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Results 451 - 500 of 4289
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Shen Yuqing - - 2012
Current studies are ongoing to find new drugs for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The discovery of drugs depends on the identification of molecules that can play essential roles in the development of liver cancer, for example, Notch pathway molecules. γ-Secretase inhibitors (GSIs) can inhibit the cleavage of intramembranous ...
Zhang Haipeng - - 2012
Malignant glioma is the most devastating and aggressive tumor in brain, characterized by rapid proliferation and diffuse invasion. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the pivotal strategies after surgery; however, high drug resistance of malignant glioma and the blood-brain barrier usually render chemotherapy drugs ineffective. Here, we find that triptolide, a small ...
Brindley David A - - 2012
In the first quarter of 2012, publicly traded companies in the cell-based therapy industry continued to show promising overall growth. Highlights included $85 million in new capital investment and steady clinical trial progress.
Zhu Qingyao - - 2012
Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) is a G-coupled membrane protein, which is involved in physiological and malignant invasion processes. It is activated by serine proteases such as thrombin through a unique form or by specific synthetic peptides. In this study, we determined the expression of PAR-1 in five nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) ...
Chai Renjie - - 2012
Inner ear hair cells are specialized sensory cells essential for auditory function. Previous studies have shown that the sensory epithelium is postmitotic, but it harbors cells that can behave as progenitor cells in vitro, including the ability to form new hair cells. Lgr5, a Wnt target gene, marks distinct supporting ...
Hart Yuval - - 2012
Biological systems display complex networks of interactions both at the level of molecules inside the cell and at the level of interactions between cells. Networks of interacting molecules, such as transcription networks, have been shown to be composed of recurring circuits called network motifs, each with specific dynamical functions. Much ...
Chang Yun C - - 2012
Cryptococcus neoformans, the etiologic agent of cryptococcosis, is an obligately aerobic yeast that inhabits an environmental niche exposed to ambient air. The cell doubling time was significantly prolonged under 1% O(2) relative to that under normoxic conditions. No apparent cell cycle arrest occurred following a shift from ambient air to ...
Denton D D Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, South Australia, - - 2012
Autophagy has been implicated in both cell survival and programmed cell death (PCD), and this may explain the apparently complex role of this catabolic process in tumourigenesis. Our previous studies have shown that caspases have little influence on Drosophila larval midgut PCD, whereas inhibition of autophagy severely delays midgut removal. ...
Chang Seung-Hee SH Laboratory of Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, - - 2012
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases [ARS]-interacting multifunctional protein 2 (AIMP2) has been implicated in the control of cell fate and lung cell differentiation. A variant of AIMP2 lacking exon 2 (AIMP2-DX2) is expressed in different cancer cells. We previously studied the expression level of AIMP2-DX2 in several lung cell lines and reported elevated ...
Shimomoto Takasumi - - 2012
We examined the effects of hyperglycemic conditions on liver metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Angiotensin (A)-II increased growth, invasion, and anti-apoptotic survival in HT29 and CT26 cells. In contrast, angiotensinogen (ATG) increased these features in HT29 cells but not in CT26 cells. HT29 cells expressed A-II type 1 receptor, chymase, ...
Thorsen Michael - - 2012
Arsenic is an environmental toxin and a world-wide health hazard. Since this metalloid is ubiquitous in nature, virtually all living organisms require systems for detoxification and tolerance acquisition. Here, we show that during chronic exposure to arsenite [As(III)], Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) export and accumulate the low-molecular-weight thiol molecule glutathione ...
Jiang Qin - - 2012
Death receptor 5 (DR5) antibody (D-6) is a monoclonal antibody directed against DR5. The aim of this study was to explore the apoptosis-inducing effects of DR5 (D-6), alone or in combination with cisplatin, on A2780 ovarian cancer cells. The cells were treated with various concentrations of cisplatin and/or DR5 (D-6), ...
Kinast Liz - - 2012
Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) deficiency results in Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND). The link between the HPRT defect and the self-injurious behavior in LND is still unknown. HPRT-deficient rat B103 neuroblastoma cells serve as a model system for LND. In B103 cell membranes, HPRT deficiency is associated with a decrease of basal ...
