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Results 301 - 350 of 2627
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Poignard Clair - - 2010
Survival of mammalian cells is achieved by tight control of cell volume, while transmembrane potential has been known to control many cellular functions since the seminal work of Hodgkin and Huxley. Regulation of cell volume and transmembrane potential have a wide range of implications in physiology, from neurological and cardiac ...
Redmond Sharon L - - 2011
The human tympanic membrane (hTM), known more commonly as the eardrum, is a thin, multi-layered membrane that is unique in the body as it is suspended in air. When perforated, the hTM's primary function of sound-pressure transmission is compromised. For the purposes of TM reconstruction, we investigated the phenotype and ...
Dubey G - - 2011
Tissue engineering scaffolds provide the three-dimensional (3-D) geometry and mechanical framework required for regulating cell behavior and facilitating tissue maturation. Unfortunately, most synthetic scaffolds lack the biological recognition motifs required for seeded cell interaction. In order to impart this recognition, synthetic scaffolds should possess appropriate biological functionality. Here, for the ...
Halilovic Adna - - 2010
Heme oxygenase (HO) represents an intrinsic cytoprotective system based on its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties mediated via its products biliverdin/bilirubin and carbon monoxide (CO). We showed that deletion of HO-2 results in impaired corneal wound healing with associated chronic inflammatory complications. This study was undertaken to examine the role of ...
Blazer-Yost Bonnie L BL Department of Biology , Indiana University Purdue University at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, - - 2011
To assess effects of carbon nanoparticle (CNP) exposure on renal epithelial cells, fullerenes (C(60)), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were incubated with a confluent renal epithelial line for 48 h. At low concentrations, CNP-treated cells exhibited significant decreases in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) but no changes ...
Ji Suk - - 2010
The role of Fusobacterium nucleatum in oral health and disease is controversial. We have previously shown that F. nucleatum invades gingival epithelial cells. However, the destiny of the internalized F. nucleatum is not clear. In the present study, the intracellular destiny of F. nucleatum and its cytopathic effect on gingival ...
Song Hong - - 2011
Aim. Ozone is a main component of secondary pollutants of vehicle exhausts, and ozone exposure to children in urban areas may be associated with the development of asthma. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which ozone affects human airway epithelium and subsequent airway inflammation. Methods. Human bronchial epithelial ...
Said Nur Akmarina B M - - 2011
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has gained widespread acceptance over recent years as a mechanism by which normally sessile epithelial tumour cells can move away from the primary tumour and metastasize. This review article examines the role of a number of growth factors in inducing EMT, and the reverse process ...
Lamouille Samy - - 2011
During development and in pathological contexts such as fibrosis and cancer progression, epithelial cells can initiate a complex transcriptional reprogramming, accompanied by dramatic morphological changes, in a process named 'epithelial-mesenchymal transition' (EMT). In this transition, epithelial cells lose their epithelial characteristics to acquire mesenchymal properties and increased motile and invasive ...
Suciu L - - 2010
Telocytes (TC) are interstitial cells with telopodes (Tp). These prolongations (Tp) are quite unique: very long (several tens of micrometres) and very thin (≤0.5 μm), with moniliform aspect: thin segments (podomeres) alternating with dilations (podoms). To avoid any confusion, TC were previously named interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLC). Myocardial TC were ...
Ge Qi - - 2010
Human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells contribute to asthmatic airway inflammation by secreting cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and transforming growth factor (TGF) β1, all of which are elevated in asthmatic airways. This study examines the signaling pathways leading to TGFβ1 induced IL-6 and IL-8 in primary ...
John T A - - 2010
The effect of chronic high altitude hypoxia (CHAH) in the juxta-alveolar region near the air-blood interface is unknown because of the experimental inaccessibility of this region. To examine primary cultures of digested juxtaalveolar smooth muscle cells for hypoxia-induced changes. Smooth Muscle Cells (SMCs) obtained by dispase digestion of the extreme ...
