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Haupt Simone - - 2012
Stem cells have become a major focus of scientific interest as a potential source of somatic cell types for biomedical applications. Understanding and controlling the elicitors and mechanisms in differentiation of pluripotent stem cell-derived somatic cell types remains a key challenge. The major types of molecular processes that control cellular ...
Lacerda Lara - - 2012
Understanding the mechanisms responsible for carbon nanotube (CNT) internalisation into live cells is considered critical both from a fundamental point of view and for further engineering of CNT-based delivery systems to intracellular targets. While several studies are focused on the development of such CNT-based delivery systems, attempts to systematically elucidate ...
Assar Rodrigo - - 2012
In order to treat osteoporosis and other bone mass disorders it is necessary to understand the regulatory processes that control the cell fate decisions responsible for going from bone precursor cells to bone tissue. Many processes interact to regulate cell division, differentiation and apoptosis. There are models for these basic ...
Kumar Roshan M - - 2012
Cells can make fate decisions in response to information from the environment. In this issue of Molecular Cell, Chen et al. (2012) describe how the design of a signal-processing pathway allows a homogenous population of cells to display diverse responses to uniform growth factor cues.
Gamper Armin M AM Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, - - 2012
The transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is an important regulator of cell-fate decision, including cell-cycle regulation, apoptosis, and stem cell renewal, and plays an ambivalent role in tumorigenesis as a tissue-specific tumor suppressor or oncogene. Here, we report that the Von Hippel-Lindau gene product, pVHL, physically interacts with KLF4 ...
Lv Zhibin - - 2012
A type of highly efficient completely flexible fiber-shaped solar cell based on TiO(2) nanotube array is successfully prepared. Under air mass 1.5G (100 mW cm(-2)) illumination conditions, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the solar cell approaches 7%, the highest among all fiber-shaped cells based on TiO(2) nanotube arrays and the ...
Hu Jianchen - - 2012
Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates are used to fabricate arrays of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) pillars. This technique makes it possible to control the dimensions of the pillars, namely their diameters, intervals, and heights, on a tens-of-nanometer scale. These features are essential for enhancing carrier processes such as carrier generation, exciton diffusion, ...
Manivannan Sriram - - 2012
Renal development is a complex process involving the dynamic interplay of over 25 different cell types. One distinct step in this process is the formation of the ureteric tree, which develops from the repeated branching of the ureteric bud. During branching of the ureteric bud, cells migrate collectively in unison ...
Chen Zhong-Hua - - 2012
Genetic resources available for Arabidopsis thaliana make this species particularly attractive as a model for molecular genetic studies of guard cell homeostasis, transport and signalling, but this facility is not matched by accessible tools for quantitative analysis of transport in the intact cell. We have developed a reliable set of ...
Yang Yingzi - - 2012
Cell signaling mediated by morphogens is essential to coordinate growth and patterning, two key processes that govern the formation of a complex multi-cellular organism. During growth and patterning, cells are specified by both quantitative and directional information. While quantitative information regulates cell proliferation and differentiation, directional information is conveyed in ...
Yamakawa Tomoko - - 2012
Notch is a single-pass transmembrane receptor that mediates the local cell-cell interactions necessary for many cell-fate decisions. The extra cellular domain of Notch contains a tandem array of epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) repeats. Some of these EGF-like repeats are O-fucosylated by protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (O-fut1), which is essential for Notch ...
Morris Samantha A - - 2012
Early development of the mouse comprises a sequence of cell fate decisions in which cells are guided along a pathway of restricted potential and increasing specialisation. The first choice faced by cells of the embryo is whether to become trophectoderm (TE) or inner cell mass (ICM); TE is an extra-embryonic ...