Nagai Hiroki - - 2012
Pemetrexed (PEM) is a novel, multitargeted, antifolate, antineoplastic agent for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Additional effects of nitric oxide (NO) donors on the chemosensitivity of cancers have been reported. However, the effects of an NO donor on PEM-induced cytotoxicity remain unknown. In this study, we ...
Aliee Maryam - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Separating cells with distinct identities and fates by straight and sharp compartment boundaries is important for growth and pattern formation during animal development. The physical mechanisms shaping compartment boundaries, however, are not fully understood. RESULTS: We combine theory and quantitative experiments to investigate the roles of different mechanisms to ...
Kang Pil Jung - - 2012
Cell polarization occurs along a single axis that is generally determined by a spatial cue. Cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae select a site for polarized growth in a specific pattern depending on cell type. Haploid a and α cells bud in the axial budding pattern, which depends on ...
Tuson Hannah H HH Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, - - 2012
Although bacterial cells are known to experience large forces from osmotic pressure differences and their local microenvironment, quantitative measurements of the mechanical properties of growing bacterial cells have been limited. We provide an experimental approach and theoretical framework for measuring the mechanical properties of live bacteria. We encapsulated bacteria in ...
Jube Sandro S University of Hawai'i Cancer Center, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813, - - 2012
Human malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive and highly lethal cancer that is believed to be caused by chronic exposure to asbestos and erionite. Prognosis for this cancer is generally poor because of late-stage diagnosis and resistance to current conventional therapies. The damage-associated molecular pattern protein HMGB1 has been implicated previously ...
Rzeski Wojciech - - 2012
Abstract Background and objective. Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), a key intermediate in Krebs cycle, is an important biological compound involved in the formation of amino acids, nitrogen transport, and oxidation reactions. AKG is already commercially available as a dietary supplement and its supplementation with glutamine, arginine, or ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate has been recently ...
Jin Juan - - 2012
AbstractAim:To investigate the effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an active compound in green tea, on prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2))-induced proliferation and migration, and the expression of prostanoid EP(1) receptors in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.Methods:HCC cell line HepG2, human hepatoma cell lines MHCC-97L, MHCC-97H and human hepatocyte cell line L02 were used. Cell ...
Friedrich Reinhard E - - 2012
Neurofibromas are benign nerve sheath tumours. They occur sporadically, singly or few in number, and in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), an autosomal inherited disease. These tumours are composed of different cell types, e.g. nerve cells (axons and axon sheaths), Schwann cells, mast cells, and fibroblasts. The local control of tumour ...
Sun Rui - - 2012
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor c-Met are important in the development and homeostasis of a variety of human malignancies. However, the role of the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has not been clearly elucidated. This study examined the effect of HGF/c-Met on proliferation and migration in ...
Ni Chien-Hang - - 2012
Liver cancer is the most common form of cancer in Taiwan and it usually responds to chemotherapy. However, patients often have side effects to the chemotherapeutic drugs. Thus new agents are urgently required to treat liver cancer. Chrysophanol, one of the anthraquinone derivatives, was reported to inhibit some human cancer ...
Lee J I - - 2012
Encapsulation of transplanted cells within an immunoisolating membrane may provide a new strategy for protecting these cells from recipient immune responses without the use of immunosuppressive drugs. We have previously reported a novel concept of immunoisolation and immunodelusion using recipient cells instead of traditional artificial materials. We developed a chondrocyte ...
Bai Chenguang - - 2012
Evidence suggests that different types of mutation in gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) correlate with different response rates to imatinib (Glivec, STI571). The purpose of this study was to explore the sensitivity of the PDGFRA(L839P) mutant, a novel gain-of-function mutation isoform related to GISTs, to imatinib in vitro. The eukaryotic expression ...
