Search Results
Results 151 - 200 of 2337
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Han Juliette M JM The FM Kirby Neurobiology Center, Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2011
Over the past several years, the study of a hereditary tumor syndrome, tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), has shed light on the regulation of cellular proliferation and growth. TSC is an autosomal dominant disorder that is due to inactivating mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 and characterized by benign tumors (hamartomas) involving ...
Li Lin-Feng - - 2011
Although the avian PGCs have been used to produce transgenic birds, their characteristics largely remain unknown. The isolation, culture, biological characterization, and directed neural differentiation of duck EG cells were assayed in this study. The Results showed that the EG cells were got by isolating embryonic gonad and surrounding tissue ...
Ito Tsuyoshi - - 2011
Intraperitoneal 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration induces apoptosis of subventricular zone (SVZ) doublecortin (Dcx)-positive neural progenitor cells (migrating neuroblasts, A cells). Actually, a metabolite of MPTP, 1-methy-4-phenylpiridinium (MPP(+)), is responsible for neural progenitor cell toxicity. In the present study, to examine whether the MPTP-induced SVZ cell apoptosis is caused directly by MPP(+) ...
Seta Yuji - - 2011
Mash1 is expressed in subsets of neuronal precursors in both the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. However, involvement of Mash1 in taste cell differentiation has not previously been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the role of Mash1 in regulating taste bud differentiation using Mash1 KO mice ...
Münch Christian C Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH, United - - 2011
Deposition of proteins of aberrant conformation is the hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases. Misfolding of the normally globular mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) is a central, early, but poorly understood event in the pathogenic cascade leading to familial forms of ALS. Here we report that aggregates composed of an ALS-causing SOD1 ...
Tirino Virginia - - 2011
Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), originating from neural crests, can be found within dental pulp. Up to now, it has been demonstrated that these cells are capable of producing bone tissue, both in vitro and in vivo and differentiate into adipocytes, endotheliocytes, melanocytes, neurons, glial cells, and can be easily ...
Bátiz Luis Federico - - 2011
A heterogeneous population of ependymal cells lines the brain ventricles. The evidence about the origin and birth dates of these cell populations is scarce. Furthermore, the possibility that mature ependymal cells are born (ependymogenesis) or self-renewed (ependymal proliferation) postnatally is controversial. The present study was designed to investigate both phenomena ...
Soria Jose Miguel - - 2011
This study is focused on the development of an in vitro hybrid system, consisting in a polymeric biomaterial covered by a dental pulp cellular stroma that acts as a scaffold offering a neurotrophic support for the subsequent survival and differentiation of neural stem cells. In the first place, the behavior ...
Jean-Mairet Roberto Martín - - 2011
Kinase D interacting substrate of 220 kDa (Kidins220), also known as ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (ARMS), is a protein that is mainly expressed in brain and neural cells where its function is only starting to be characterized. Here, we show that Kidins220/ARMS is also expressed in T lymphocytes where it is ...
Krishna Y - - 2011
Background Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) transplantation presents a potential treatment for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A suitable transplant membrane that can support an intact functioning RPE monolayer is required. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) possesses the physical properties required for a transplanting device; however, cells do not attach and spread on ePTFE. ...
Zimmermann Herbert - - 2011
Extracellular purine and pyrimidine compounds induce a multiplicity of cellular signal pathways that can induce multiple trophic functions. They interact with other low molecular weight messengers, growth factors, and extracellular matrix components. An increasing number of studies now provide evidence for a role of purinergic signaling in neural development, including ...
Sommer Lukas - - 2011
The neural crest is a transient structure in vertebrate embryos that generates multiple neural and mesenchymal cell types as well as melanocytes. Melanocytes in the skin either derive directly from neural crest cells populating the skin via a dorsolateral migratory pathway or arise by detaching from nerves innervating the skin. ...
Rigato C - - 2011
Microglial cells invade the central nervous system during embryonic development, but their developmental functional roles in vivo remain largely unknown. Accordingly, their invasion pattern during early embryonic development is still poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the initial developmental pattern of microglial cell invasion in the spinal cord ...
