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Brahmachari Sayanti S Department of Biological Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata, - - 2014
The present article reports the development of soft nanohybrids comprising of single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) included silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) having superior antibacterial property. In this regard aqueous dispersing agent of carbon nanotube (CNT) containing a silver ion reducing unit was synthesised by the inclusion of tryptophan and tyrosine within ...
Touret Franck - - 2014
The endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are present in most insects and are maternally transmitted through the germline. Moreover, these intracellular bacteria exert antiviral activity against insect RNA viruses, as in Drosophila melanogaster, which could explain the prevalence of Wolbachia bacteria in natural populations. Wolbachia is maternally transmitted in ...
Lin Jen-Jie JJ Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91202, Taiwan. - - 2014
Cancer metastasis is one of the major causes of death in cancer. An active compound, 11-epi-sinulariolide acetate (11-epi-SA), isolated from the cultured soft coral Sinularia flexibilis has been examined for potential anti-cell migration and invasion effects on hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC). However, the molecular mechanism of anti-migration and invasion by ...
Kung Pin-Jui PJ Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, - - 2014
In spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17), the expansion of a translated CAG repeat in the TATA box binding protein (TBP) gene results in a long polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the TBP protein, leading to intracellular accumulation of aggregated TBP and cell death. The molecular chaperones act in preventing protein aggregation ...
Teves Maria E ME Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of - - 2014
SPAG6, an axoneme central apparatus protein, is essential for function of ependymal cell cilia and sperm flagella. A significant number of Spag6-deficient mice die with hydrocephalus, and surviving males are sterile because of sperm motility defects. In further exploring the ciliary dysfunction in Spag6-null mice, we discovered that cilia beat ...
Siragam Vinayakumar V Physiology and Experimental Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children and Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, - - 2014
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a myocardial disease characterized by fibro-fatty replacement of myocardium in the right ventricular free wall and frequently results in life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. A heterozygous missense mutation in the transmembrane protein 43 (TMEM43) gene, p.S358L, has been genetically identified to cause ...
Hirayama Masatoshi - - 2013
: Current approaches for the development of regenerative therapies have been influenced by our understanding of embryonic development, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering technology. The ultimate goal of regenerative therapy is to develop fully functioning bioengineered organs to replace lost or damaged organs that result from disease, injury, or ...
Hansen Dave - - 2013
The C. elegans germ line has emerged as an important model for -understanding how a stem cell population is maintained throughout the life of the animal while still producing the gametes necessary for propagation of the species. The stem cell population in the adult hermaphrodite is relatively large, with stem ...
Kadam Shilpa D SD Neuroscience Laboratory, Hugo W Moser Research Institute ; Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, - - 2013
Auto antibodies found in the mothers of children with autistic disorder (MCAD) when passively transferred to pregnant mice cause behavioral alterations in juvenile and adult offspring. The goal of this study was to identify whether intraperitoneal injection of MCAD-IgG during gestation affected postnatal cell proliferation and survival in P7 offspring. ...
Prockop Darwin J - - 2012
A recent publication by Phinney and his associates ( 1 ) has presented a discovery for which the field of cell biology has been waiting for more than half a century: a protocol that makes it possible to expand mouse cells in culture without the cells spontaneously transforming. Amazing though ...
Baskin Tobias I - - 2012
The extracellular matrix is constructed beyond the plasma membrane, challenging mechanisms for its control by the cell. In plants, the cell wall is highly ordered, with cellulose microfibrils aligned coherently over a scale spanning hundreds of cells. To a considerable extent, deploying aligned microfibrils determines mechanical properties of the cell ...
Robertson Francesca F MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and Cell Biology Unit, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, - - 2012
Morphogenesis of epithelial tissues relies on the interplay between cell division, differentiation and regulated changes in cell shape, intercalation and sorting. These processes are often studied individually in relatively simple epithelia that lack the complexity found during organogenesis when these processes might all coexist simultaneously. To address this issue, we ...
