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Dale Nicholas N School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom. - - 2011
Hypothalamic tanycytes are cells that line the walls of the 3rd ventricle. Their cell bodies contact the cerebrospinal fluid and give rise to an inwardly directed process. The more dorsally located (α1 and α2) tanycytes project to areas of the brain involved in the control of feeding and energy balance ...
Kravitz Alexxai V AV Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease, San Francisco, - - 2011
Recent advances in optogenetics have permitted investigations of specific cell types in the nervous system with unprecedented precision and control. This review will discuss the use of optogenetic techniques in the study of mammalian neural circuitry in vivo, as well as practical and theoretical considerations in their application.
Azevedo-Pereira Ricardo Luiz - - 2011
Glycosylated mouse cystatin C (mCysC), an endogenous inhibitor of cysteine cathepsin proteases (CP), has been suggested as a co-factor of βFGF to induce the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into neural progenitors cells (NPC). To investigate the possible role of cysteine proteases in neural differentiation, we treated embryoid bodies ...
Shaerzadeh Fatemeh - - 2011
Increased oxidative stress is widely accepted to be a factor in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we introduced Salvia sahendica as a protective agent in differentiated PC12 cells, which are commonly considered to be a reliable model of neuronal cells. Our results demonstrated that S. sahendica ...
De Melo Reis R A - - 2011
Degeneration of neural retina causes vision impairment and can lead to blindness. Neural stem and progenitor cells might be used as a tool directed to regenerative medicine of the retina. Here, we describe a novel platform for cell phenotype-specific drug discovery and screening of proneurogenic factors, able to boost differentiation ...
Sato Asako A Department of Pediatrics (Neonatology), Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, - - 2011
Cardiac neural crest cells migrate into the pharyngeal arches where they support development of the pharyngeal arch arteries. The pharyngeal endoderm and ectoderm both express high levels of FGF8. We hypothesized that FGF8 is chemotactic for cardiac crest cells. To begin testing this hypothesis, cardiac crest was explanted for migration ...
Baghbaderani Behnam A - - 2011
Understanding initial cell growth, interactions associated with the process of expansion of human neural precursor cells (hNPCs), and cellular events pre- and postdifferentiation are important for developing bioprocessing protocols to reproducibly generate multipotent cells that can be used in basic research or the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Herein, we report ...
Alvernhe Alice - - 2011
The existence of place cells, whose discharge is strongly related to a rat's location in its environment, has led to the proposal that they form part of an integrated neural system dedicated to spatial navigation. It has been suggested that this system could represent space as a cognitive map, which ...
Li Aiqun A Margaret M. Dyson Vision Research Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, - - 2011
Primary cilia are displayed during the G(0)/G(1) phase of many cell types. Cilia are resorbed as cells prepare to re-enter the cell cycle, but the causal and molecular link between these two cellular events remains unclear. We show that Tctex-1 phosphorylated at Thr 94 is recruited to ciliary transition zones ...
Had-Aissouni Laurence - - 2011
The primary function assigned to the sodium-dependent glutamate transporters, also known as excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs), is to maintain the extracellular glutamate concentration in the low micromolar range, allowing glutamate to be used as a signaling molecule in the brain and preventing its cytotoxic effects. However, glutamate and cyst(e)ine, ...
Zaccone Daniele - - 2011
The carotid labyrinth is an enigmatic endocrine structure of unknown chemosensory function lying in the gill region of the catfishes. The carotid body is found at the carotid bifurcation of amphibians and all mammalian vertebrates on the evolutionary tree. It is a vascular expansion comprised of a cluster of glomus ...
Castino Roberta - - 2011
Malignant glioblastoma represents a challenge in the chemotherapy of brain tumors, because of its aggressive behavior characterized by chemoresistance, infiltrative diffusion, and high rate of recurrence and death. In this study, we used cultured human U87MG cells and primary human glioblastoma cultures to test the anticancer properties of resveratrol (RV), ...
