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Li Meng Amy MA Division of Cellular and Developmental Biology, Molecular and Cell Biology Department, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, - - 2012
Emerging evidence suggests that microRNA (miRNA)-mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation plays an essential role in modulating embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency maintenance, differentiation, and reprogramming of somatic cells to an ES cell-like state. Investigations from ES cell-enriched miRNAs, such as mouse miR-290 cluster and human miR-302 cluster, and ES cell-depleted miRNAs ...
Pantazis Periklis - - 2012
There is a long-running controversy about how early cell fate decisions are made in the developing mammalian embryo. ( 1) (,) ( 2) In particular, it is controversial when the first events that can predict the establishment of the pluripotent and extra-embryonic lineages in the blastocyst of the pre-implantation embryo ...
Czirok Andras - - 2012
Vasculogenesis, the assembly of the first vascular network, is an intriguing developmental process that yields the first functional organ system of the embryo. In addition to being a fundamental part of embryonic development, vasculogenic processes also have medical importance. To explain the organizational principles behind vascular patterning, we must understand ...
Rinaldo Cinzia - - 2012
Failure in cytokinesis, the final step in cell division, by generating tetra- and polyploidization promotes chromosomal instability, a hallmark of cancer. Here we show that HIPK2, a kinase involved in cell fate decisions in development and response to stress, controls cytokinesis and prevents tetraploidization through its effects on histone H2B. ...
Smalley Matthew J MJ European Cancer Stem Cell Research Institute, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Museum Avenue, Cardiff, UK. - - 2012
Isolation of mammary epithelial subpopulations, including stem and progenitor cells, has become a standard technique in recent years. However, a number of methods and approaches for this have developed and the relative benefits of the different approaches, and the reason for their development, have not always been clear. Here, three ...
Peer Elad - - 2012
We present a novel hollow nano-needle array (NNA) device capable of simultaneously delivering diverse cargo into a group of cells in a culture over prolonged periods. The silica needles are fed by a common reservoir whose content can be replenished and modified in real time while maintaining contact with the ...
Fakhrullin Rawil F - - 2012
Layer-by-layer encapsulation of living biological cells and other microorganisms via sequential adsorption of oppositely charged functional nanoscale components is a promising instrument for engineering cells with enhanced properties and artificial microorganisms. Such nanoarchitectural shells assembled in mild aqueous conditions provide cells with additional abilities, widening their functionality and applications in ...
Chuang John S - - 2012
Without cell-to-cell communication, the organization and regulation of specialized cell types that underpin the development and physiology of multicellular organisms would be impossible. In nature, unicellular microbes have also been shown to display multicellular-like traits, such as intercellular communication, division of labor, and cooperative coordination of cellular activities. Likewise, the ...
Selvarajoo Kumar - - 2012
Modern techniques on single-cell and -molecule resolution reveal that gene and protein expressions between cells of an otherwise identical group are stochastic in time, and clonal population of cells display heterogeneity in the abundance of a given protein per cell at any measured time. Today, combinatorially, stochasticity and heterogeneity are ...
Yap Chan Choo - - 2012
Endocytosis and endosomal trafficking play a multitude of roles in cellular function beyond regulating entry of essential nutrients. In this review, we discuss the cell biological principles of endosomal trafficking, the neuronal adaptations to endosomal organization, and the role of endosomal trafficking in neural development. In particular, we consider how ...
Hari Lisette L Cell and Developmental Biology, Institute of Anatomy, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, - - 2012
Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls multiple steps of neural crest development, ranging from neural crest induction, lineage decisions, to differentiation. In mice, conditional β-catenin inactivation in premigratory neural crest cells abolishes both sensory neuron and melanocyte formation. Intriguingly, the generation of melanocytes is also prevented by activation of β-catenin in the premigratory ...
