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Manuel Martine N MN Genes and Development Group, University of Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, UK. - - 2011
The transcription factor Foxg1 is an important regulator of telencephalic cell cycles. Its inactivation causes premature lengthening of telencephalic progenitor cell cycles and increased neurogenic divisions, leading to severe hypoplasia of the telencephalon. These proliferation defects could be a secondary consequence of the loss of Foxg1 caused by the abnormal ...
Causeret Frédéric F CNRS UMR 7592, Institut Jacques Monod, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, - - 2011
Development of the vertebrate forebrain and craniofacial structures are intimately linked processes, the coordinated growth of these tissues being required to ensure normal head formation. In this study, we identify five small subsets of progenitors expressing the transcription factor dbx1 in the cephalic region of developing mouse embryos at E8.5. ...
Kokkinopoulos Ioannis I Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, United - - 2011
Mammalian peripheral retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells proliferate throughout life, while central cells are senescent. It is thought that some peripheral cells migrate centrally to correct age-related central RPE loss. We ask whether this proliferative capacity is intrinsic to such cells and whether cells located centrally produce diffusible signals imposing ...
Schultz Kathryn M KM Feinberg Cardiovascular Research Institute, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States of - - 2011
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are the progenitors of neurons and glial cells during both embryonic development and adult life. The unstable regulatory protein Geminin (Gmnn) is thought to maintain neural stem cells in an undifferentiated state while they proliferate. Geminin inhibits neuronal differentiation in cultured cells by antagonizing interactions between ...
Sørensen Christina - - 2011
The fish brain grows throughout life, and new cells are added continuously in all major brain areas. As in mammals, the rate of adult brain cell proliferation in fish can be regulated by external factors including environmental complexity and interaction with conspecifics. We have recently demonstrated that the stress experienced ...
Boyan George - - 2010
All eight neuroblasts from the pars intercerebralis of one protocerebral hemisphere whose progeny contribute fibers to the central complex in the embryonic brain of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria generate serotonergic cells at stereotypic locations in their lineages. The pattern of dye coupling involving these neuroblasts and their progeny was investigated ...
Kwon Hyo Jun - - 2010
The organization of neocortex, along its radial axis, into a six-layered structure is one of the most exquisite features of the brain. Because of their strategic localization in the marginal zone, and their expression of reelin, a signal that controls spatial ordering of cortical layers, Cajal-Retzius (C-R) cells play a ...
Žigman Mihaela - - 2011
How control of subcellular events in single cells determines morphogenesis on the scale of the tissue is largely unresolved. The stereotyped cross-midline mitoses of progenitors in the zebrafish neural keel provide a unique experimental paradigm for defining the role and control of single-cell orientation for tissue-level morphogenesis in vivo. We ...
Sanders Esmond J - - 2010
Growth hormone (GH) is synthesized and present in the developing chick retina, where it may have local actions in retinal cell differentiation similar to those of conventional growth factors. We have previously shown that retinal GH has neuroprotective effects in retinal ganglion cells. In this paper, we extend our earlier ...
Mejía-Toiber Jana - - 2010
Disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) either as a result of trauma, ischemic or neurodegenerative process, still pose a challenge for modern medicine. Due to the complexity of the CNS, and in spite of the advances in the knowledge of its anatomy, pharmacology, and molecular and cellular biology, treatments ...
Acevedo Karla M - - 2011
Accumulation of the amyloid β peptide in the cortical and hippocampal regions of the brain is a major pathological feature of Alzheimer disease. Amyloid β peptide is generated from the sequential protease cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). We reported previously that copper increases the level of APP at ...
Kushida Yasuharu Y Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, - - 2011
To reveal the molecular systems involved in the division of a cell and its contents during cell proliferation is one of the major subjects in cell biology. Although cytoskeletal organization during mitosis has been well studied, consensus on the molecular basis of amitosis has not been achieved. Here we adapted ...