Momboisse F - - 2011
Rho GTPases are small GTP binding proteins belonging to the Ras superfamily which act as molecular switches that regulate many cellular function including cell morphology, cell to cell interaction, cell migration and adhesion. In neuronal cells, Rho GTPases have been proposed to regulate neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. However, the ...
Sango Kazunori - - 2011
We established spontaneously immortalized Schwann cell lines from long-term cultures of adult Fischer 344 rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and peripheral nerves. One of these cell lines, designated immortalized Fischer rat Schwann cells 1 (IFRS1), showed spindle-shaped morphology; immunoreactivity for S100, p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR) ), glial fibrillary acidic protein ...
Jones Kathryn S - - 2011
Compensatory replacement of neurons by endogenous subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived neural precursor cells has been demonstrated in the adult brain following striatal cell loss. Such cell replacement is associated with increased SVZ cell proliferation and neuroblast expansion in the rostral migratory stream (RMS). SVZ-derived neural precursor cells co-express multiple transcription factors ...
Shitamukai Atsunori - - 2011
Radial glia cells function as neural stem cells in the developing brain and generate self-renewing and differentiating daughter cells by asymmetric cell divisions. During these divisions, the apical process or basal process of the elongated epithelial structure is asymmetrically partitioned into daughter cells, depending on developmental contexts. However, in mammalian ...
Agostini Rafael Mourão - - 2011
PURPOSE:: To investigate the effect of calcium channel blockers, spider toxins, on cell viability and the glutamate content of ischemic retinal slices. METHODS:: Rat retinal slices were subjected to ischemia via exposure to oxygen-deprived low-glucose medium for 45 minutes. Slices were either treated or not treated with the toxins PhTx3, ...
Otsuka Takeshi - - 2011
Recent advances have established that intralaminar and interlaminar excitatory networks between neocortical pyramidal cells are specialized into subnetworks. Here, we have investigated how the commissural system organizes the intracortical excitatory subnetworks to communicate between cortical hemispheres. Whole-cell recordings were obtained from callosal projection neurons [commissural (COM) cells], identified by in ...
Moon Hong Joo - - 2011
Annulus fibrosus (AF) cells are involved in an inflammatory reaction and the interactions between AF and neuron-like cells enhance the production of growth factors responsible for neovascularization and nerve ingrowth. AF injury has the potential to initiate neovascularization/nerve ingrowth and an inflammatory reaction through the interactions of AF and neural ...
McBean Gethin J - - 2011
Astrocyte cells require cysteine as a substrate for glutamate cysteine ligase (γ-glutamylcysteine synthase; EC 6.3.2.2) catalyst of the rate-limiting step of the γ-glutamylcycle leading to formation of glutathione (L: -γ-glutamyl-L: -cysteinyl-glycine; GSH). In both astrocytes and glioblastoma/astrocytoma cells, the majority of cysteine originates from reduction of cystine imported by the ...
Guo Jing L - - 2011
Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in Alzheimer disease and related tauopathies are composed of insoluble hyperphosphorylated Tau protein, but the mechanisms underlying the conversion of highly soluble Tau into insoluble NFTs remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that introduction of minute quantities of misfolded preformed Tau fibrils (Tau pffs) into Tau-expressing cells rapidly ...
Kane Cynthia J M CJ Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, AR 72205, USA. - - 2011
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) result from ethanol exposure to the developing fetus and are the most common cause of mental retardation in the United States. These disorders are characterized by a variety of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative anomalies which result in significant lifetime disabilities. Thus, novel therapies are required to ...
Aquilano Katia - - 2011
Glutathione (GSH) levels progressively decline during aging and in neurodegenerative disorders. However, the contribution of such event in mediating neuronal cell death is still uncertain. In this report, we show that, in neuroblastoma cells as well as in primary mouse cortical neurons, GSH decrease, induced by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), causes ...
Costa Marcos R - - 2011
Little is known about the intrinsic specification of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) and to what extent they depend on their local niche. To observe adult NSC division and lineage progression independent of their niche, we isolated cells from the adult mouse subependymal zone (SEZ) and cultured them at low ...
