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Results 201 - 250 of 2337
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Bocian Renata - - 2011
During the past decade experimental evidence has accumulated demonstrating that the electrical communication between neurons through gap junctions (GJs) is a necessary neural mechanism underlying oscillations and synchrony. Here we extended our earlier observations concerning the involvement of GJs in hippocampal theta production. Using trimethylamine, a GJ opener, we demonstrated ...
Newbern Jason M JM University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, - - 2011
We have established functions of the stimulus-dependent MAPKs, ERK1/2 and ERK5, in DRG, motor neuron, and Schwann cell development. Surprisingly, many aspects of early DRG and motor neuron development were found to be ERK1/2 independent, and Erk5 deletion had no obvious effect on embryonic PNS. In contrast, Erk1/2 deletion in ...
Golan Moran - - 2011
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), essential for neuronal survival, plasticity and development, has been implicated in the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs (ADs). β-arrestin1, a member of the arrestin protein family, was found to play a role in AD mechanism of action. The present study aimed at evaluating ...
Ruigrok Tom J H - - 2011
Cerebellar cortical interneurons such as Golgi cells, basket cells, stellate cells, unipolar brush cells, and granule cells play an essential role in the operations of the cerebellum. However, detailed functional studies of the activity of these cells in both anesthetized and behaving animals have been hampered by problems in recognizing ...
Liu Yong-Jun - - 2011
Visual stimuli outside of the classical receptive field (CRF) can influence the response of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1). While recording single units in cat, we presented drifting sinusoidal gratings in circular apertures of different sizes to investigate this extraclassical surround modulation over time. For the full 2 second ...
Alquezar Carolina C Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (CSIC), Madrid, - - 2012
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with neuronal inclusions containing TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is associated in most cases with null-mutations in the progranulin gene (PGRN). While the mechanisms by which PGRN haploinsufficiency leads to neurodegeneration remained speculative, increasing evidence support the hypothesis that cell cycle reentry of postmitotic neurons precedes ...
Gonzalez-Perez Oscar O Laboratory of Neuroscience, School of Psychology, University of Colima, Colima, Colima 28040, Mexico. - - 2011
Demyelinating diseases are characterized by an extensive loss of oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths from axolemma. These neurological disorders are a common cause of disability in young adults, but so far, there is no effective treatment against them. It has been suggested that neural stem cells (NSCs) may play an important ...
Zhang Lei - - 2011
Stem cell-based spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) replacement therapy has been proposed to be a promising strategy to restore hearing either via replacing degenerated neurons or by improving the efficacy of cochlear implants which rely on functional neurons. However, lack of suitable donor cells and low survival rate of implanted cells ...
Hanson Nicola D - - 2011
Several antidepressant drugs have previously been reported to increase neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in laboratory animals. We found no effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine or the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 antagonist R121919 [3-[6-(dimethylamino)-4-methylpyridin-3-yl]-2,5-dimethyl-N,N-dipropyl-1H-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-8-ium-7-amine] on the rate of cell proliferation or hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic ...
Ogura Masato - - 2011
We have previously demonstrated the functional expression of glutamine (Gln) transporter (GlnT) believed to predominate in neurons for the neurotransmitter glutamate pool by rat neocortical astrocytes devoid of neuronal marker expression, with exacerbated vulnerability to oxidative stress after transient overexpression. To evaluate molecular mechanisms underlying the exacerbation, we established stable ...
Fukuda Tsuyoshi - - 2011
Histone methylation is the important transcription regulatory system that affects mammalian development and cell differentiation. Alterations in epigenetic gene regulation are associated with disease. Fbxl10 (F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 10) is a JmjC domain-containing histone demethylase. Although Fbxl10 has been implicated in cell cycle regulation, cell death, senescence, and ...
Takemoto Makoto - - 2011
The UNC-5 family of netrin receptors is known to regulate axon guidance, cell migration, and cell survival. We have previously demonstrated that unc5d, one of the UNC-5 family member genes, is specifically expressed in layer 4 of the developing rat neocortex (Zhong Y, Takemoto M, Fukuda T, Hattori Y, Murakami ...