Luo Hong - - 2010
Hypoxia frequently occurs under several different cellular circumstances. Excess reactive oxygen species that are induced by hypoxia may result in cell injury and dysfunction. Recently, garlic has been found to possess some biological and pharmacological activities. The present study examined the effects of garlic saponins (GSP) on the survival of ...
Bae Nayoung - - 2010
AIM OF STUDY: Modified Yeoldahanso-tang (MYH) is a Korean herbal formula, containing 10 herbs: Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, Angelica tenuissima Nakai, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq), Angelicae Dahurica, Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom, Raphanus sativa L., Polygala tenuifolia (Willd.), Acorus gramineus Soland. and Dimocarpus longan Lour. The constitutive ratio of the ...
Haase Matthias - - 2011
The adrenal gland is formed by the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex. Both tissues descend from different origins during embryonal development. While the chromaffin cells are derived from the neural crest, the adrenocortical cells stem from a cell condensation in the celomic epithelium. Already during adrenal organogenesis, close interactions ...
Theveneau Eric - - 2010
The cephalic neural crest cells delaminate from the neuroepithelium in large numbers and undergo collective cell migration under the influence of multiple factors including positive and negative taxis, cell-cell interactions mediating cell sorting, cell cooperation and contact-inhibition of locomotion. The migration has to be tightly regulated to allow neural crest ...
Brownrigg Tanner D - - 2010
Anesthesia-related postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) leads to morbidity in the elderly. Lipid peroxidative byproducts (i.e. acrolein) accumulate in aging and may play a role. Sevoflurane, an inhaled anesthetic, sequesters acrolein and enhances the formation of a serotonin-derived melanoid (SDM). SDM may be a biologically relevant polymeric melanoid that we previously ...
Anderson Megan L - - 2011
Learning increases the number of immature neurons that survive and mature in the adult hippocampus. One-week-old cells are more likely to survive in response to learning than cells in animals that are exposed to training but do not learn. Because neurogenesis is an ongoing and overlapping process, it is possible ...
Fort Philippe - - 2011
The neural crest (NC) is a stem cell-like population that arises at the border of neural and non-neural ectoderm. During development, NC undergoes an epithelio-mesenchymal transition (EMT), i.e. loss of epithelial junctions and acquisition of pro-migratory properties, invades the entire embryo and differentiates into a wide diversity of terminal tissues. ...
Bhat Krishna Moorthi - - 2011
In the CNS, the evolutionarily conserved Notch pathway regulates asymmetric cell fate specification to daughters of ganglion mother cells (GMCs). The E3 Ubiquitin ligase protein Neuralized (Neur) is thought to activate Notch-signaling by the endocytosis of Delta and the Delta-bound extracellular domain of Notch. The intracellular Notch then initiates Notch-signaling. ...
Cordero Dwight R - - 2010
The craniofacial region is assembled through the active migration of cells and the rearrangement and sculpting of facial prominences and pharyngeal arches, which consequently make it particularly susceptible to a large number of birth defects. Genetic, molecular, and cellular processes must be temporally and spatially regulated to culminate in the ...
Cordero Dwight R - - 2011
The craniofacial region is assembled through the active migration of cells and the rearrangement and sculpting of facial prominences and pharyngeal arches, which consequently make it particularly susceptible to a large number of birth defects. Genetic, molecular, and cellular processes must be temporally and spatially regulated to culminate in the ...
Leong Soo Yuen - - 2010
Adult neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) normally migrate via the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb (OB). Following neural injury, they also migrate to the site of damage. This study investigated the role of Rho-dependent kinase (ROCK) on the migration of NPCs in vitro and ...
Cesetti Tiziana - - 2010
Signal-regulated changes in cell size affect cell division and survival and therefore are central to tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. In this respect, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) are of particular interest because, allowing anions flow across the cell membrane, modulate the osmolyte flux and the cell volume. Therefore, we have ...
Gomes Francisco L A F - - 2011
In vivo cell lineage-tracing studies in the vertebrate retina have revealed that the sizes and cellular compositions of retinal clones are highly variable. It has been challenging to ascertain whether this variability reflects distinct but reproducible lineages among many different retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) or is the product of stochastic ...