Marée Athanasius F M - - 2012
To regulate shape changes, motility and chemotaxis in eukaryotic cells, signal transduction pathways channel extracellular stimuli to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. The complexity of such networks makes it difficult to understand the roles of individual components, let alone their interactions and multiple feedbacks within a given layer and ...
de Jong Joan H - - 2012
The epithelial lining of the intestine is characterized by an immense cellular turn-over ascertaining an extensive regenerative capacity. Multiple reports suggest that besides the local intestinal stem cell pool, circulating cells of bone marrow origin (BMDCs) contribute to this process by fusing with the epithelial lineage. However, the functional relevance ...
Poulson Nicholas D - - 2012
Generation of three-dimensional tissues with distinct cell types is required for the development of all organs. On its own, mitotic spindle orientation allows tissues to change in length or shape. In combination with intrinsic or extrinsic cues, this can also be coupled to the generation of diverse cell fates-a process ...
Yu Miao - - 2012
In dicotyledonous plant, the first asymmetric zygotic division and subsequent several cell divisions are crucial for proembryo pattern formation and later embryo development. Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a family of extensively glycosylated cell surface proteins that are thought to have important roles in various aspects of plant growth and development, ...
Kamimura Atsushi - - 2012
Recent experimental observations suggest that cells can show relatively precise and reliable responses to external signals even though substantial noise is inevitably involved in the signals. An intriguing question is the way how cells can manage to do it. One possible way to realize such response for a cell is ...
Limon Jose J - - 2012
Activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is required for B cell proliferation and survival. PI3K signaling also controls key aspects of B cell differentiation. Upon engagement of the B cell receptor (BCR), PI3K activation promotes Ca(2+) mobilization and activation of NFκB-dependent transcription, events which are essential for B cell proliferation. PI3K ...
Moreno-Risueno Miguel A MA Department of Biology and Duke Center for Systems Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, - - 2012
Development of multicellular organisms requires specification of diverse cell types. In plants, development is continuous and because plant cells are surrounded by rigid cell walls, cell division and specification of daughter cell fate must be carefully orchestrated. During embryonic and postembryonic plant development, the specification of cell types is determined ...
Goetz Jillian J JJ Department of Genetics, Development and Cell Biology, Neuroscience Program, Iowa State University, Iowa, - - 2012
Highly specialized, but exceedingly small populations of cells play important roles in many tissues. The identification of cell-type specific markers and gene expression programs for extremely rare cell subsets has been a challenge using standard whole-tissue approaches. Gene expression profiling of individual cells allows for unprecedented access to cell types ...
Anderson-White Brooke B Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, - - 2012
Cell division across members of the protozoan parasite phylum Apicomplexa displays a surprising diversity between different species as well as between different life stages of the same parasite. In most cases, infection of a host cell by a single parasite results in the formation of a polyploid cell from which ...
He Qian - - 2011
Due to the lack of effective diagnostic tools, most patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) have no chance of surgical resection. Ars2 is a protein that was reported to be important for microRNA (miR) biogenesis, and its depletion can reduce the levels of several miRs, including miR-21, which is overexpressed in CCAs. ...
Li Yang Y Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, - - 2011
Amplification of chromosome 8q22, which includes the gene for lysosomal associated transmembrane protein LAPTM4B, has been linked to de novo anthracycline resistance in primary breast cancers with poor prognosis. LAPTM4B overexpression can induce cytosolic retention of anthracyclines and decrease drug-induced DNA damage. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that ...
Cools Martine - - 2011
A subset of patients with disorders of sex development (DSD) is at risk for malignant germ cell tumors (GCTs). The degree of gonadal differentiation (or "testicularization" in the presence of a specific part of the Y chromosome), in combination with expression of embryonic germ cell markers, and (a) Y specific ...
van der Poel Seléne - - 2011
Sphingolipids are considered to play a key role in protein sorting and membrane trafficking. In melanocytic cells, sorting of lysosomal and melanosomal proteins requires the sphingolipid glucosylceramide. This sorting information is located in the lumenal domain of melanosomal proteins. We found that two processes dependent on lumenal pH, protein sialylation ...