Awasaki Takeshi T Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. awasakit@ - - 2011
Because of its genetic, molecular, and behavioral tractability, Drosophila has emerged as a powerful model system for studying molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the development and function of nervous systems. The Drosophila nervous system has fewer neurons and exhibits a lower glia:neuron ratio than is seen in vertebrate nervous systems. ...
Kanno Haruo - - 2011
Study Design. Expression of LC3, a characteristic marker of autophagy, was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot using a spinal cord injury (SCI) model in mice. Electron microscopic analysis was also performed to examine the anatomic formation of autophagy and autophagic cell death in the injured spinal cord.Objective. To examine ...
Poukkula Minna - - 2011
Border cells perform a collective, invasive, and directed migration during Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis. Two receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the platelet-derived growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor-related receptor (PVR) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), are important for reading guidance cues, but how these cues steer migration is not well understood. ...
Klisch Tiemo J - - 2011
The proneural, basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Atoh1 governs the development of numerous key neuronal subtypes, such as cerebellar granule and brainstem neurons, inner ear hair cells, and several neurons of the proprioceptive system, as well as diverse nonneuronal cell types, such as Merkel cells and intestinal secretory lineages. However, the ...
Yellajoshyula Dhananjay D Department of Developmental Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, - - 2011
Formation of the complex vertebrate nervous system begins when pluripotent cells of the early embryo are directed to acquire a neural fate. Although cell intrinsic controls play an important role in this process, the molecular nature of this regulation is not well defined. Here we assessed the role for Geminin, ...
Ghosh Chaitali C Cerebrovascular ResearchDepartments of Cell Biology Molecular Medicine Neurological Surgery Epilepsy Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, - - 2011
Compelling evidence supports the presence of P450 enzymes (CYPs) in the central nervous system (CNS). However, little information is available on the localization and function of CYPs in the drug-resistant epileptic brain. We have evaluated the pattern of expression of the specific enzyme CYP3A4 and studied its co-localization with MDR1. ...
Brown Adrienne S - - 2011
A set of spectrally diverse stilbazolium dyes was identified in an uptake assay using cultured brainstem and cerebellum cells isolated from e19 chicks. Pretreatment of cells with indatraline, a monoamine reuptake inhibitor, allowed identification of dyes that may interact with monoamine transporters. Two structurally related, yet spectrally segregated, probes, (E)-1-methyl-4-[2-(2-naphthalenyl)ethenyl]-pyridinium ...
Stoppelkamp Sandra - - 2011
With increasing life expectancy, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias pose an increasing and as yet unresolved health problem. A variety of cellular models of AD has helped to decipher some key aspects of amyloid and tau related degeneration. The initial approach of extracellular applications of synthetic peptides has now ...
Khaindrava Vitaly - - 2011
Chronic high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-HFS) efficiently alleviates motor symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we looked for possible STN-HFS-induced changes on adult brain neurogenesis in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb that may be related to non-motor deficits associated to PD, such as mood disorders and olfaction ...
Carmona I Cantarero - - 2011
The intermediate nestin filament is expressed in neural stem cells, neuroectodermal tumors and various adult tissues under situations that reproduce developmental phases, e.g., physiological renewal of certain cell types, tissue regeneration, and healing or revascularization. In the human gastrointestinal tract, nestin has been reported in glial cells and interstitial cells ...
Yoshimura Kentaro - - 2011
Sensing extracellular milieu is a fundamental requirement of cells. To facilitate and specify sensory reception, mammalian cells develop an antenna-like structure denoted as the primary cilia. Nearly all interphase and nondividing cells in vertebrates have a single, nonmotile seemingly unspecialized cilium (called a primary cilium). In the central nervous system, ...
Ogura Yosuke - - 2011
Chordates undergo a characteristic morphogenetic process during neurulation to form a dorsal hollow neural tube. Neurulation begins with the formation of the neural plate and ends when the left epidermis and right epidermis overlying the neural tube fuse to close the neural fold. During these processes, mitosis and the various ...