Schmidt Imke - - 2011
The Drosophila nervous system is ideally suited to study glial cell development and function, because it harbors only relatively few glial cells, and nervous system development is very well conserved during evolution. In the past, enhancer trap studies provided tools allowing to study glial cells with a single-cell resolution and, ...
Yoo Dae Young - - 2011
We investigated the effects of pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)) on cell death, cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, and the GABAergic system in the mouse dentate gyrus. We administered pyridoxine (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to 8 week old mice twice a day for 14 days and sacrificed them at 10 weeks of age. Pyridoxine treatment did not induce ...
Fumagalli Marta - - 2011
The developing and mature central nervous system contains neural precursor cells expressing the proteoglycan NG2. Some of these cells continuously differentiate to myelin-forming oligodendrocytes; knowledge of the destiny of NG2(+) precursors would benefit from the characterization of new key functional players. In this respect, the G protein-coupled membrane receptor GPR17 ...
Delgado Luz M - - 2011
Neurogenesis was studied in the cerebellum of adult goldfish, to establish the phenomenon in this popular laboratory animal model. BrdU and proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling revealed a high rate of cell proliferation within the molecular layer of the cerebellar corpus and valve. Most newborn cells expressed the neuronal marker ...
Al-Awqati Qais - - 2011
Epithelia, the most abundant cell type, differentiate to protoepithelia from stem cells by developing apical and basolateral membrane domains and form sheets of cells connected by junctions. Following this differentiation step, the cells undergo a second step (terminal differentiation), during which they acquire a mature phenotype, which unlike the protoepithelial ...
Kitamura Yoshihisa - - 2011
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is reported to change in animal models of depression and antidepressants. We have used the mitotic marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyyridine to address the effects of imipramine and lithium on cell proliferation and survival following chronic treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. ...
Kaichi Shinji - - 2011
The treatment of ES cells with trichostatin A (TSA), an HDAC inhibitor, induces the acetylation of GATA4 as well as histones, and facilitates their differentiation into cardiomyocytes. Recently, we demonstrated that cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (Cdk9), a core component of positive elongation factor-b, is a novel GATA4-binding partner. The present study ...
Gornicka-Pawlak El Bieta el - - 2011
The aim of the study was to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness of intra-arterial infusion of human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) derived cells at different stages of their neural conversion. Freshly isolated mononuclear cells (D-0), neurally directed progenitors (D-3) and neural-like stem cells derived from umbilical cord blood (NSC) were compared. Focal ...
Yin Hanwei - - 2011
Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a ubiquitous intracellular redox enzyme that regulates tumor growth and proliferation in various cancer cells. Ethaselen (1,2-[bis(1,2-benzisoselenazolone-3(2H)-ketone)]-ethane), a novel anticancer agent, is designed to target mammalian TrxR1 with the aims of cancer growth inhibition and TrxR inactivation. In this study, we demonstrated that ethaselen significantly inhibits ...
Attia Mohamed - - 2011
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are thought to play an important role in skeletal muscle cell growth and differentiation. In view of the MMP inducing function of EMMPRIN/CD147, its role in myogenic cell differentiation was investigated. EMMPRIN level increased during differentiation of both rat primary myoblasts derived from satellite cells and mouse ...
Bonkowski Drew - - 2011
The French scientist Charles Benjamin Rouget identified the pericyte nearly 140 years ago. Since that time the role of the pericyte in vascular function has been difficult to elucidate. It was not until the development of techniques to isolate and culture pericytes that scientists have begun to understand the true ...
Spencer Helen - - 2011
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent cells derived from preimplantation embryos and can be maintained in an undifferentiated state over prolonged periods in vitro. In addition, ESCs can be induced to differentiate into cells representative of the three primary germ layers. As such, ESCs are a useful system for studying ...
Hsu Jia-Wei - - 2011
Differentiation therapy by induction of tumor cells is an important method in the treatment of hematological cancers such as leukemia. Tumor cell differentiation ends cancer cells' immortality, thus stopping cell growth and proliferation. In our previous study, we found that fucose-containing polysaccharide fraction F3 extracted from Ganoderma lucidum can bring ...
