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Results 201 - 250 of 2627
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Keramati Ali R - - 2011
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is an important event in atherosclerosis and other vasculopathies. PDGF signaling is a key mediator of SMC proliferation, but the mechanisms that control its activity remain unclear. We previously identified a mutation in LDL receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), LRP6(R611C), that causes early atherosclerosis. Examination ...
Paragas Neal - - 2011
Many proteins have been proposed to act as surrogate markers of organ damage, yet for many candidates the essential biomarker characteristics that link the protein to the injured organ have not yet been described. We generated an Ngal reporter mouse by inserting a double-fusion reporter gene encoding luciferase-2 and mCherry ...
Mozzetta Chiara - - 2011
Muscle regeneration relies on adult muscle stem (satellite) cells. Inflammatory cues released within the regenerative microenvironment, such as TNFα, instruct different components of the satellite cell niche toward specialized tasks by regulating specific subsets of genes in each individual cell type. However, how regeneration cues are deciphered and interpreted by ...
Oikonomou Katerina G - - 2011
Alpha-actinin (α-actinin) is a ubiquitous cytoskeletal protein, which belongs to the superfamily of filamentous actin (F-actin) crosslinking proteins. It is present in multiple subcellular regions of both muscle and non-muscle cells, including cell-cell and cell-matrix contact sites, cellular protrusions and stress fiber dense regions and thus, it seems to bear ...
Drescher Cornelia - - 2011
Objective: Insufficient myocardial protection is still a considerable cause for in-hospital mortality in children. The purpose of our study was to investigate underlying the basic mechanisms of cardioplegic cardioprotection during hypothermic and normothermic ischemia in a cardiomyocyte cell culture model. Methods: We cooled cardiomyocytes to 20°C for 20min; during this ...
Luna Jesus I - - 2011
Nano- and micro-scale topographical cues play critical roles in the induction and maintenance of various cellular functions including morphology, adhesion, gene regulation and communication. Recent studies indicate that structure and function at the heart tissue level is exquisitely sensitive to mechanical cues at the nano-scale well as at the micro-scale ...
Zhang Baocai - - 2011
Rice is a model organism for studying the mechanism of cell wall biosynthesis and remolding in Gramineae. Mechanical strength is an important agronomy trait of rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants that affects crop lodging and grain yield. As a prominent physical property of cell walls, mechanical strength reflects upon the ...
Zhang Jun - - 2011
Cardiac stem cells (CSCs) can differentiate into cardiac phenotypes representing early cardiomyocyte-like cells. However, CSCs-derived specification into sinus nodal cells is rarely known. Using the demethylating agent, 5-Aazacytidine (5-Aza), we tried to follow the process of cardiac specialization into sinus node-like cells. The c-kit+ cells were isolated from 1-month-old rat ...
Yoshikawa Hiroshi Y - - 2011
Thin hydrogel films based on an ABA triblock copolymer gelator [where A is pH-sensitive poly(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDPA) and B is biocompatible poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC)] were used as a stimulus-responsive substrate that allows fine adjustment of the mechanical environment experienced by mouse myoblast cells. The hydrogel film elasticity could be reversibly ...
McKee Clayton T - - 2011
Glaucoma is a devastating neurodegenerative disease, which can lead to vision loss and is associated with irreversible damage to retinal ganglion cells. Although the mechanism of disease onset remains unknown, we have recently demonstrated that the stiffness of the ocular trabecular meshwork (HTM) increases dramatically in human donor eyes with ...
Léonard Alexandre - - 2011
This critical review highlights the advances that have been made over recent years in the domain of whole-cell immobilisation and encapsulation for applications relating to the environment and human health, particularly focusing on examples of photosynthetic plant cells, bacteria and algae as well as animal cells. Evidence that encapsulated photosynthetic ...
Maria Ola M - - 2011
Sjogren's syndrome and radiotherapy for head and neck cancers result in irreversible damage to functional salivary tissue, for which no adequate treatment is available. The microenvironment for salivary gland cell cytodifferentiation is critical for the future development of salivary gland regeneration, repair and tissue engineering treatments. Results from this study ...
Beaulieu Isabelle - - 2011
Progress in instrumental design continues to pave the way for high-resolution, real-time electrochemical measurements with living cells.
Solodushko Victor - - 2011
p19(ARF) is a tumor suppressor that leads to cell cycle arrest or apoptosis by stabilizing p53. p19(ARF) is not critical for cell cycle regulation under normal conditions, but loss of p19(ARF) is seen in many human cancers, and a murine p19(Arf) knockout model leads to malignant proliferation and tumor formation; ...
Osman M H - - 2011
Recent developments in bio-fuel cell technology are reviewed. A general introduction to bio-fuel cells, including their operating principles and applications, is provided. New materials and methods for the immobilisation of enzymes and mediators on electrodes, including the use of nanostructured electrodes are considered. Fuel, mediator and enzyme materials (anode and ...
Banyasz Tamas - - 2011
The cardiac action potential (AP) is shaped by myriad ionic currents. In this study, we develop an innovative AP-clamp Sequential Dissection technique to enable the recording of multiple ionic currents in the single cell under AP-clamp. This new technique presents a significant step beyond the traditional way of recording only ...
Gentile Antonietta - - 2011
Recent studies have underscored a role for the epicardium as a source of multipotent cells. Here, we investigate the myogenic potential of adult human epicardium-derived cells (EPDCs) and analyze their ability to undergo skeletal myogenesis when cultured with differentiating primary myoblasts. Results are compared to those obtained with mesenchymal stromal ...
Kurt Birguel - - 2011
Gap junctional coupling of renin-producing cells is of major functional importance for the control of renin synthesis and release. This study was designed to determine the relevance of the vascular gap junction protein connexin 45 (Cx45) for the control of renin expression and secretion. By crossbreeding mice which drive Cre ...
Lee Kieran J D KJ Centre for Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS29JT, - - 2011
Polysaccharide-rich plant cell walls are important biomaterials that underpin plant growth, are major repositories for photosynthetically accumulated carbon, and, in addition, impact greatly on the human use of plants. Land plant cell walls contain in the region of a dozen major polysaccharide structures that are mostly encompassed by cellulose, hemicelluloses, ...
Haagensen Janus A J - - 2011
Growing awareness of heterogeneity in cells of microbial populations has emphasized the importance of advanced microscopy for visualization and understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cell-to-cell variation. In this review, we highlight some of the recent advances in confocal microscopy, super-resolution optical microscopy (STED, SIM, PALM) as well as atomic ...
Yu Man-Li - - 2011
Several microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to regulate cardiovascular biological and pathological processes through inhibiting the translation of certain RNA transcripts. However, little is known about the association between miRNAs and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. The aim was to investigate the role of miRNAs in VSMC growth and ...
Dittmar Thomas - - 2011
Although cell fusion is an omnipresent process in life, to date considerably less is still known about the mechanisms and the molecules being involved in this biological phenomenon in higher organisms. In Cell Fusion in Health and Disease Volume 1 international leading experts will present up-to-date overviews about the current ...
Valmikinathan Chandra M - - 2011
Over the last decade tissue engineering has emerged as a powerful alternative to regenerate lost tissues owing to trauma or tumor. Evidence shows that Schwann cell containing scaffolds have improved performance in vivo as compared to scaffolds that depend on cellularization post implantation. However, owing to limited supply of cells ...
Alvarez-Dolado Manuel - - 2011
Cell fusion is a natural process implicated in normal development, immune response, tissue formation, and with a prominent role in stem cell plasticity. The discovery that bone marrow stem cells fuse with several cell types, under normal condition or after an injury, introduces new possibilities in regenerative medicine and genetic ...
Plunkett Niamh - - 2011
A bioreactor can be defined as a device that uses mechanical means to influence biological processes. In tissue engineering bioreactors can be used to aid in the in vitro development of new tissue by providing biochemical and physical regulatory signals to cells and encouraging them to undergo differentiation and/or to ...