Aferchich Kamal - - 2012
In this study, the effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on B. anthracis cell growth, spore formation, and spore germination was studied. We found that SWCNTs at a concentration of 100 microg/ml exhibited obvious antimicrobial activity on 10(6) cfu/ml B. anthracis cells. At 300 microg/ml, 1 h of SWCNTs treatment ...
Domingos J A - - 2012
In this study, a flow-cytometric cell cycle analysis method to assess instantaneous growth rate of whole larvae of the Australian barramundi Lates calcarifer was developed and validated. High-resolution DNA measurements of either fresh, frozen or RNAlater-preserved larvae (gap0-gap1, G(0) -G(1) , coefficient of variation (c.v.) < 3, 4 and 5%, ...
Mathews Marlon S - - 2012
We study the use of photochemical internalization (PCI) for enhancing chemotherapeutic response to malignant glioma cells in vitro. Two models are studied: monolayers consisting of F98 rat glioma cells and human glioma spheroids established from biopsy-derived glioma cells. In both cases, the cytotoxicity of aluminum phthalocyanine disulfonate (AlPcS2a)-based PCI of ...
Liu Jingxuan - - 2012
A decrease in the expression of Islet-1 (Isl-1), an islet transcription factor, has been reported in several physiological settings of reduced β-cell function. Here, we investigate whether an increased level of Isl-1 in islet cells can enhance β-cell function and/or mass. We demonstrate that transgenic mice with Isl-1 overexpression display ...
Nanjappa Manjunatha K - - 2012
The presence of bisphenol A (BPA) in consumer products has raised concerns about potential adverse effects on reproductive health. Testicular Leydig cells are the predominant source of the male sex steroid hormone testosterone, which supports the male phenotype. The present report describes the effects of developmental exposure of male rats ...
Hu Yan-hong - - 2012
The incidence of after-cataracts [also known as posterior capsular opacification (PCO)] is between 30% and 50% three years following cataract surgery. Suppressing the proliferation of lens epithelial cells (LECs) is a primary goal in preventing PCO. Here, we investigated the proteomic regulation of the inhibitory effects of curcumin (Cur) on ...
Farris Alton B - - 2012
Tubulointerstitial injury in the kidney is complex, involving a number of independent and overlapping cellular and molecular pathways, with renal interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA) as the final common pathway. Furthermore, there are multiple ways to assess IFTA. Cells involved include tubular epithelial cells, fibroblasts, fibrocytes, myofibroblasts, monocyte/macrophages, and ...
de Beco Simon - - 2012
Cellular communication is at the heart of animal development, and guides the specification of cell fates, the movement of cells within and between tissues, and the coordinated arrangement of different body parts. During organ and tissue growth, cell-cell communication plays a critical role in decisions that determine whether cells survive ...
Tripathi Ashootosh - - 2012
Lagunamides A (1) and B (2) are potent cytotoxic cyclic depsipeptides isolated from the filamentous marine cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula, from Pulau Hantu, Singapore. These compounds are structurally related to the aurilide-class of molecules, which have been reported to possess exquisite antiproliferative activities against cancer cells. The present study presents preliminary ...
Hoshi Namiko - - 2012
The normally harmless behavior of bacteria in the intestinal tract is maintained by community structure and the integrity of host defenses. When either or both of these are compromised, a few disgruntled outcasts can cause a riot, taking down the whole neighborhood (pages 799-806).
Blickwedehl Jennifer J Department of Immunology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York, - - 2012
The cellular response to ionizing radiation (IR) involves a variety of mechanisms to repair damage and maintain cell survival. We previously reported that the proteasome activator PA200 promotes long-term cell survival after IR exposure. The molecular function of PA200 is to enhance proteasome-mediated cleavage after glutamate; however, it is not ...
Green Jesse A JA Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0414, - - 2012
Germinal centers (GCs) are sites of rapid B-cell proliferation and somatic mutation. These ovoid structures develop within the center of follicles and grow to a stereotypic size. The cell migration and interaction dynamics underlying GC B-cell selection events are currently under intense scrutiny. In recent study, we identified a role ...