Baer Patrick C - - 2011
The versatile differentiation potential of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) into cells of mesodermal, entodermal, and ectodermal origin places these cells at the forefront of cell-based therapies and cell transplantation. Epithelial differentiation of ASC may either be initiated by direct cell-cell or cell-matrix contacts, by chemical factors like retinoic acid, or ...
Davis Noa - - 2011
The embryonic ocular neuroepithilium generates a myriad of cell types, including the neuroretina, the pigmented epithelium, the ciliary and iris epithelia, and the iris smooth muscles. As in other regions of the developing nervous system, the generation of these various cell types requires a coordinated sequence of patterning, specification and ...
Wang Meiwei - - 2011
Ericaulon buergerianum (Gujingcao) is an ophthalmic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial Chinese medicinal herb. This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Ericaulon buergerianum ethanol extract (EBE) and to elucidate its underlying action mechanism. The viability of dopaminergic (DA) neuron in zebrafish was examined by anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunostaining. The locomotor ...
Hall V J - - 2011
Alzheimer's disease is the most prevalent cause of dementia and afflicts ~26 million people worldwide. There are currently no cures for this disease. Production of in vitro models of the disease would be extremely useful for studying disease mechanisms and for potential screening of novel drugs. In this study we ...
Faerge I - - 2011
Porcine neural progenitor cells (pNPC) derived from embryonic stem cells are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into neural and glia lineages, rendering them promising candidates for cell-based therapy of neurodegenerative diseases in a large animal biomedical model. A prerequisite for the successful future therapeutic use of pNPC is a comprehensive ...
Hamamoto Kohei - - 2011
Extracellular matrix (ECM) modulates differentiation of pancreatic β-cells during development. However, the mechanism by which ECM proteins modulate differentiation is not totally clear. We investigated the effect of ECM proteins on differentiation β-cells in vitro. We investigated the effect of basement membrane ECM on differentiation of AR42J cells and rat ...
Fernandez-Flores A - - 2011
The perivascular epithelioid cell (PEC) has been proposed to be the proliferating cell type in a group of tumors known as PEComas. The histogenesis of PEComas is one of the most mysterious aspects of pathology. Hypothesis on its precursor are many, including a cell from blood vessel walls or the ...
Blaukopf Claudia - - 2011
Undoubtedly, the function of the plant cell wall in the control of cell growth far exceeds its mechanical role. The plant's monitoring of cell wall function and integrity comprises a central checkpoint to integrate cues for survival and division, expansion and differentiation, as well as fluctuations in the biotic and ...
Elkouris Maximilianos - - 2011
Neural stem/progenitor cells maintain their identity via continuous self-renewal and suppression of differentiation. Gain-of-function experiments in the chick revealed an involvement for Sox1-3 transcription factors in the maintenance of the undifferentiated neural progenitor (NP) identity. However, the mechanism(s) employed by each factor has not been resolved. Here, we derived cortical ...
Trettner Susanne - - 2011
While spontaneous differentiation is an undesired feature of expanding populations of embryonic stem cells, a variety of methods have been described for their intended differentiation into specialized cell types, such as the osteoblast or chondrocyte. Most commonly, differentiation initiation involves the aggregation of ESCs into a so-called embryoid body (EB), ...
Tanenbaum Marvin E - - 2011
Proper transport and positioning of cell organelles often depends on the antagonistic activities of dynein and kinesin-1, two microtubule motors with opposite directionality.1 One of the largest known transport cargoes is the cell nucleus. Both dynein and kinesin-1 participate in positioning of the nucleus through binding to the nuclear envelope ...
Fragel-Madeira Lucianne - - 2011
Nuclear migration is regulated by the LIS1 protein, which is the regulatory subunit of platelet activating factor (PAF) acetyl-hydrolase, an enzyme complex that inactivates the lipid mediator PAF. Among other functions, PAF modulates cell proliferation, but its effects upon mechanisms of the cell cycle are unknown. Here we show that ...