Tursun Baris - - 2011
The ability of transcription factors to directly reprogram the identity of cell types is usually restricted and is defined by cellular context. Through the ectopic expression of single Caenorhabditis elegans transcription factors, we found that the identity of mitotic germ cells can be directly converted into that of specific neuron ...
Yokose Jun - - 2010
New neurons are continuously generated in the hippocampus at the subgranular zone of the dentate granule cell layer throughout life. However, the lineage of newly generated neurons is unknown in detail. Here, using a retrovirus vector encoding EGFP, we labeled proliferating cells in an organotypic slice culture of the postnatal ...
Kushida Yasuharu - - 2010
To reveal the molecular systems involved in the division of a cell and its contents during cell proliferation is one of the major subjects in cell biology. Although cytoskeletal organization during mitosis has been well studied, consensus on the molecular basis of amitosis has not been achieved. Here we adapted ...
Mhatre Himanshu - - 2012
Grid cells in the dorsal segment of the medial entorhinal cortex (dMEC) show remarkable hexagonal activity patterns, at multiple spatial scales, during spatial navigation. It has previously been shown how a self-organizing map can convert firing patterns across entorhinal grid cells into hippocampal place cells that are capable of representing ...
Maccaferri Gianmaria - - 2011
Although the rigorous anatomical definition of the microcircuitry of the brain is essential for understanding its functions, the modulation of the physiological properties of neurons and synapses may confer an additional level of complexity. Here, I review two examples of neuromodulation within a specific microcircuit of the hippocampus, i.e. the ...
Capogna Marco M MRC Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TH, UK. - - 2011
The stratum lacunosum-moleculare of the hippocampus is an area of integration that receives inputs from extrinsic excitatory fibres including those from the entorhinal cortex, and is under the control of several neuromodulators. A critical aspect is the presence in this hippocampal layer of specific interneurons that are likely to influence ...
Hollmann Gabriela - - 2011
Decapod crustaceans show proliferation of the nerve cells in the olfactory lobe throughout their lives. However, the regulation of this process is still poorly understood, since it may vary with endogenous and exogenous factors. The objective of the present investigation was to quantify the proliferation of nerve cells and number ...
Rennie Kerry - - 2011
Previous work in our laboratory indicated that cholinergic denervation by intraventricular infusion of 192-IgG-saporin on postnatal day 7 (N192S) reduced the number of cells in the dentate gyrus expressing doublecortin, a marker for immature neuroblasts. In addition, there was a suggestion that N192S impaired the neurogenic response to environmental enrichment ...
Ghosh Moumita - - 2011
Multipotential (MP) differentiation is one characteristic of a tissue-specific stem cell (TSC). Lineage tracing of tracheobronchial basal cells after naphthalene (NA) injury or in the postnatal period demonstrated that basal cells were MP progenitors for Clara-like and ciliated cells. These studies, as well as reports of spatially restricted, label-retaining basal ...
Nomura Tadashi - - 2010
Stem cells remain in specialized niches over the lifespan of the organism in many organs to ensure tissue homeostasis and enable regeneration. How the niche is maintained is not understood, but is probably as important as intrinsic stem cell self-renewal capacity for tissue integrity. We here demonstrate a high degree ...
Delgado Luz M - - 2011
Neurogenesis was studied in the cerebellum of adult goldfish, to establish the phenomenon in this popular laboratory animal model. BrdU and proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling revealed a high rate of cell proliferation within the molecular layer of the cerebellar corpus and valve. Most newborn cells expressed the neuronal marker ...
Kowalska Elzbieta - - 2010
Although overt diurnal rhythms of behavior do not begin until well after birth, molecular studies suggest that the circadian clock may begin much earlier at a cellular level: mouse embryonic fibroblasts, for example, already possess robust clocks. By multiple criteria, we found no circadian clock present in mouse embryonic stem ...