Huang Jia-Yi - - 2011
Iodide adsorption and electrochemical negative potential desorption were proposed and compared to obtain clean SERS substrates. The two methods can effectively eliminate the interference of surface impurities in the SERS detection. SERS signals of membranes of living cells with a good reproducibility have been obtained.
Hornick Jessica E - - 2011
The role of centrosomes and centrioles during mitotic spindle assembly in vertebrates remains controversial. In cell-free extracts and experimentally derived acentrosomal cells, randomly oriented microtubules (MTs) self-organize around mitotic chromosomes and assemble anastral spindles. However, vertebrate somatic cells normally assemble a connected pair of polarized, astral MT arrays--termed an amphiaster ...
Yanagawa Nariaki - - 2011
During axis formation in amniotes, posterior and lateral epiblast cells in the area pellucida undergo a counter-rotating movement along the midline to form primitive streak (Polonaise movements). Using chick blastoderms, we investigated the signaling involved in this cellular movement in epithelial-epiblast. In cultured posterior blastoderm explants from stage X to ...
Xu Lin - - 2011
A novel cell separation and immobilization method for Cr (VI)-reduction under alkaline conditions was developed by using superparamagnetic Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (NPs). The Fe(3)O(4) NPs were synthesized by coprecipitation followed by modification with sodium citrate and polyethyleneimine (PEI). The surface-modified NPs were monodispersed and the particle size was about 15nm with ...
Jarrell Ken F - - 2011
Methanococcus maripaludis has two surface appendages, namely flagella and pili. Flagella have been shown to be required for swimming but no specific role has been assigned as yet to pili. In this report, wildtype M. maripaludis cells are compared to mutants lacking either pili or flagella or both surface appendages ...
Monteiro Andrea S - - 2011
This study evaluated the effects of glycolipid-type biosurfactant produced by Trichosporon montevideense CLOA72 in the formation of biofilms in polystyrene plate surfaces by Candida albicans CC isolated from the apical tooth canal. Biofilm formation was reduced up to 87.4% with use of biosurfactant at 16 mg/ml concentration. It has been ...
Ye Ting - - 2011
A miniature microfluidic-microelectric hybrid chip is numerically designed for separation of biological cells, where the characteristic length of the chip is close to the cell radius. A mathematical model is developed to characterize the motion and deformation of a biological cell in the hydrodynamic and nonuniform electric coupled fields, in ...
Sandulescu Corina M - - 2011
In the zebrafish olfactory epithelium, three morphologically distinct olfactory neurons express different marker proteins. We utilize this feature to access developmental dynamics of one of the neuron types, the crypt cells, to determine whether they are differentiated at a stage similar to other olfactory neurons. Immunohistochemical studies using an S100 ...
Li Peng P Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409, - - 2011
Cell separation based on microfluidic affinity chromatography is a widely used methodology in cell analysis research when rapid separations with high purity are needed. Several successful examples have been reported with high separation efficiency and purity; however, cell capture at the inlet area and inlet design have not been extensively ...
Thomas Colin R - - 2011
Many cells are considered to be susceptible to mechanical forces or "shear" in bioprocessing, leading to undesirable cell breakage or adverse metabolic effects. However, cell breakage is the aim of some processing operations, in particular high-pressure homogenisation and other cell disruption methods. In either case, the exact mechanisms of damage ...
Koga Hiroshi H Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, New York 10461, - - 2011
Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a selective mechanism for the degradation of soluble proteins in lysosomes. CMA contributes to cellular quality control and is activated as part of the cellular response to different stressors. Defective CMA has been identified in ageing and different age-related diseases. Until now, CMA activity could only ...
Quinto-Su Pedro A - - 2011
The deformability of red blood cells (RBCs) is an important property that allows the cells to squeeze through small capillary vessels and can be used as an indicator for disease. We present a microfluidic based technique to quantify the deformability of RBCs by stretching a collection of RBCs on a ...