Garcia Juan Luis - - 2012
Even though much progress has been made towards understanding the molecular nature of glioma, the survival rates of patients affected by this tumour have not changed significantly over recent years. Better knowledge of this malignancy is still needed in order to predict its outcome and improve patient treatment. VAV1 is ...
Wen Jason W H - - 2012
Primitive endoderm formation from the inner cell mass is one of the earliest known cell fate decisions made in the mouse embryo. The mechanisms involved in orchestrating this process are not fully understood and are difficult to study in vivo. The F9 teratocarcinoma cell line is an in vitro model ...
Endele Max - - 2012
Functional heterogeneity within stem and progenitor cells has been shown to influence cell fate decisions. Similarly, intracellular signaling activated by external stimuli is highly heterogeneous and its spatiotemporal activity is linked to future cell behavior. To quantify these heterogeneous states and link them to future cell fates, it is important ...
Roussin Andre T - - 2012
It is becoming increasingly clear that the brain processes sensory stimuli differently according to whether they are passively or actively acquired, and these differences can be seen early in the sensory pathway. In the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the first relay in the central gustatory neuraxis, a rich ...
Allen Jessica L - - 2012
Cells encounter physical cues such as extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness in a microenvironment replete with biochemical cues. However, the mechanisms by which cells integrate physical and biochemical cues to guide cellular decision making are not well defined. Here we investigate mechanisms by which chondrocytes generate an integrated response to ECM ...
Farquhar Marilyn G - - 2012
In this perspective, I review the scientific career of George E. Palade, the man many consider to be the father of cell biology. Palade's scientific contributions spanned more than 50 years (from the late 1940s to 2001) and were amazingly diverse and fundamental. He is best known for his discovery ...
Zhang Luhui - - 2012
Electrode materials are key components for fiber solar cells, and when combined with active layers (for light absorption and charge generation) in appropriate ways, they enable design and fabrication of efficient and innovative device structures. Here, we apply carbon nanotube yarns as counter electrodes in combination with CdSe nanowire-grafted primary ...
Kandachar Vasundhara - - 2012
The Notch signaling pathway controls patterning and cell fate decisions during development in metazoans, and is associated with human diseases such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and certain cancers. Studies over the last several years have revealed sophisticated regulation of both the membrane-bound Notch ...
Bhatia-Kiššová Ingrid - - 2012
This focus makes a case that mitophagy is not a straightforward process obeying simple rules. It is a complex process through which the cell gets rid of both damaged and healthy untainted mitochondria to adjust their amount, and in accordance with cellular energy requirements. Several aspects of mitophagy have been ...
Magnúsdóttir Erna E Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QN, United - - 2012
Development of mammalian primordial germ cells (PGCs) presents a unique example of a cell fate specification event that is intimately linked with epigenetic reprogramming. Cell fate commitment is governed by transcription factors which, together with epigenetic regulators, instruct lineage choice in response to signalling cues. Similarly, the reversal of epigenetic ...
Solá Susana - - 2012
Emerging evidence suggests that apoptosis regulators and executioners may control cell fate, without involving cell death per se. Indeed, several conserved elements of apoptosis are integral components of terminal differentiation, which must be restrictively activated to assure differentiation efficiency, and carefully regulated to avoid cell loss. A better understanding of ...
Meyer-Hermann Michael M Department for Systems Immunology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. - - 2012
High-affinity antibodies are generated in germinal centers in a process involving mutation and selection of B cells. Information processing in germinal center reactions has been investigated in a number of recent experiments. These have revealed cell migration patterns, asymmetric cell divisions, and cell-cell interaction characteristics, used here to develop a ...
Purvis Jeremy E JE Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2012
Cells transmit information through molecular signals that often show complex dynamical patterns. The dynamic behavior of the tumor suppressor p53 varies depending on the stimulus; in response to double-strand DNA breaks, it shows a series of repeated pulses. Using a computational model, we identified a sequence of precisely timed drug ...
Taghon Tom - - 2012
Notch signaling is critical during multiple stages of T cell development in both mouse and human. Evidence has emerged in recent years that this pathway might regulate T-lineage differentiation differently between both species. Here, we review our current understanding of how Notch signaling is activated and used during human T ...