Cirenajwis Helena - - 2010
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be of particular concern in cancer as they possess inherent properties of self-renewal and differentiation, along with expressing certain genes related to a mesenchymal phenotype. These features favour the promotion of tumour recurrence and metastasis in cancer patients. Thus, the optimal chemotherapeutic treatment ...
Pérez-Alvarez Alberto - - 2010
Chromaffin cells are neuroendocrine cells mainly found in the medulla of the adrenal gland. Most existing knowledge of these cells has been the outcome of extensive research performed in animals, mainly in the cow, cat, mouse and rat. However, some insight into the physiology of this neuroendocrine cell in humans ...
Firtina Zeynep Z Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, - - 2011
The lens of the eye is a transparent structure responsible for focusing light onto the retina. It is composed of two morphologically different cell types, epithelial cells found on the anterior surface and the fiber cells that are continuously formed by the differentiation of epithelial cells at the lens equator. ...
Chou San-Fang - - 2011
Background/aims Povidone-iodine (PI) is commonly used as a preoperative disinfectant; however, it has been shown to be cytotoxic. The present study was performed to investigate the mechanism by which PI causes cell death. Methods Primary human corneal fibroblasts (HCF) and a human corneal epithelial cell line (HCEC) were treated with ...
Zhang Liang - - 2010
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in various physiological and pathological events. In this study, we found that the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) can inhibit transforming growth factor-beta1-induced EMT and cell migration. We also demonstrated that Dex inhibits EMT through a mechanism involving the suppression of ROS generation. Surprisingly, Dex ...
Nakajima Akira - - 2010
The fate of the palatal medial edge epithelial (MEE) cells undergoes programming cell death, migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) coincident with the process of palatal fusion and disappearance of MEE. Mesenchymal cells in the palate have both cranial neural crest (CNC) and non-CNC origins. The objectives of this study were ...
Martín-Villar Ester - - 2010
Podoplanin is a transmembrane glycoprotein up-regulated in different human tumors, especially those derived from squamous stratified epithelia (SCCs). Its expression in tumor cells is linked to increased cell migration and invasiveness; however, the mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly understood. Here we report that CD44, the major hyaluronan (HA) receptor, ...
Servetnyk Zhanna - - 2011
The endogenous bronchodilator, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), has been proposed as a possible pharmacological remedy that reverses the ΔF508-CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) maturation defect and increases CFTR-mediated chloride efflux in cultured cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells (CFBE41o(-)). It has also been reported that L-cysteine enhanced S-nitrosothiol uptake and increased the ...
Goga Ledia L Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40292, - - 2011
Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is an unavoidable consequence of tissue transplantation or replantation that often leads to inflammation and cell death. Excessive complement activation following IR induces endothelial cell injury, altering vascular and endothelial barrier function causing tissue dysfunction. To mitigate the IR response, various systemic anti-complement therapies have been tried. ...
Kim Jin Hoon - - 2011
In tissue engineering, injured tissue is normally reconstructed with cells obtained from that tissue itself. However, it is difficult to obtain cells for reconstruction of the trachea because of its shape and limited accessibility. Therefore, other cell sources having similar form and function or stem cells are used for tracheal ...
Roberts Simon J - - 2010
Encapsulation of living cells into gel-like matrices that are capable of maintaining their viability over an extended time period is starting to play a major role in medicine in applications such as, cell-based sensors, cellular therapy, and tissue engineering. The permeability of nutrients and waste products through these matrices is ...
Petricevic Josko - - 2011
The spatial and temporal pattern of appearance of nestin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and mesothelin proteins was immunohistochemically determined in the cells of normal developing and adult human meninges and meningiomas. Human meninges developed as two mesenchymal condensations in the head region. The simple squamous epithelium on the surface of ...
Rubenstein Ronald C - - 2011
The functional expression of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) appears elevated in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelia, but the mechanism by which this occurs is not clear. We tested the hypothesis that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) alters the trafficking of endogenously expressed human ENaC in the CFBE41o⁻ ...