Banks H T - - 2010
We present a general class of cell population models that can be used to track the proliferation of cells which have been labeled with a fluorescent dye. The mathematical models employ fluorescence intensity as a structure variable to describe the evolution in time of the population density of proliferating cells. ...
Lien Ching-Feng - - 2010
To use computed tomography to determine the association of frontal recess cells with the development of frontal sinusitis. Retrospective analysis. We retrospectively analyzed various frontal recess cells on spiral computed tomographic images of sinuses between November 2007 and May 2009. Exclusion criteria included previous sinus surgery, sinonasal polyposis, age younger ...
Sarvestani Alireza S - - 2011
Mechanical stiffness of bio-adhesive substrates has been recognized as a major regulator of cell motility. We present a simple physical model to study the crawling locomotion of a contractile cell on a soft elastic substrate. The mechanism of rigidity sensing is accounted for using Schwarz's two-spring model Schwarz et al. ...
Picmonova Veronika - - 2012
Unexpected, sometimes opposite effects of dietary isoflavonic phytoestrogens on immunity may suggest that classical mammalian toxicological assays are not entirely suitable for preclinical safety tests of these compounds. We evaluated a new alternative model of haemocytes of Egyptian cotton worm in vivo following genistein administration. Genistein induced significant changes in ...
Janulevicius Albertas - - 2010
Myxobacteria are social bacteria that exhibit a complex life cycle culminating in the development of multicellular fruiting bodies. The alignment of rod-shaped myxobacteria cells within populations is crucial for development to proceed. It has been suggested that myxobacteria align due to mechanical interactions between gliding cells and that cell flexibility ...
Van Haastert Peter J M - - 2010
Many amoeboid cells move by extending pseudopods. Here I present a new stochastic model for chemotaxis that is based on pseudopod extensions by Dictyostelium cells. In the absence of external cues, pseudopod extension is highly ordered with two types of pseudopods: de novo formation of a pseudopod at the cell ...
Park Kidong - - 2010
The characterization of physical properties of cells such as their mass and stiffness has been of great interest and can have profound implications in cell biology, tissue engineering, cancer, and disease research. For example, the direct dependence of cell growth rate on cell mass for individual adherent human cells can ...
Liu Bo - - 2011
We explore one of the best-studied protein circuits in human cells, the negative feedback loop between the tumor suppressor p53 and the oncogene Mdm2 following nuclear irradiation. Using stochastic delay differential equations and the Gillespie algorithm, we illustrate the distinct oscillatory dynamics at the single-cell and population-cell levels which were ...
Hyrien Ollivier O Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. - - 2010
The adverse effects of chemotherapy on normal cells of the body create substantial clinical problems for many cancer patients. However, relatively little is known about the effects, other than promotion of cell death, of such agents on the function of normal precursor cells critical in tissue homeostasis and repair. We ...
Håkanson Maria - - 2011
Traditional in vitro models used for the development of anti-cancer drugs are based on the monolayer culture of cells, which has a limited predictivity of in vivo efficacy. A number of cell culture platforms have been developed in recent years to improve predictivity and further to elucidate the mechanisms governing ...
Lemmon Christopher A - - 2010
Recent work has indicated that the shape and size of a cell can influence how a cell spreads, develops focal adhesions, and exerts forces on the substrate. However, it is unclear how cell shape regulates these events. Here we present a computational model that uses cell shape to predict the ...
Bandiera Antonella - - 2010
Two synthetic genes that code for artificial proteins have been constructed that were modeled on the most regularly repeated hydrophobic domain of human tropoelastin. We compare the physicochemical properties of the recombinant products that differ in their primary structure; the alanine/lysine-rich cross-linking domains, which are highly conserved in mammalian tropoelastin, ...
Kamaraju Hari - - 2010
Rotary lobe pumps are commonly used in the biotechnology industry for a variety of purposes. Shear damage to animal cells within the rotary lobe pump can adversely affect the product yield or purity during, for example, cell concentration via cross-flow filtration. In this research, CHO cells grown in 20-L bioreactors ...
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