic factors promote EC recruitment and extensive islet vascularization. To examine the role of angiogenic factors in the coordinated development of islets ...
Cha Jae Hun - - 2012
Allicin, the main flavor compound in garlic, has anti-carcinogenic activities in a range of cancer cells, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. This study examined the effect of allicin on the cell viability of U87MG human glioma cells along with its molecular mechanisms of induction of cell ...
Lee Kyung-Ae - - 2012
Resveratrol (Res), from the skin of red grapes, induces apoptosis in some malignant cells, but there are no reports on the apoptotic effect of Res on human malignant pleural mesothelioma. We found that Res interacts with specificity protein 1 (Sp1). The IC50 for Res was 17 µM in MSTO-211H cells. ...
Qu Zhan Z National Hepatobiliary & Enteric Surgery Research Center, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, - - 2012
  Metformin is a biguanide that has been widely used to treat type 2 diabetes. Several studies have shown that metformin is also effective in treating cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The objective of this study was to evaluate the antitumor effects of metformin in HCC, and to investigate the ...
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