Cooper Gregory M GM Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA. - - 2012
Cells within the dura mater have been implicated in the determination of suture patency and fusion. Craniosynostosis (CS), the premature fusion of 1 or more of the cranial sutures, could result from abnormal control over the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells from the dura mater. This study tested whether dura mater ...
Chen Li - - 2012
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is a pattern-recognizing receptor that is involved in immune signaling and plays a crucial role in survival by being able to recognize various viral components including double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). TLR3 expression and function in cancer cells are not well understood. In this study, we investigated whether ...
Tanaka Yoshikazu - - 2012
ABSTRACT: The feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is a member of the feline coronavirus family that causes FIP, which is incurable and fatal in cats. Cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressive agent that targets the nuclear factor pathway of activated T-cells (NF-AT) to bind cellular cyclophilins (CyP), dose-dependently inhibited FIPV replication ...
Li Xin-Li - - 2012
In the present study, we investigated the role of UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like protein containing PHD and RING finger domains 1) in proliferation, invasion and migration of breast cancer cells, and the potential mechanisms were also explored. Cell proliferation was examined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; cell cycle distribution and apoptosis ...
Zaarour Nancy - - 2012
Glucose transporter GLUT4 is responsible for the insulin-induced uptake of glucose by muscle and fat cells. In non-stimulated (basal) cells, GLUT4 is retained intracellularly, while insulin stimulation leads to its translocation from storage compartments towards the cell surface. How GLUT4 is retained intracellularly is largely unknown. Previously, aberrant GLUT4 N-glycosylation ...
Mikuła-Pietrasik Justyna - - 2012
Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene; RVT) is a natural phytoestrogen known to modulate the rate of senescence in cultured cells. The mechanism by which RVT affects this process is still elusive. In this paper we used human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) to examine the effect of RVT (0.5 and 10 μM) on their ...
Jagan I - - 2013
Disruption of glandular architecture associates with poor clinical outcome in high-grade colorectal cancer (CRC). Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) regulates morphogenic growth of benign MDCK (Madin Darby Canine Kidney) cells through effects on the Rho-like GTPase cdc42 (cell division cycle 42). This study investigates PTEN-dependent morphogenesis ...
Mitrović Olivera - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Since reports on endocrine cells and their kinetics in the corpus of the human stomach are limited, the aim of this study was to examine the appearance, localization, density, and the relationship among the endocrine cell types in the corpus of the human stomach during prenatal and early postnatal ...
Williams Headley E - - 2012
Microbes monitor their population density through a mechanism termed quorum sensing. It is believed that quorum-sensing molecules diffuse from the microbial cells and circulate in the surrounding environment as a function of cell density. When these molecules reach a threshold concentration, the gene expression of the entire population is altered ...
Wang Xiao-Tong XT Department of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, - - 2012
To investigate the effects of small interference RNA (siRNA) targeting of Cdx2 on human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells in vitro and in vivo. The recombinant pSilencer 4.1-Cdx2 siRNA plasmids were constructed and transfected into gastric cancer MGC-803 cells in vitro. The stable transfectants were selected. The effects of Cdx2 siRNA ...
Orvis Grant D GD Developmental Biology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, - - 2012
The layered cortex of the cerebellum is folded along the anterior-posterior axis into lobules separated by fissures, allowing the large number of cells needed for advanced cerebellar functions to be packed into a small volume. During development, the cerebellum begins as a smooth ovoid structure with two progenitor zones, the ...
Singh Preetinder P - - 2012
Osteoclast formation is central to bone metabolism, occurring when myelomonocytic progenitors are stimulated by membrane-bound receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL) on osteoblasts. Osteolytic hormones induce osteoblast RANKL expression, and reduce production of RANKL decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG). However, rather than RANKL and OPG mRNA or protein levels, to measure ...
Herman Indria - - 2012
In this paper we have demonstrated the simple, low cost, low temperature, hydrothermal growth of weeping willow ZnO nano-trees with very long branches to realize high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We also discuss the effects of branching on solar cell efficiency. By introducing branched growth on the backbone ZnO ...
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