Birbrair Alexander - - 2011
Therapy for neural lesions or degenerative diseases relies mainly on finding transplantable active precursor cells. Identifying them in peripheral tissues accessible for biopsy, outside the central nervous system, would circumvent the serious immunological and ethical concerns impeding cell therapy. In this study, we isolated neural progenitor cells in cultured adult ...
Cao Yi - - 2011
Variant late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (vLINCL), caused by CLN6 mutation, and juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL), caused by CLN3 mutation, share clinical and pathological features, including lysosomal accumulation of mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit c, but the unrelated CLN6 and CLN3 genes may initiate disease via similar or distinct cellular processes. ...
Charlton-Perkins Mark - - 2011
The concept of an equivalence group, a cluster of cells with equal potential to adopt the same specific fate, has served as a useful paradigm to understand neural cell type specification. In the Drosophila eye, a set of five cells, called the 'R7 equivalence group', generates a single photoreceptor neuron ...
McTigue Dana M - - 2011
Endogenous cell proliferation and gliogenesis have been extensively documented in spinal cord injury, particularly in terms of proliferating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Despite the characterization of different proliferating cell types in the intact and injured spinal cord, the exact sources of new glial cells have remained elusive. Most studies on cell ...
Watari-Goshima Natsuko - - 2011
In vertebrates, the proximal and distal sensory ganglia of the branchial nerves are derived from neural crest cells (NCCs) and placodes, respectively. We previously reported that in Hoxa3 knockout mouse embryos, NCCs and placode-derived cells of the glossopharyngeal nerve were defective in their migration. In this report, to determine the ...
Mays Charles E - - 2011
Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) recapitulates the prion protein (PrP) conversion process under cell-free conditions. PMCA was initially established with brain material and then with further simplified constituents such as partially purified and recombinant PrP. However, availability of brain material from some species or brain material from animals with certain ...
Afshari Fardad T - - 2011
Schwann cells are one of the commonly used cells in repair strategies following spinal cord injuries. Schwann cells are capable of supporting axonal regeneration and sprouting by secreting growth factors (1,2) and providing growth promoting adhesion molecules (3) and extracellular matrix molecules (4). In addition they myelinate the demyelinated axons ...
Colonques Jordi - - 2011
Cell proliferation, specification and terminal differentiation must be precisely coordinated during brain development to ensure the correct production of different neuronal populations. Most Drosophila neuroblasts (NBs) divide asymmetrically to generate a new NB and an intermediate progenitor called ganglion mother cell (GMC) which divides only once to generate two postmitotic ...
Dong Zhiqiang - - 2011
Precise patterns of division, migration and differentiation of neural progenitor cells are crucial for proper brain development and function. To understand the behavior of neural progenitor cells in the complex in vivo environment, time-lapse live imaging of neural progenitor cells in an intact brain is critically required. In this video, ...
Nguyen Hal X - - 2011
Detection of immune cells in the injured central nervous system (CNS) using morphological or histological techniques has not always provided true quantitative analysis of cellular inflammation. Flow cytometry is a quick alternative method to quantify immune cells in the injured brain or spinal cord tissue. Historically, flow cytometry has been ...
Mukherjee Subhas - - 2011
Definitive evidence on the impact of MnSOD/SOD2-deficiency and the consequent effects of high flux of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) on pre-natal/pre-adult development has yet to be reported for either Drosophila or mice. Here we report that oocytes lacking maternal SOD2 protein develop into adults just like normal SOD2-containing oocytes ...
Henriksen Jørn R - - 2011
Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer derived from immature cells of the sympathetic nervous system. The disease is clinically heterogeneous, ranging from neuronal differentiated benign ganglioneuromas to aggressive metastatic tumours with poor prognosis. Amplification of the MYCN oncogene is a well established poor prognostic factor found in up to 40% of ...
Yamamoto Kei - - 2011
Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS) is found throughout chordates, and its emergence predates the divergence of chordates. Many of the molecular components of DA systems, such as biosynthetic enzymes, transporters, and receptors, are shared with those of other monoamine systems, suggesting the common origin of these ...
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