Hatakeyama Setsuko - - 2011
An in vitro cell culture system of dental epithelium is useful for the investigations of cellular differentiation and function of ameloblast in amelogenesis and of regenerative therapy in human tooth. However, there have been no immortalized human dental epithelial ameloblastic-lineage cell lines, which proliferate indefinitely and additionally produce enamel matrix ...
Karantza V V Department of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ, USA. - - 2011
Keratins are the intermediate filament (IF)-forming proteins of epithelial cells. Since their initial characterization almost 30 years ago, the total number of mammalian keratins has increased to 54, including 28 type I and 26 type II keratins. Keratins are obligate heteropolymers and, similarly to other IFs, they contain a dimeric ...
Dudas Paul L - - 2011
Background/Aims: Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is a T cell-derived inflammatory cytokine that is upregulated during renal allograft rejection. The present study sought to further describe the IL-17A-mediated proinflammatory/profibrotic activity of proximal tubule epithelium that may contribute to allograft rejection. Methods: Immortalized (HK-2) and primary (HRPTEpiC) human proximal tubule epithelial cells were utilized ...
Jacob Sam - - 2010
Smoke inhalation injury promotes exfoliation of the upper airway columnar epithelium. Tracheal tissues from sheep 30 min after smoke exposure show intact epithelial areas, areas of epithelial disruption with loss of columnar cells and areas denuded of columnar cells. In intact areas detaching ciliated cells can be seen raised above ...
Böckelmann P K - - 2010
When partially amputated or severely injured, teleost fins suffer a regenerative process called epimorphic regeneration characterised by the following stages: the formation of a multistratified epidermal layer, the disorganisation and distal migration of multipotent mesenchymal cells, the proliferation of these cells in order to form the blastema, continuous proliferation of ...
Julio Gemma - - 2010
Several processing techniques of digital images allowed us to quantify the percentage of cell surface covered by microprojections (microvilli or microplicae) (SCM), the adhesion between epithelial cells by the parameter intercellular junctions (IJ), the size (cell area), shape (cell shape) and shade (cell shade) of cells on the corneal epithelium ...
Li Yuan - - 2010
The present study investigated the effect of VEGFR and EGFR inhibition via vandetanib (Zactima) on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in bladder cancer. Markers of EMT (EGFR, VEGR, E-cadherin and vimentin) were interogated by Western blotting at baseline and after treatment with EGF, VEGF, vandetanib, cisplatin, or their combination using representative epithelial- ...
Kachouie Nezamoddin N - - 2010
Tissue engineering aims to develop functionalized tissues for organ replacement or restoration. Biodegradable scaffolds have been used in tissue engineering to support cell growth and maintain mechanical and biological properties of tissue constructs. Ideally cells on these scaffolds adhere, proliferate, and deposit matrix at a rate that is consistent with ...
Schutte Stacey C - - 2010
The property of vasoactivity is important for both resistance vessels and larger arteries. Evaluation of smooth muscle cell phenotype is often done in place of functional testing in engineered tissues, assuming a direct correlation between cell phenotype and tissue contractile force. In this study we look at a large panel ...
Krafts Kristine P - - 2010
As living beings who encounter every kind of traumatic event from paper cut to myocardial infarction, we must possess ways to heal damaged tissues. While some animals are able to regrow complete body parts following injury (such as the earthworm who grows a new head following bisection), humans are sadly ...
Savagner P - - 2010
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) describes a rapid and often reversible modulation of phenotype by epithelial cells. EMT was originally defined in the context of developmental stages, including heart morphogenesis, mesoderm and neural crest formation. Epithelial cells loosen cell-cell adhesion structures throughout EMT. They modulate their polarity, cytoskeleton organization and typically ...
Martinez G - - 2010
The lens arises from invagination of head ectoderm during embryonic development and in the adult has a relatively simple structure, comprising just two cell types (epithelial and fibre cells). Its isolation from nerves and blood vessels in the adult make it a tractable model to investigate mechanisms that regulate epithelial ...