Kraushaar Daniel C DC Complex Carbohydrate Research Center and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, - - 2012
Heparan sulfate (HS) has been implicated in regulating cell fate decisions during differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into advanced cell types. However, the necessity and the underlying molecular mechanisms of HS in early cell lineage differentiation are still largely unknown. In this study, we examined the potential of EXT1(-/-) ...
Tobin David V - - 2012
The small nematode C. elegans is characterized by developing through a highly coordinated, reproducible cell lineage that serves as the basis of many studies focusing on the development of multi-lineage organisms. Indeed, the reproducible cell lineage enables discovery of developmental defects that occur in even a single cell. Only recently ...
Ereskovsky Alexander V - - 2012
The emergence of multicellularity is regarded as one of the major evolutionary events of life. This transition unicellularity/pluricellularity was acquired independently several times (King 2004). The acquisition of multicellularity implies the emergence of cellular cohesion and means of communication, as well as molecular mechanisms enabling the control of morphogenesis and ...
Fujita Hiroyuki - - 2012
In contrast to osteoblasts, little attention has been paid to expression profiles of different glutamatergic signaling machineries in osteocytes, which are the most abundant cells with a possible role as a mechanical sensor in bone. Here, we show that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is expressed by osteocytic cells in five-weeks-old mouse ...
Schneider Annette - - 2012
How do cells interpret information from their environment and translate it into specific cell fate decisions? We propose that cell fate is already encoded in early signaling events and thus can be predicted from defined signal properties. Specifically, we hypothesize that the time integral of activated key signaling molecules can ...
Duchesneau François - - 2012
A return to Claude Bernard's original use of the concept of 'determinism' displays the fact that natural laws were presumed to rule over all natural processes. In a more restricted sense, the term boiled down to a mere presupposition of constant determinant causes for those processes, leaving aside any particular ...
Mittelbrunn Maria M Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares, Melchor Fernández Almagro, 3, 28029 Madrid, - - 2012
An emerging concept is that cellular communication in mammals can be mediated by the exchange of genetic information, mainly in the form of microRNAs. This can occur when extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, secreted by a donor cell are taken up by an acceptor cell. Transfer of genetic material can ...
Drogat Nicolas - - 2012
This Letter reports the synthesis and characterization of a new series of water-stable and soluble photosensitizers (PS-CNCs) composed of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) bearing polyaminated chlorin p6. With a view to improve cancer cell targeting, these photosensitizers were assayed for their antitumor activity against HaCat cell line. IC(50) values fell within ...
Harris D Calvin DC Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208, - - 2012
Just as synthetic organic chemistry once revolutionized the ability of chemists to build molecules (including those that did not exist in nature) following a basic set of design rules, cell-free synthetic biology is beginning to provide an improved toolbox and faster process for not only harnessing but also expanding the ...
Tilkorn Daniel J - - 2012
Sarcomas consist of both tumor and stromal cells, and the interaction between these compartments is critical for tumor progression and metastasis. Tumor-derived factors may alter the differentiation capacity of the adjacent stromal cells. The aim of this study was to elucidate the paracrine impact of liposarcoma cells on pre-adipocytes, their ...
Kuystermans Darrin - - 2012
Flow cytometry has been used to accurately monitor cell events that indicate the spatio-temporal state of a bioreactor culture. The introduction of process analytical technology (PAT) has led to process improvements using real-time or semi real-time monitoring systems. Integration of flow cytometry into an automated scheme for improved process monitoring ...
Tiwari Neha - - 2012
Epithelial cancers make up the vast majority of cancer types and, during the transition from benign adenoma to malignant carcinoma and metastasis, epithelial tumor cells acquire a de-differentiated, migratory and invasive behavior. This process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) goes along with dramatic changes in cellular morphology, the loss and remodeling ...
Hackett Jamie A JA Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute and Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1QN, - - 2012
Germ cells possess the extraordinary and unique capacity to give rise to a new organism and create an enduring link between all generations. To acquire this property, primordial germ cells (PGCs) transit through an unprecedented programme of sequential epigenetic events that culminates in an epigenomic basal state that is the ...