Li Meng Amy MA Division of Cellular and Developmental Biology, Molecular and Cell Biology Department, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, - - 2012
Emerging evidence suggests that microRNA (miRNA)-mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation plays an essential role in modulating embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency maintenance, differentiation, and reprogramming of somatic cells to an ES cell-like state. Investigations from ES cell-enriched miRNAs, such as mouse miR-290 cluster and human miR-302 cluster, and ES cell-depleted miRNAs ...
Pantazis Periklis - - 2012
There is a long-running controversy about how early cell fate decisions are made in the developing mammalian embryo. ( 1) (,) ( 2) In particular, it is controversial when the first events that can predict the establishment of the pluripotent and extra-embryonic lineages in the blastocyst of the pre-implantation embryo ...
Czirok Andras - - 2012
Vasculogenesis, the assembly of the first vascular network, is an intriguing developmental process that yields the first functional organ system of the embryo. In addition to being a fundamental part of embryonic development, vasculogenic processes also have medical importance. To explain the organizational principles behind vascular patterning, we must understand ...
Rinaldo Cinzia - - 2012
Failure in cytokinesis, the final step in cell division, by generating tetra- and polyploidization promotes chromosomal instability, a hallmark of cancer. Here we show that HIPK2, a kinase involved in cell fate decisions in development and response to stress, controls cytokinesis and prevents tetraploidization through its effects on histone H2B. ...
Smalley Matthew J MJ European Cancer Stem Cell Research Institute, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Museum Avenue, Cardiff, UK. - - 2012
Isolation of mammary epithelial subpopulations, including stem and progenitor cells, has become a standard technique in recent years. However, a number of methods and approaches for this have developed and the relative benefits of the different approaches, and the reason for their development, have not always been clear. Here, three ...
Peer Elad - - 2012
We present a novel hollow nano-needle array (NNA) device capable of simultaneously delivering diverse cargo into a group of cells in a culture over prolonged periods. The silica needles are fed by a common reservoir whose content can be replenished and modified in real time while maintaining contact with the ...
Fakhrullin Rawil F - - 2012
Layer-by-layer encapsulation of living biological cells and other microorganisms via sequential adsorption of oppositely charged functional nanoscale components is a promising instrument for engineering cells with enhanced properties and artificial microorganisms. Such nanoarchitectural shells assembled in mild aqueous conditions provide cells with additional abilities, widening their functionality and applications in ...
Chuang John S - - 2012
Without cell-to-cell communication, the organization and regulation of specialized cell types that underpin the development and physiology of multicellular organisms would be impossible. In nature, unicellular microbes have also been shown to display multicellular-like traits, such as intercellular communication, division of labor, and cooperative coordination of cellular activities. Likewise, the ...
Selvarajoo Kumar - - 2012
Modern techniques on single-cell and -molecule resolution reveal that gene and protein expressions between cells of an otherwise identical group are stochastic in time, and clonal population of cells display heterogeneity in the abundance of a given protein per cell at any measured time. Today, combinatorially, stochasticity and heterogeneity are ...
Yap Chan Choo - - 2012
Endocytosis and endosomal trafficking play a multitude of roles in cellular function beyond regulating entry of essential nutrients. In this review, we discuss the cell biological principles of endosomal trafficking, the neuronal adaptations to endosomal organization, and the role of endosomal trafficking in neural development. In particular, we consider how ...
Hari Lisette L Cell and Developmental Biology, Institute of Anatomy, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, - - 2012
Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls multiple steps of neural crest development, ranging from neural crest induction, lineage decisions, to differentiation. In mice, conditional β-catenin inactivation in premigratory neural crest cells abolishes both sensory neuron and melanocyte formation. Intriguingly, the generation of melanocytes is also prevented by activation of β-catenin in the premigratory ...