Damm Erich W - - 2011
Radial intercalation is a common, yet poorly understood, morphogenetic process in the developing embryo. By analyzing cell rearrangement in the prechordal mesoderm during Xenopus gastrulation, we have identified a mechanism for radial intercalation. It involves cell orientation in response to a long-range signal mediated by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-A) and ...
Sick Emilie - - 2011
CD47 is a membrane receptor that plays pivotal roles in many pathophysiological processes, including infection, inflammation, cell spreading, proliferation, and apoptosis. We show that activation of CD47 increases proliferation of human U87 and U373 astrocytoma cells but not normal astrocytes. CD47 function-blocking antibodies inhibit proliferation of untreated U87 and U373 ...
Panse S J - - 2011
We have tested prototypes of a novel coaxial tube catheter in an in vitro gel model of cell delivery into the brain. Devices 1.6 and 2.0 mm outer diameter were used to deliver PC 12 cells (concentration = 10⁶ cells ml⁻¹ at 1 μl min⁻¹ into a 5 ml sandwich of collagen and 0.1% agarose, ...
Minafra Luigi - - 2011
The U937 cell line, originally established from a histiocytic lymphoma, has been widely used as a powerful in vitro model for haematological studies. These cells retain the immature cell phenotype and can be induced to differentiate by several factors, among which 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-phorbol acetate (TPA). Fully differentiated cells acquire the adherent ...
Gough Wendy - - 2011
Cell migration is a key phenotype for a number of therapeutically important biological responses, including angiogenesis. A commonly used method to assess cell migration is the scratch assay, which measures the movement of cells into a wound made by physically scoring a confluent cell monolayer to create an area devoid ...
Sunmonu N Abimbola - - 2011
In vertebrates, the common expression border of two homeobox genes, Otx2 and Gbx2, demarcates the prospective midbrain-hindbrain border (MHB) in the neural plate at the end of gastrulation. The presence of a compartment boundary at the MHB has been demonstrated, but the mechanism and timing of its formation remain unclear. ...
Zhu Xiaoqin - - 2011
NG2-expressing glia (NG2 cells, polydendrocytes) appear in the embryonic brain, expand perinatally, and persist widely throughout the gray and white matter of the mature central nervous system. We have previously reported that NG2 cells generate oligodendrocytes in both gray and white matter and a subset of protoplasmic astrocytes in the ...
Matsushima Danielle - - 2011
In humans, haploinsufficiency of either SOX2 or PAX6 is associated with microphthalmia, anophthalmia or aniridia. In this study, through the genetic spatiotemporal specific ablation of SOX2 on both wild-type and Pax6-haploinsufficent backgrounds in the mouse, we have uncovered a transcriptionally distinct and developmentally transient stage of eye development. We show ...
Yong Kol Jia - - 2011
During development of the embryonic central nervous system (CNS), large numbers of neurons and glia are generated from the neuroepithelium and its progenitor derivatives as a result of symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions. We describe the biology of symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions in the CNS as gleaned from animal ...
Sørensen Christina - - 2011
Compared to mammals, teleost fishe have a very high rate of adult brain cell proliferation. Still little is known about how this process is regulated in comparative models, and what its functional implications are. We investigated the effect of stressful social interaction on brain cell proliferation in size matched rainbow ...
Kim Jeong Ah - - 2011
Despite the many potential therapeutic applications of iron oxide nanoparticle such as its use as an imaging and targeting tool, its biological effects have not yet been extensively characterized. Herein, we report that iron oxide nanoparticles taken up by PC12 cells can enhance neurite outgrowth. PC12 cells exposed to both ...
Yahr Pauline - - 2011
The medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) and ventral bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) are needed to maintain mating in sexually experienced male gerbils and rats. The gerbil ventral BST is also activated with mating, as assessed by Fos expression, as is the medial MPN (MPNm) of both species. In ...
Almuedo-Castillo Maria - - 2011
The Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) signaling pathway controls multiple events during development and homeostasis. It comprises multiple branches, mainly classified according to their dependence on β-catenin activation. The Wnt/β-catenin branch is essential for the establishment of the embryonic anteroposterior (AP) body axis throughout the phylogenetic tree. It is also required for AP ...