Jiang Peng - - 2010
The cell differentiation-inducing effect of 2-N,N-diethylaminocarbonyloxymethyl-1-diphenylmethyl-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl) piperazine, hydrochloride (PMS-1077) was determined in human leukaemic HL-60 cells with profiling of cell proliferation, analysis of cell cycling, characterization of expression of various CD molecules and determination of phagocytotic activity of differentiated HL-60 cells. After treatment with PMS-1077, HL-60 cells exhibited a decreased ...
Maoqiang Li - - 2010
Bone formation, which is inhibited by particulate wear debris, is a pathological factor that contributes to periprosthetic osteolysis. Although the nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) is known to be involved in osteoblast differentiation, and its effect on osteoblasts in response to wear particles remains unclear. In this ...
Shen Jui-Lung - - 2011
This study evaluates the proliferative effects of danshen and its monomer extract, tanshinone IIA, on Schwann cell proliferation. A piece of silicone rubber was guided across a 15-mm gap in the sciatic nerve of a rat. This nerve gap was then filled with different concentrations of danshen (0-100 mg/mL). The results ...
Fujita Hideaki - - 2010
We have compared several serum-free media for the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts and assessed the extent of differentiation in several ways including as to active tension generation capability. C2C12 cells were allowed to differentiate in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) containing Ham's F-12 (F-12), AIM-V (AIM), 0.2% Ultroser-G in DMEM ...
Fang Yanfen - - 2010
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been successfully used in differentiation therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in the clinic. ATRA-induced differentiation of leukemia cells is accompanied by a G0/G1 arrest, yet how ATRA couples cell cycle arrest to differentiation remains largely unknown. Here we observed that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) ...
Roubos Eric W - - 2010
This review focuses on the plasticity of the regulation of a particular neuroendocrine transducer cell, the melanotrope cell in the pituitary pars intermedia of the amphibian Xenopus laevis. This cell type is a suitable model to study the relationship between various external regulatory inputs and the secretion of an adaptive ...
Bai Zhigang - - 2010
NaB (sodium butyrate) inhibits cell proliferation and induces differentiation in a variety of tumour cells. In this study, we aimed to determine whether NaB induced differentiation and regulated the expression of the mucosal factor MUC2 through the PTEN/PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) pathway. BGC823 cells treated with NaB for 24-72 h showed ...
Doeppner Thorsten R - - 2011
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is an interesting candidate for acute stroke treatment as shown by continuous infusion or gene delivery protocols. However, little is known about HGF-mediated long-term effects. The present study therefore analyzed long-term effects of an acute intrastriatal HGF treatment (5 μg) after a 45-minute stroke, with regard to ...
Liu Zhiming - - 2010
SMSCs (synovial mesenchymal stem cells) isolated from TMJs (temporomandibular joints) were induced to proliferate and differentiate in vitro by bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor) and explore the potential of SMSC differentiation into neuronal cells. In this study, the cultured SMSCs were derived from the TMJ synovial membrane of condylar hyperplasia ...
Simmons D A - - 2011
The ventral bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) and medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) of gerbils contain cells that regulate male sex behavior via a largely uncrossed pathway to the retrorubral field (RRF). Our goal was to learn more about cells at the pathway source and target. To determine if ...
Wang Y - - 2011
Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) can be induced in rat hippocampal astrocytes and neurons with H(2)O(2) or serum depletion. Major cytoskeletal component of TNTs is F-actin. TNTs transfer endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi, endosome and intracellular as well as extracellular amyloid β. TNT development is a property of cells under stress. When two ...
Baber Zafeer - - 2010
Glutamine synthetase (GS) is the major glutamate-forming enzyme of vertebrae and is accepted to be a marker of astroglial cells. Maturation of astroglial cells is characterized by an increase in GS activity, and the regulation of this enzyme is the topic of many publications. The amino acid glutamate is the ...
Hinkerohe Daniel - - 2011
Similar to astrocytes, glioma cells form a well-coupled syncytium via gap junctions. This can be influenced, for example, by activated microglia, the main inflammatory cell population within the central nervous system (CNS). Under pathological conditions such as neoplastic cell growth, microglia number and activation state are enhanced. The aim of ...
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