Mikami Yoshikazu - - 2011
Osteoblasts and adipocytes originate from common mesenchymal progenitor cells and although a number of compounds can induce osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation from progenitor cells, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. The present study examined the synergistic effects of dexamethasone (Dex) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 on the differentiation of ...
Liu Ting-Yuan - - 2011
The mutations of survival motor neuron (SMN) gene result in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a common neurodegenerative disease. Some of the motor neurons undergoing cell death is the predominant characteristic in SMA pathology. However, the viability and sensitivity to stresses of other cell types also need to be determined. In ...
Khain Evgeniy - - 2011
We consider emergent collective behavior of a multicellular biological system. Specifically, we investigate the role of hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in migration of brain tumor cells. We performed two series of cell migration experiments. In the first set of experiments, cell migration away from a tumor spheroid was investigated. The ...
Dunlap Kent D - - 2011
Environmental complexity and season both influence brain cell proliferation in adult vertebrates, but their relative importance and interaction have not been directly assessed. We examined brain cell proliferation during both the breeding and non-breeding seasons in adult male electric fish, Brachyhypopomus gauderio, exposed to three environments that differed in complexity: ...
Krolewski Richard C - - 2011
The stem and progenitor cells of the olfactory epithelium maintain the tissue throughout life and effectuate epithelial reconstitution after injury. We have utilized free-floating olfactory neurosphere cultures to study factors influencing proliferation, differentiation, and transplantation potency of sphere-grown cells as a first step toward using them for therapeutic purposes. Olfactory ...
Hide Takuichiro - - 2011
Recent findings have demonstrated that malignant tumors, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), contain cancer-initiating cells (CICs, also known as cancer stem cells), which self-renew and are malignant. However, it remains controversial whether such CICs arise from tissue-specific stem cells, committed precursor cells, or differentiated cells. Here we sought to examine the ...
Tsuji Takahiro - - 2011
To identify genes required for brain development, we previously performed in vivo RNA interference (RNAi) screening in Drosophila embryos. We identified pebble as a gene that disrupts development of the Drosophila nervous system. Although pebble has been shown to be involved in neuronal development of Drosophila in several screens, the ...
McCabe Kathryn L - - 2011
The trigeminal ganglion is the largest of the cranial ganglia and responsible for transmitting sensory information for much of the face. The cell surface glycoprotein CD151 is an early marker of the trigeminal placode, the precursor to the ganglion. Here, we investigate the role of CD151 during specification of trigeminal ...
Liu Yiting - - 2011
A specific polymorphism in the hemochromatosis (HFE) gene, H63D, is over-represented in neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer disease. Mutations of HFE are best known as being associated with cellular iron overload, but the mechanism by which HFE H63D might increase the risk of neuron degeneration is ...
Nagoshi Narihito - - 2011
After spinal cord injury (SCI), various cell types are recruited to the lesion site, including Schwann cells, which originate in the neural crest and normally myelinate axons in the peripheral nervous system. Here, we investigated the differentiation states, migration patterns, and roles of neural crest derivatives following SCI, using two ...
Kim Ki Hyun - - 2011
The rhizome of Dioscorea japonica is a food and medicinal source known as 'San Yak' in Korea. Two new furostanol saponins, coreajaponins A (1) and B (2), together with 10 known compounds (3-12) were isolated from the rhizomes of D. japonica. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D ...
Croce Nicoletta - - 2011
Background: In the central nervous system, several neuropeptides are believed to be involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among them, neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a small peptide widely distributed throughout the brain, where it serves as a neurotransmitter and/or a modulator of several neuroendocrine functions. More recently, NPY ...
Komitova Mila - - 2011
NG2 cells are an abundant glial cell type in the adult brain. They are distinct from astrocytes, mature oligodendrocytes, and microglia. NG2 cells generate oligodendrocytes and a subpopulation of protoplasmic astrocytes in the ventral forebrain during development. To determine whether NG2 cells generate reactive astrocytes in the lesioned brain, stab ...