Richter Stephan - - 2011
Using the Raman imaging approach, the optimization of the plant cell wall design was investigated on the micron level within different tissue types at different positions of a Phormium tenax leaf. Pectin and lignin distribution were visualized and the cellulose microfibril angle (MFA) of the cell walls was determined. A ...
Ohguro Yukari - - 2011
Secondary mesenchyme cells (SMCs) of the sea urchin embryo are composed of pigment cells, blastocoelar cells, spicule tip cells, coelomic pouch cells and muscle cells. To learn how and when these five types of SMCs are specified in the veg(2) descendants, Notch or Nodal signaling was blocked with γ-secretase inhibitor ...
Van Haastert Peter J M - - 2011
Pseudopods are cell extensions used for movement. The direction and trajectory of cell movement depend on how cells extend pseudopods. Experimental data show that new pseudopods are frequently formed by the splitting of an existing pseudopod, often as a series of left-right extensions. Here, these data on pseudopod extensions are ...
Cosgrove Daniel J - - 2011
This article summarizes the theory and practical aspects of measuring cell wall properties by four different extensometer techniques and how the results of these methods relate to the concept and ideal measurement of cell wall extensibility in the context of cell growth. These in vivo techniques are particularly useful for ...
Cheung P Y - - 2011
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized by cadherin switching, contributes to cancer metastasis. Our recent study showed that Id-1 (inhibitor of differentiation-1) promotes metastasis in esophageal cancer cells, but whether the invasive and metastatic dynamics can be induced early in the carcinogenesis process is still unclear. Immortalization is regarded as the initial ...
Khan Muhammad - - 2011
Flavonoid compounds have been shown to trigger cell cycle arrest at G0/G1, S and G2/M checkpoints, allowing cells to repair DNA damage before entry into mitosis. Jaceosidin, a flavonoid compound, has been reported to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. In our previous study, we established that jaceosidin induces ...
Tavana Hossein - - 2011
We summarize a recently developed microtechnology for printing biomaterials on biological surfaces. The technique is based on the use of immiscible aqueous solutions of two biopolymers and allows spatially defined placement of cells and biomolecules suspended in the denser aqueous phase on existing cell layers and extracellular matrix hydrogel surfaces ...
Brackmann Christian - - 2011
The integration of living, human smooth muscle cells in biosynthesized cellulose scaffolds was monitored by nonlinear microscopy toward contractile artificial blood vessels. Combined coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy was applied for studies of the cell interaction with the biopolymer network. CARS microscopy probing CH(2)-groups ...
Liu Chang-Jun - - 2011
Lignin is the second most abundant terrestrial biopolymer after cellulose. It is essential for the viability of vascular plants. Lignin precursors, the monolignols, are synthesized within the cytosol of the cell. Thereafter, these monomeric precursors are exported into the cell wall, where they are polymerized and integrated into the wall ...
Bae Hojae - - 2011
The ability to encapsulate cells in three-dimensional (3D) environments is potentially of benefit for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this paper, we introduce pullulan methacrylate (PulMA) as a promising hydrogel platform for creating cell-laden microscale tissues. The hydration and mechanical properties of PulMA were demonstrated to be tunable through ...
Chapman Harold A - - 2011
Lung epithelial cells have emerged as a frequent target of injury, a driver of normal repair, and a key element in the pathobiology of fibrotic lung diseases. An important aspect of epithelial cells is their capacity to respond to microenvironmental cues by undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT is not simply ...
Fink Trine - - 2011
For treatment of cardiac failure with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, several clinical trials are ongoing. However, more attention is gathering on the use of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs). This paper describes the optimization of isolation and propagation of ASCs for subsequent clinical use. In the isolation step, several ...