Knox S M - - 2010
The maintenance of a progenitor cell population as a reservoir of undifferentiated cells is required for organ development and regeneration. However, the mechanisms by which epithelial progenitor cells are maintained during organogenesis are poorly understood. We report that removal of the parasympathetic ganglion in mouse explant organ culture decreased the ...
Perl Anne-Karina T AK Division of Pulmonary Biology, Perinatal Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. - - 2011
The respiratory epithelium has a remarkable capacity to respond to acute injury. In contrast, repeated epithelial injury is often associated with abnormal repair, inflammation, and fibrosis. There is increasing evidence that nonciliated epithelial cells play important roles in the repair of the bronchiolar epithelium after acute injury. Cellular processes underlying ...
Duffield Jeremy S - - 2011
For nearly 100 years, developmental biologists have utilized fate mapping to understand the contributions of progenitor populations to organogenesis. More recently, Cre-Lox technology has allowed genetic fate mapping in adult mice, clarifying cell hierarchies in adult kidney disease models. In ischemia-reperfusion injury, genetic labeling of epithelial cells has demonstrated that ...
Zhao Xiang Ru XR Department of Periodontics, The University of Texas, Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, - - 2011
Oral epithelial cells are the first cells that interact with C. albicans during the establishment of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Following initial adhesion, C. albicans invades oral epithelial cells by inducing its own endocytosis and gains access to epithelial vacuolar compartments. Epithelial endocytic pathways are key innate immune mechanisms in host defense. ...
Tompkins David H DH Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pulmonary Biology, MLC 7029, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039, - - 2011
Sox2, a transcription factor critical for the maintenance of embryonic stem cells and induction of pluripotent stem cells, is expressed exclusively in the conducting airway epithelium of the lung, where it is required for differentiation of nonciliated, goblet, and ciliated cells. To determine the role of Sox2 in respiratory epithelial ...
Buckley Stephen T ST School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panoz Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, - - 2010
The generation of myofibroblasts via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process through which epithelial cells lose their polarity and become motile mesenchymal cells, is a proposed contributory factor in fibrosis of a number of organs. Currently, it remains unclear to what extent epithelia of the upper airways and large intestine are ...
Borthwick L A LA Applied Immunobiology and Transplantation Research Group, Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle, - - 2011
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in the dysregulated epithelial wound repair that contributes to obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) after lung transplantation. Acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the transplanted airway has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of OB. We investigated the potential of P. aeruginosa to ...
Mahtout Hayette - - 2011
Background: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that results in the destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth. Gingival epithelial cells are an important mechanical barrier and participate in the host inflammatory response to periodontopathogens. The aim of the present study is to investigate the capacity of Fusobacterium nucleatum ...
Kaza Seshu K - - 2011
Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of Gram-negative pulmonary pathogens associated with life-threatening infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The airway epithelium plays a crucial role in the initiation and modulation of inflammatory responses to these pathogens. Interleukin (IL)-8 released from epithelial cells is a potent chemoattractant for ...
Mullen Tracy - - 2010
Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of opportunistic cystic fibrosis (CF) pathogens that invade lung epithelial cells. The mechanisms of invasion are poorly understood, in particular, the receptors utilised by this bacterium in the invasion process have not been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the ...
Khan A S - - 2010
Raw materials are critical components of product manufacture; these include source materials such as cell substrates, tissues, and biological fluids required for product manufacture, as well as biological materials required for cell growth, propagation, differentiation, and selection. Adventitious viruses are a major safety concern in biological raw materials. This paper ...
Orlando Clara - - 2010
Lentiviral (LV) vectors are able to only slowly and inefficiently transduce nondividing cells such as those of the airway epithelium. To address this issue, we have exploited the magnetofection technique in in vitro models of airway epithelium. Magnetofectins were formed by noncovalent interaction between LV particles and polycation-coated iron oxide ...
Petricciani John - - 2010
The acceptability of animal cell substrates for the manufacture of biological products, especially vaccines, has been an issue in one form or another since the development of cell cultures in the 1950s. Here the major cell substrate events of the past 50 years are briefly reviewed, and recent progress in ...
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