Kraushaar Daniel C DC Complex Carbohydrate Research Center and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, - - 2012
Heparan sulfate (HS) has been implicated in regulating cell fate decisions during differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into advanced cell types. However, the necessity and the underlying molecular mechanisms of HS in early cell lineage differentiation are still largely unknown. In this study, we examined the potential of EXT1(-/-) ...
Tobin David V - - 2012
The small nematode C. elegans is characterized by developing through a highly coordinated, reproducible cell lineage that serves as the basis of many studies focusing on the development of multi-lineage organisms. Indeed, the reproducible cell lineage enables discovery of developmental defects that occur in even a single cell. Only recently ...
Ereskovsky Alexander V - - 2012
The emergence of multicellularity is regarded as one of the major evolutionary events of life. This transition unicellularity/pluricellularity was acquired independently several times (King 2004). The acquisition of multicellularity implies the emergence of cellular cohesion and means of communication, as well as molecular mechanisms enabling the control of morphogenesis and ...
Fujita Hiroyuki - - 2012
In contrast to osteoblasts, little attention has been paid to expression profiles of different glutamatergic signaling machineries in osteocytes, which are the most abundant cells with a possible role as a mechanical sensor in bone. Here, we show that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is expressed by osteocytic cells in five-weeks-old mouse ...
Schneider Annette - - 2012
How do cells interpret information from their environment and translate it into specific cell fate decisions? We propose that cell fate is already encoded in early signaling events and thus can be predicted from defined signal properties. Specifically, we hypothesize that the time integral of activated key signaling molecules can ...
Duchesneau François - - 2012
A return to Claude Bernard's original use of the concept of 'determinism' displays the fact that natural laws were presumed to rule over all natural processes. In a more restricted sense, the term boiled down to a mere presupposition of constant determinant causes for those processes, leaving aside any particular ...
Mittelbrunn Maria M Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares, Melchor Fernández Almagro, 3, 28029 Madrid, - - 2012
An emerging concept is that cellular communication in mammals can be mediated by the exchange of genetic information, mainly in the form of microRNAs. This can occur when extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, secreted by a donor cell are taken up by an acceptor cell. Transfer of genetic material can ...
Drogat Nicolas - - 2012
This Letter reports the synthesis and characterization of a new series of water-stable and soluble photosensitizers (PS-CNCs) composed of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) bearing polyaminated chlorin p6. With a view to improve cancer cell targeting, these photosensitizers were assayed for their antitumor activity against HaCat cell line. IC(50) values fell within ...
Harris D Calvin DC Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208, - - 2012
Just as synthetic organic chemistry once revolutionized the ability of chemists to build molecules (including those that did not exist in nature) following a basic set of design rules, cell-free synthetic biology is beginning to provide an improved toolbox and faster process for not only harnessing but also expanding the ...
Tilkorn Daniel J - - 2012
Sarcomas consist of both tumor and stromal cells, and the interaction between these compartments is critical for tumor progression and metastasis. Tumor-derived factors may alter the differentiation capacity of the adjacent stromal cells. The aim of this study was to elucidate the paracrine impact of liposarcoma cells on pre-adipocytes, their ...
Kuystermans Darrin - - 2012
Flow cytometry has been used to accurately monitor cell events that indicate the spatio-temporal state of a bioreactor culture. The introduction of process analytical technology (PAT) has led to process improvements using real-time or semi real-time monitoring systems. Integration of flow cytometry into an automated scheme for improved process monitoring ...
Tiwari Neha - - 2012
Epithelial cancers make up the vast majority of cancer types and, during the transition from benign adenoma to malignant carcinoma and metastasis, epithelial tumor cells acquire a de-differentiated, migratory and invasive behavior. This process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) goes along with dramatic changes in cellular morphology, the loss and remodeling ...
Hackett Jamie A JA Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute and Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1QN, - - 2012
Germ cells possess the extraordinary and unique capacity to give rise to a new organism and create an enduring link between all generations. To acquire this property, primordial germ cells (PGCs) transit through an unprecedented programme of sequential epigenetic events that culminates in an epigenomic basal state that is the ...
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