Sousa-Nunes Rita - - 2011
Many stem, progenitor and cancer cells undergo periods of mitotic quiescence from which they can be reactivated. The signals triggering entry into and exit from this reversible dormant state are not well understood. In the developing Drosophila central nervous system, multipotent self-renewing progenitors called neuroblasts undergo quiescence in a stereotypical ...
Ni Mingwei M Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, - - 2011
As the two major glial cell types in the brain, astrocytes and microglia play pivotal but different roles in maintaining optimal brain function. Although both cell types have been implicated as major targets of methylmercury (MeHg), their sensitivities and adaptive responses to this metal can vary given their distinctive properties ...
Krupkova Olga O - - 2011
Nestin is a class VI intermediate filament protein expressed in the cytoplasm of stem and progenitor cells in the mammalian CNS during development. In adults, nestin is present only in a small subset of cells and tissues, including the subventricular zone of the adult mammalian brain, where neurogenesis occurs. Nestin ...
Tan Bailin - - 2011
Adipose tissue stroma contains a population of mesenchymal stem cells, which support repair of damaged tissues through the protective effects of secreted trophic factors. Neurotrophic factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF) have been identified in media collected from cultured adipose-derived stem cells (ASC). We previously demonstrated that administration of cell-free ...
Okano Kazunori - - 2011
This article describes a novel laser-directed microfabrication method carried out in aqueous solution for the organization of cell networks on a platform. A femtosecond (fs) laser was applied to a platform culturing PC12, HeLa, or normal human astrocyte (NHA) cells to manipulate them and to facilitate mutual connections. By applying ...
Zhao Junpeng - - 2011
The orientation (vertical or horizontal) of cell division is known to be critical for neural cell fate determination during neurogenesis. At the onset of neurogenesis, neurogenic progenitor cells are dividing with the cleavage plane parallel to the ventricular surface (horizontal division), which would lead to critical apical components being unequally ...
Kumar Girish - - 2011
Differential cell migration and growth drives the organization of specific tissue forms and plays a critical role in embryonic development, tissue morphogenesis, and tumor invasion. Localized gradients of soluble factors and extracellular matrix have been shown to modulate cell migration and proliferation. Here we show that in addition to these ...
Tegenge Million Adane - - 2011
Human neurons derived from stem cells can be employed as in vitro models to predict the potential of neurochemicals affecting neurodevelopmental cellular processes including proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Here, we developed a model of differentiating human neurons from well characterized human embryonal carcinoma stem cells (NT2). NT2 cells were induced ...
Tossell Kyoko K Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, - - 2011
The midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) acts as an organiser/signalling centre to pattern tectal and cerebellar compartments. Cells in adjacent compartments must be distinct from each other for boundary formation to occur at the interface. Here we have identified the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) neuronal 1 (Lrrn1) protein as a key regulator of ...
Dadon-Nachum Michal - - 2011
Sciatic nerve injury is common and may cause neurological deficits. Previous studies showed that administration of neurotrophic factors (NTFs), naturally occurring proteins that support the development and survival of neurons, preserved and protected damaged motor neuron in the injured sciatic nerve. We have been successful in converting bone marrow-derived mesenchymal ...
Yu Xiaojing X Department of Neuroscience, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut 06030, - - 2011
Radial glial (RG) cells, in the neocortical ventricular/subventricular zone (VZ/SVZ), generate cortical projection neurons both in rodents and humans, but whether they can also generate cortical interneurons is not clear. We demonstrated both on cryosections and in cell cultures that in the human VZ/SVZ, cells can be double labeled with ...
Wood Stephen - - 2011
Cytokinesis is the final stage of cell division in which the daughter cells separate. Although a growing body of evidence suggests that cell migration-induced traction forces may be required to provide physical assistance for daughter cells to dissociate during abscission, the role of cell migration in cytokinesis has not been ...
Spitzer Nadja - - 2011
Cell transplant and gene therapies are promising approaches to many disorders of the nervous system. In studies involving cell transplants to the brain or nervous system, expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) is commonly used to label cells, allowing their identification and histological assessment even after long post-operative survival times. ...
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