Rauzi Matteo - - 2011
Cortical forces drive a variety of cell shape changes and cell movements during tissue morphogenesis. While the molecular components underlying these forces have been largely identified, how they assemble and spatially and temporally organize at cell surfaces to promote cell shape changes in developing tissues are open questions. We present ...
Roberts Simon J - - 2011
Encapsulation of living cells into gel-like matrices that are capable of maintaining their viability over an extended time period is starting to play a major role in medicine in applications such as, cell-based sensors, cellular therapy, and tissue engineering. The permeability of nutrients and waste products through these matrices is ...
Sakai Shinji - - 2011
Gelatin-based microcapsule production using a microfluidic system and the feasibility of the resultant microcapsules for constructing spherical tissues surrounded by heterogeneous cells were studied. The first cell-encapsulation and subsequent cell-enclosing microparticle encapsulation were achieved using a microfluidic flow-focusing droplet production system. A hollow-core structure of about 150 μm in diameter ...
Pascal Laura E - - 2011
Prostate carcinomas are surrounded by a layer of stromal fibroblastic cells that are characterized by increased expression of CD90. These CD90(+) cancer-associated stromal fibroblastic cells differ in gene expression from their normal counterpart, CD49a(+)CD90(lo) stromal smooth muscle cells; and were postulated to represent a less differentiated cell type with altered ...
Ciavarra Giovanni - - 2011
The tumor suppressor Rb is thought to control cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. We recently showed that differentiating Rb-deficient mouse myoblasts can fuse to form short myotubes that quickly collapse through a mechanism involving autophagy, and that autophagy inhibitors or hypoxia could rescue the defect leading to long, twitching myotubes. ...
Chun Chang Zoon - - 2011
Vasculogenesis, the de novo formation of blood vessels from precursor cells is critical for a developing embryo. However, the signals and events that dictate the formation of primary axial vessels remain poorly understood. In this study, we use ets-related protein-1 (etsrp), which is essential for vascular development, to analyze the ...
Franck Christian - - 2011
The interactions between biochemical processes and mechanical signaling play important roles during various cellular processes such as wound healing, embryogenesis, metastasis, and cell migration. While traditional traction force measurements have provided quantitative information about cell matrix interactions in two dimensions, recent studies have shown significant differences in the behavior and ...
Kirkton Robert D - - 2011
Patch-clamp recordings in single-cell expression systems have been traditionally used to study the function of ion channels. However, this experimental setting does not enable assessment of tissue-level function such as action potential (AP) conduction. Here we introduce a biosynthetic system that permits studies of both channel activity in single cells ...
Zhang Sihui - - 2011
Cell culture is an essential tool to study cell function. In C. elegans the ability to isolate and culture cells has been limited to embryonically derived cells. However, cells or blastomeres isolated from mixed stage embryos terminally differentiate within 24 hours of culture, thus precluding post-embryonic stage cell culture. We ...
Yang Lei - - 2011
Recent advances in stem cell biology have established the feasibility of reprogramming human and murine fibroblast cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. Three master regulators have been demonstrated to be sufficient in the management of cell status of 'pluripotent' versus 'differentiated'. The same strategy has been used to directly convert ...
Janmey Paul A - - 2011
The responses of cells to chemical signals are relatively well characterized and understood. Cells also respond to mechanical signals in the form of externally applied force and forces generated by cell-matrix and cell-cell contacts. Many features of cell function that are generally considered to be under the control of chemical ...
Townsend Todd A TA Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tenn., - - 2011
Valvular heart disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Revealing the cellular processes and molecules that regulate valve formation and remodeling is required to develop effective therapies. A key step in valve formation during heart development is the epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) of a subpopulation of endocardial cells in ...
Dhaliwal Kevin K MRC Centre for Inflammation Research, Queen's Medical Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, UK. - - 2011
The need to understand cellular trafficking in vivo in situ requires the development and application of novel methodologies for cellular labeling and cell tracking. Here we applied new technologies associated with advances in molecular imaging to demonstrate the feasibility of labeling primary immune cells. We demonstrate the utility of fluorescently ...
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