Lin D D Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, - - 2011
Application of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane during the early phase of reperfusion reduces ischemic heart and brain injury (anesthetic post-conditioning). We hypothesize that inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), a protein whose activation can lead to cell death, participates in anesthetic post-conditioning-induced neuroprotection. SH-SY5Y cells, a human neuroblastoma cell ...
Koto Akiko - - 2011
BACKGROUND: In both vertebrates and invertebrates, developing organs and tissues must be precisely patterned. One patterning mechanism is Notch/Delta-mediated lateral inhibition. Through the process of lateral inhibition, Drosophila sensory organ precursors (SOPs) are selected and sensory bristles form into a regular pattern. SOP cell fate is determined by high Delta ...
Saffary Roya - - 2011
During vertebrate cortical neurogenesis, radial glial cells (RGCs) serve as neural stem cells that generate neurons directly or indirectly through intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs). The transition from RGCs to IPCs is a key step in determining overall neuronal production and may underlie evolutionary expansion of the cerebral cortex. Here we ...
Rak Kristen - - 2011
Neural stem cells have been identified in multiple parts of the postnatal mammalian brain, as well as in the inner ear. No investigation of potential neural stem cells in the cochlear nucleus has yet been performed. The aim of this study was to investigate potential neural stem cells from the ...
San Juán Beatriz P - - 2011
A defining feature of stem cells is their capacity to renew themselves at each division while producing differentiated progeny. How these cells balance self-renewal versus differentiation is a fundamental issue in developmental and cancer biology. The Notch signaling pathway has long been known to influence cell fate decisions during development. ...
Davis Shannon W SW Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan Medical School, 4909 Buhl Building, 1241 East Catherine Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5618, USA. - - 2011
The intermediate and anterior lobes of the pituitary gland are derived from an invagination of oral ectoderm that forms Rathke's pouch. During gestation proliferating cells are enriched around the pouch lumen, and they appear to delaminate as they exit the cell cycle and differentiate. During late mouse gestation and the ...
Paul Alex A Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA. - - 2011
Interpretation of adrenal cortex phenotypes is greatly facilitated by simultaneous examination of multiple markers at single cell resolution. However, the availability of multiple appropriate antibodies can be rate limiting, while their cognate antigens are often subject to variable accessibility. Specific markers not subject to these constraints thus have obvious utility. ...
García-García Fabio - - 2011
Sleep deprivation (SD) produces numerous deleterious changes in brain cells, including apoptosis. It has been demonstrated that growth hormone (GH) stimulates cell growth and counteracts apoptosis, although this anti-apoptotic effect has not been tested against SD. To determine the protective effect of GH administration on cell proliferation and survival in ...
Voge Christopher M - - 2011
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are remarkable materials with a simple and inert molecular structure that gives rise to a range of potentially valuable physical and electronic properties, including high aspect ratio, high mechanical strength and excellent electrical conductivity. This review summarizes recent research on the application of CNT-based materials to study ...
Rørth Pernille - - 2011
As individual cells or groups of cells move through the complex environment of the body, their migration is affected by multiple external cues. Some cues are diffusible signaling molecules, and some are solid biophysical features. How do cells respond appropriately? This perspective discusses the relationship between guidance input and the ...
Vieira Helena L A - - 2011
Low oxygen concentrations (hypoxia) occur in several physiological and pathological cellular situations such as embryogenesis and stem cell modulation (in terms of differentiation/proliferation), or ischemic stroke and cancer. On the other side of the coin, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is tightly controlled by the cell. ROS control ...
Hansen Christian - - 2011
Post-mortem analyses of brains from patients with Parkinson disease who received fetal mesencephalic transplants show that α-synuclein-containing (α-syn-containing) Lewy bodies gradually appear in grafted neurons. Here, we explored whether intercellular transfer of α-syn from host to graft, followed by seeding of α-syn aggregation in recipient neurons, can contribute to this ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >