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Results 251 - 300 of 1912
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Ylä-Outinen Laura - - 2010
At present, most of the neurotoxicological analyses are based on in vitro and in vivo models utilizing animal cells or animal models. In addition, the used in vitro models are mostly based on molecular biological end-point analyses. Thus, for neurotoxicological screening, human cell-based analysis platforms in which the functional neuronal ...
Larson David E DE The Genome Center at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of - - 2010
We present a computer simulation and associated experimental validation of assembly of glial-like support cells into the interweaving hexagonal lattice that spans the Drosophila pupal eye. This process of cell movements organizes the ommatidial array into a functional pattern. Unlike earlier simulations that focused on the arrangements of cells within ...
De Vylder Jonas J Institute for the Promotion of Innovation by Science and Technology in Flanders (IWT), Belgium. - - 2010
The dynamics of genome regions are associated to the functional or dysfunctional behaviour of the human cell. In order to study these dynamics it is necessary to remove perturbations coming from movement and deformation of the nucleus, i.e. the container holding the genome. In literature models have been proposed to ...
Huclova Sonja S Electromagnetic Fields and Microwave Electronics Laboratory (IFH), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich), Gloriastrasse 35, 8092, - - 2010
In the past, mainly analytical mixing formulas were used for modeling of dielectric properties of biological cells. General drawbacks of such formulas are the restriction to simple shapes and small cellular volume fractions. Assuming cell suspensions or tissues being quasi-periodic the problem size can be reduced to a cubic unit ...
Shapiro Irving M - - 2010
This editorial addresses the debate concerning the origin of adult nucleus pulposus cells in the light of profiling studies by Minogue and colleagues. In their report of several marker genes that distinguish nucleus pulposus cells from other related cell types, the authors provide novel insights into the notochordal nature of ...
Carlsson Anders E AE Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, USA. - - 2010
The dynamic nature of actin in cells manifests itself constantly. Polymerization near the cell edge is balanced by depolymerization in the interior, externally induced actin polymerization is followed by depolymerization, and spontaneous oscillations of actin at the cell periphery are frequently seen. I discuss how mathematical modeling relates quantitative measures ...
Hyrien Ollivier O Department of Biostatistics & Computational Biology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. - - 2010
Over the past decade, flow cytometric CFSE-labeling experiments have gained considerable popularity among experimentalists, especially immunologists and hematologists, for studying the processes of cell proliferation and cell death. Several mathematical models have been presented in the literature to describe cell kinetics during these experiments. We propose a multi-type age-dependent branching ...
Belete Hewan A - - 2010
Cell wounding, that is a loss of plasma membrane integrity, is a common everyday occurrence in load bearing organs such as muscle, skin, and bone. In general, these injuries trigger adaptive responses to either restore homeostasis or to protect the cells from further damage. The ability to restore plasma membrane ...
Cookson Natalie A NA Department of Bioengineering, BioCircuits Institute, Molecular Biology Section, Division of Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, - - 2010
Computational modeling of biological systems has become an effective tool for analyzing cellular behavior and for elucidating key properties of the intricate networks that underlie experimental observations. While most modeling techniques rely heavily on the concentrations of intracellular molecules, little attention has been paid to tracking and simulating the significant ...
Michelin S?bastien - - 2010
Swimming microorganisms such as bacteria or spermatozoa are typically found in dense suspensions, and exhibit collective modes of locomotion qualitatively different from that displayed by isolated cells. In the dilute limit where fluid-mediated interactions can be treated rigorously, the long-time hydrodynamics of a collection of cells result from interactions with ...
Hutson M Shane - - 2009
Laser microsurgery and finite element modeling are used to determine the cell-level mechanics of the amnioserosa-a morphogenetically crucial epithelium on the dorsal surface of fruit fly embryos (Drosophila melanogaster). In the experiments, a tightly focused laser ablates a subcellular hole (1 microm in diameter) that passes clean through the epithelium. ...
Kim Peter S PS Department of Mathematics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, - - 2010
The currently accepted paradigm for the primary T cell response is that effector T cells commit to autonomous developmental programs. This concept is based on several experiments that have demonstrated that the dynamics of a T cell response is largely determined shortly after antigen exposure and that T cell dynamics ...
Abbas Lamia - - 2009
The paper presents the classical age-dependent approach of the morphogenesis in the framework of the von Foerster equation, in which we introduce a new constraint and study a new feature: (i) the new constraint concerns cell proliferation along the contour lines of the cell density, depending on the local curvature ...
Schamberg S - - 2010
Planar cell polarity (PCP) occurs in the epithelia of many animals and can lead to the alignment of hairs, bristles, and feathers. Here, we present two approaches to modelling this phenomenon. The aim is to discover the basic mechanisms that drive PCP, while keeping the models mathematically tractable. We present ...
Hjelm Brooke E - - 2010
We have developed an in vitro human vaginal epithelial cell (EC) model using the innovative rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor technology that recapitulates in vivo structural and functional properties, including a stratified squamous epithelium with microvilli, tight junctions, microfolds, and mucus. This three-dimensional (3-D) vaginal model provides a platform for ...
Maler Adrian - - 2010
Mechanistic dynamic cell population models for the tumour control probability (TCP) to date have used a simplistic representation of the cell cycle: either an exponential cell-cycle time distribution (Zaider & Minerbo, 2000, Tumour control probability: a formulation applicable to any temporal protocol of dose delivery. Phys. Med. Biol., 45, 279-293) ...
Schneider M R - - 2010
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are permanent cell lines that can be maintained in a pluripotent, undifferentiated state. Appropriate environmental stimuli can cause them to differentiate into cell types of all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. Embryonic stem cells bear many opportunities for clinical applications in tissue ...
Geris Liesbet - - 2010
In this study, a cell based lattice free modelling framework is proposed to study cell aggregate behaviour in bone tissue engineering applications. The model encompasses cell-to-cell and cell-environment interactions such as adhesion, repulsion and drag forces. Oxygen, nutrients, waste products, growth factors and inhibitors are explicitly represented in the model ...
Johnson Jed - - 2009
Malignant gliomas are the most common tumors originating within the central nervous system and account for over 15,000 deaths annually in the United States. The median survival for glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive of these tumors, is only 14 months. Therapeutic strategies targeting glioma cells migrating away from the ...
Friedl Peter - - 2010
Cell migration underlies tissue formation, maintenance, and regeneration as well as pathological conditions such as cancer invasion. Structural and molecular determinants of both tissue environment and cell behavior define whether cells migrate individually (through amoeboid or mesenchymal modes) or collectively. Using a multiparameter tuning model, we describe how dimension, density, ...
Martín Osmel - - 2009
Oscillating biochemical reactions are common in cell dynamics and could be closely related to the emergence of the life phenomenon itself. In this work, we study the dynamical features of some classical chemical or biochemical oscillators where the effect of cell volume changes is explicitly considered. Such analysis enables us ...
Lee Jack Y - - 2009
The active movement of cells from subendothelial compartments into the bloodstream (intravasation) has been recognized for several decades by histologic and physiologic studies, yet the molecular effectors of this process are relatively uncharacterized. For extravasation, studies based predominantly on static transwell assays support a general model, whereby transendothelial migration (TEM) ...
Welsh Marleen M Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, - - 2009
Quantitative variation in response to drugs in human populations is multifactorial; genetic factors probably contribute to a significant extent. Identification of the genetic contribution to drug response typically comes from clinical observations and use of classic genetic tools. These clinical studies are limited by our inability to control environmental factors ...
Chauviere A - - 2010
Cell migration involves different mechanisms in different cell types and tissue environments. Changes in migratory behaviour have been observed experimentally and associated with phenotypic switching in various situations, such as the migration-proliferation dichotomy of glioma cells, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition or the mesenchymal-amoeboid transition of fibrosarcoma cells in the extracellular matrix ...
Bogle Gib - - 2010
Recent intravital microscopy experiments have revealed the complex behavior of T cells within lymph nodes. Modeling T-cell responses in lymph nodes now requires integration of cell trafficking and motility with the molecular processes involved in T-cell activation. We describe an agent-based model that allows such integration, in which T cells ...
Bock Andreas - - 2009
An assay for measuring the number of adherent cells on microcarriers that is independent from dilution errors in sample preparation was used to investigate attachment dynamics and cell growth. It could be shown that the recovery of seeded cells is a function of the specific rates of cell attachment and ...
Diplas Andreas I - - 2009
Loss of imprinting (LOI) is the reactivation of the silenced allele of an imprinted gene, leading to perturbation of monoallelic expression. We tested the hypothesis that LOI of PLAGL1, a representative maternally imprinted gene, occurs through an all-or-none process leading to a mixture of fully imprinted and nonimprinted cells. Herein ...
Roach Kenneth L KL Center for Engineering in Medicine, BioMEMS Resource Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Shriners Hospital for Children, Boston, MA, - - 2009
Advances in systems biology and bioinformatics have highlighted that no cell population is truly uniform and that stochastic behavior is an inherent property of many biological systems. As a result, bulk measurements can be misleading even when particular care has been taken to isolate a single cell type, and measurements ...
Dailey H L - - 2010
The reopening of fluid-occluded pulmonary airways generates microbubble flows which impart complex hydrodynamic stresses to the epithelial cells lining airway walls. In this study we used boundary element solutions and finite element techniques to investigate how cell rheology influences the deformation and injury of cells during microbubble flows. An optimized ...
Mazzuferi Manuela - - 2010
Printed circuit board (PCB) technology can be used for producing lab-on-a-chip (LOAC) devices. PCBs are characterized by low production costs and large-scale development, both essential elements in the frame of disposable applications. LOAC platforms have been employed not only for diagnostic and/or analytical purposes, but also for identification and isolation ...
Baker Ruth E - - 2010
Cell migration and growth are essential components of the development of multicellular organisms. The role of various cues in directing cell migration is widespread, in particular, the role of signals in the environment in the control of cell motility and directional guidance. In many cases, especially in developmental biology, growth ...
Maenhaut C - - 2010
The concept of cancer stem cells (CSC) embodies two aspects: the stem cell as the initial target of the oncogenic process and the existence of two populations of cells in cancers: the CSC and derived cells. The second is discussed in this review. CSC are defined as cells having three ...
Walker D C - - 2010
The characteristics of biological tissues are determined by the interactions of large numbers of autonomous cells. These interactions can be mediated remotely by diffusive biochemical factors, or by direct cell-cell contact. E-cadherin is a protein expressed on the surface of normal epithelial cells that plays a key role in mediating ...
Ouaknin Gaddiel Yonathan - - 2009
The classical approach to model collective biological cell movement is through coupled nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations for biological cells and diffusive chemicals that interact with the biological cells. This approach takes into account the diffusion of cells, proliferation, death of cells, and chemotaxis. Whereas the classical approach has many advantages, it ...
O'Dea R D - - 2010
The growth of a cell population within a rigid porous scaffold in a perfusion bioreactor is studied, using a three-phase continuum model of the type presented by Lemon et al. (2006, Multiphase modelling of tissue growth using the theory of mixtures. J. Math. Biol., 52, 571-594) to represent the cell ...
Barnes Piers R F - - 2009
Photocurrents generated by thick, strongly absorbing, dye-sensitized cells were reduced when the electrolyte iodine concentration was increased. Electron diffusion lengths measured using common transient techniques (L(n)) were at least two times higher than diffusion lengths measured at steady state (L(IPCE)). Charge collection efficiency calculated using L(n) seriously overpredicted photocurrent, while ...
Zhang Y L - - 2009
A prototype for automatic control of mechanical forces acting on cell biomembranes is proposed in this paper. This prototype consists of vision-guided position control of the holder and micro-force sensor, automatic mechanical property characterization of cell biomembranes and automatic control of mechanical forces acting on cell biomembranes. A template-free calibration ...
Picard C - - 2009
The mechanical behaviour of adherent cells cultured in vitro is known to be dependent on the mechanical properties of the substrate. We show that this mechanical behaviour is also strongly affected by the cells' environment. We focus here on the impact of temperature and pH. Experiments carried out on individual ...
Ateshian Gerard A GA Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA. - - 2009
A framework is formulated within the theory of mixtures for continuum modeling of biological tissue growth that explicitly addresses cell division, using a homogenized representation of cells and their extracellular matrix (ECM). The model relies on the description of the cell as containing a solution of water and osmolytes, and ...
Moreno-Flores Susana - - 2010
Biomechanics is gaining relevance as complementary discipline to structural and cellular biology. The response of cells to mechanical stimuli determines cell type and function, while the spatial distribution of mechanical forces within the cells is crucial to understand cell activity. The experimental methodologies to approach cell mechanics are diverse but ...
Maggi Mat?as - - 2010
We undertook a field study to determine whether comb cell size affects the reproductive behavior of Varroa destructor under natural conditions. We examined the effect of brood cell width on the reproductive behavior of V. destructor in honey bee colonies, under natural conditions. Drone and worker brood combs were sampled ...
Stolarska Magdalena A - - 2009
Cell and tissue movement are essential processes at various stages in the life cycle of most organisms. The early development of multi-cellular organisms involves individual and collective cell movement; leukocytes must migrate towards sites of infection as part of the immune response; and in cancer, directed movement is involved in ...
McGarry J P - - 2009
A bio-chemo-mechanical model has been used to predict the contractile responses of smooth cells on a bed of micro-posts. Predictions obtained for smooth muscle cells reveal that, by converging onto a single set of parameters, the model captures all of the following responses in a self-consistent manner: (i) the scaling ...
Chung C A - - 2009
The Boyden chamber assay provides a convenient method of assessing cell migration and measuring cell motility coefficients at the population level. Previous models of this assay completely ignore cell sedimentation in the suspension, assuming that all cells have already settled on the filter surface before commencing migration within the filter. ...
Pleass Richard J - - 2009
Two recent papers published in Immunity and Cell Host & Microbe underline the great importance of B cells and of antibodies (Abs) in orchestrating crucial T helper cell type 2 (Th2) protective immune responses to gastrointestinal nematodes. The findings in animal models now raise major questions as to how B ...
Sch??le Birgitt - - 2009
The study of mechanisms that underlie Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as translational drug development, has been hindered by the lack of appropriate models. Both cell culture systems and animal models have limitations, and to date none faithfully recapitulate all of the clinical and pathological phenotypes of the disease. In ...
Starostová Zuzana - - 2009
The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) predicts the ubiquity of the of 3/4 scaling exponent relating metabolic rate (MR) to body mass, as well as cell-size invariance coupled with body-size dependence of cellular MR in quickly dividing cells. An alternative prediction is that MR scales interspecifically with a coefficient that ...
Fitzpatrick Kathleen M - - 2009
Parkinson's disease (PD) researchers have pioneered the use of cell-based therapies (CBTs) in the central nervous system. CBTs for PD were originally envisioned as a way to replace the dopaminergic nigral neurons lost with the disease. Several sources of catecholaminergic cells, including autografts of adrenal medulla and allografts or xenografts ...
Paciello Lucia - - 2010
A cultural system, aimed at the production of glucoamylase with cells of a non-conventional yeast transformed for the enzyme expression, Kluyveromyces lactis JA6-GAA was realised. Glucoamylase production was accomplished in a reactor operating in fed batch mode to avoid limitations with respect to oxygen transfer, and achieve high cell density. ...
Geitmann Anja - - 2009
Cellular expansive growth is one of the foundations of morphogenesis. In plant and fungal cells, expansive growth is ultimately determined by manipulating the mechanics of the cell wall. Therefore, theoretical and biophysical descriptions of cellular growth processes focus on mathematical models of cell wall biomechanical responses to tensile stresses, produced ...
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