Schiro Perry G - - 2012
A blood sample is broken up into nanoliter volumes, after which each aliquot is ranked based on whether or not a rare cell is present in the ensemble of cells within the aliquot. This approach is called ensemble decision aliquot ranking (eDAR). In their Communication (DOI: 10.1002/anie.201108695), D. T. Chiu ...
Sanz-Penella Juan Mario - - 2012
In this study, the influence of phytase-producing Bifidobacterium strains during the bread-making process (direct or indirect) on final bread Fe dialyzability and ferritin formation in Caco-2 cell as a measure of cell Fe uptake were assessed. The addition of bifidobacteria significantly reduced the InsP6 + InsP5 concentrations comparing to control ...
Petiot Emma - - 2012
This study proposes an easy to use in situ device, based on multi-frequency permittivity measurements, to monitor the growth and death of attached Vero cells cultivated on microporous microcarriers, without any cell sampling. Vero cell densities were on-line quantified up to 10(6) cell mL(-1). Some parameters which could potentially impact Vero cell ...
Hernández Agustín - - 2012
Cancer cells show a metabolic shift that makes them overproduce protons; this has the potential to disturb the cellular acid-base homeostasis. However, these cells show cytoplasmic alkalinisation, increased acid extrusion and endosome-dependent drug resistance. Vacuolar type ATPases (V-ATPases), together with other transporters, are responsible to a great extent for these ...
Giebel Bernd - - 2012
During Drosophila sensory organ precursor cell development, Numb segregates asymmetrically and functions as a cell fate determinant. Recent work now demonstrates in vivo that Numb inactivates Notch by promoting its endocytosis.
Adams Dany S DS Department of Biology, and Center for Regenerative and Developmental Biology, Tufts University, 200 Boston Ave, Medford, MA 02155, - - 2013
Alongside the well-known chemical modes of cell-cell communication, we find an important and powerful system of bioelectrical signaling: changes in the resting voltage potential (Vmem) of the plasma membrane driven by ion channels, pumps and gap junctions. Slow Vmem changes in all cells serve as a highly conserved, information-bearing pathway ...
Botti Elisabetta - - 2012
Comment on: Caratozzolo MF, et al. Cell Cycle 2012; 11:511-23.
Botti Elisabetta - - 2012
Comment on: Caratozzolo MF, et al. Cell Cycle 2012; 11:511-23.
Sitte Selina - - 2012
Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1) regulates ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation by deneddylation of cullin-based ubiquitin ligases and, therefore, plays a central role in regulating proliferation and apoptosis. Because these processes are decisive for B cell development, we investigated JAB1 functions in B cells by establishing a mouse strain with a ...
Tung Jennifer J - - 2012
Angiogenesis is the process of developing vascular sprouts from existing blood vessels. Luminal endothelial cells convert into "tip" cells that contribute to the development of a multicellular stalk, which then undergoes lumen formation. In this review, we consider a variety of cellular and molecular pathways that mediate these transitions. We ...
Yan Xianghua - - 2012
Supplementation of branched chain amino acids, especially leucine, is critical to improve malnutrition by regulating protein synthesis and degradation. Emerging evidence has linked leucine deprivation induced protein breakdown to autophagy. In this study, we aimed to establish a cell-free assay recapitulating leucine-mediated autophagy in vitro and dissect its biochemical requirement. ...
Haupt Simone - - 2012
Stem cells have become a major focus of scientific interest as a potential source of somatic cell types for biomedical applications. Understanding and controlling the elicitors and mechanisms in differentiation of pluripotent stem cell-derived somatic cell types remains a key challenge. The major types of molecular processes that control cellular ...
Lacerda Lara - - 2012
Understanding the mechanisms responsible for carbon nanotube (CNT) internalisation into live cells is considered critical both from a fundamental point of view and for further engineering of CNT-based delivery systems to intracellular targets. While several studies are focused on the development of such CNT-based delivery systems, attempts to systematically elucidate ...
Assar Rodrigo - - 2012
In order to treat osteoporosis and other bone mass disorders it is necessary to understand the regulatory processes that control the cell fate decisions responsible for going from bone precursor cells to bone tissue. Many processes interact to regulate cell division, differentiation and apoptosis. There are models for these basic ...
Kumar Roshan M - - 2012
Cells can make fate decisions in response to information from the environment. In this issue of Molecular Cell, Chen et al. (2012) describe how the design of a signal-processing pathway allows a homogenous population of cells to display diverse responses to uniform growth factor cues.
Gamper Armin M AM Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, - - 2012
The transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is an important regulator of cell-fate decision, including cell-cycle regulation, apoptosis, and stem cell renewal, and plays an ambivalent role in tumorigenesis as a tissue-specific tumor suppressor or oncogene. Here, we report that the Von Hippel-Lindau gene product, pVHL, physically interacts with KLF4 ...
Lv Zhibin - - 2012
A type of highly efficient completely flexible fiber-shaped solar cell based on TiO(2) nanotube array is successfully prepared. Under air mass 1.5G (100 mW cm(-2)) illumination conditions, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the solar cell approaches 7%, the highest among all fiber-shaped cells based on TiO(2) nanotube arrays and the ...
Hu Jianchen - - 2012
Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates are used to fabricate arrays of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) pillars. This technique makes it possible to control the dimensions of the pillars, namely their diameters, intervals, and heights, on a tens-of-nanometer scale. These features are essential for enhancing carrier processes such as carrier generation, exciton diffusion, ...
Manivannan Sriram - - 2012
Renal development is a complex process involving the dynamic interplay of over 25 different cell types. One distinct step in this process is the formation of the ureteric tree, which develops from the repeated branching of the ureteric bud. During branching of the ureteric bud, cells migrate collectively in unison ...
Chen Zhong-Hua - - 2012
Genetic resources available for Arabidopsis thaliana make this species particularly attractive as a model for molecular genetic studies of guard cell homeostasis, transport and signalling, but this facility is not matched by accessible tools for quantitative analysis of transport in the intact cell. We have developed a reliable set of ...
Yang Yingzi - - 2012
Cell signaling mediated by morphogens is essential to coordinate growth and patterning, two key processes that govern the formation of a complex multi-cellular organism. During growth and patterning, cells are specified by both quantitative and directional information. While quantitative information regulates cell proliferation and differentiation, directional information is conveyed in ...
Yamakawa Tomoko - - 2012
Notch is a single-pass transmembrane receptor that mediates the local cell-cell interactions necessary for many cell-fate decisions. The extra cellular domain of Notch contains a tandem array of epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) repeats. Some of these EGF-like repeats are O-fucosylated by protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (O-fut1), which is essential for Notch ...
Morris Samantha A - - 2012
Early development of the mouse comprises a sequence of cell fate decisions in which cells are guided along a pathway of restricted potential and increasing specialisation. The first choice faced by cells of the embryo is whether to become trophectoderm (TE) or inner cell mass (ICM); TE is an extra-embryonic ...
Marée Athanasius F M - - 2012
To regulate shape changes, motility and chemotaxis in eukaryotic cells, signal transduction pathways channel extracellular stimuli to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. The complexity of such networks makes it difficult to understand the roles of individual components, let alone their interactions and multiple feedbacks within a given layer and ...
de Jong Joan H - - 2012
The epithelial lining of the intestine is characterized by an immense cellular turn-over ascertaining an extensive regenerative capacity. Multiple reports suggest that besides the local intestinal stem cell pool, circulating cells of bone marrow origin (BMDCs) contribute to this process by fusing with the epithelial lineage. However, the functional relevance ...
Poulson Nicholas D - - 2012
Generation of three-dimensional tissues with distinct cell types is required for the development of all organs. On its own, mitotic spindle orientation allows tissues to change in length or shape. In combination with intrinsic or extrinsic cues, this can also be coupled to the generation of diverse cell fates-a process ...
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