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Livingston Man J MJ Department of Nephrology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Medical College of Georgia at Georgia Regents University and Charlie Norwood VA Medical Center, Augusta, - - 2014
Acute kidney injury is a major kidney disease associated with poor clinical outcomes. The pathogenesis of acute kidney injury is multifactorial and is characterized by tubular cell injury and death. Recent studies have shown autophagy induction in proximal tubular cells during acute kidney injury. The regulatory mechanisms of tubular cell ...
Miyoshi Hiromi - - 2012
We present a methodology for integrative multiscale analysis to highlight hierarchical properties of cellular protrusion and mechanochemical interactions in cellular protrusion based on live cell imaging data with high spatiotemporal resolution. As an appropriate experimental system, we selected non-polarized full-moon-shaped keratocytes that present balanced protrusion around the entire cell periphery ...
Legland D - - 2012
In fleshy fruits, the variability of cell morphology at the fruit scale is largely unknown. It presents both a huge variability and a high level of organization. Better knowledge of cell morphology heterogeneity within the fruit is necessary to understand fruit development, to model fruit mechanical behaviour, or to investigate ...
Paik Isha I Wolfson Centre for Stem Cells, Tissue Engineering, and Modelling (STEM), Centre of Biomolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, - - 2012
Tissue function during development and in regenerative medicine completely relies on correct cell organization and patterning at micro and macro scales. We describe a rapid method for patterning mammalian cells including human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) on elastomeric membranes such that micron-scale control of ...
Guo Chin-Lin - - 2012
Enabling long-range transport of molecules, tubules are critical for human body homeostasis. One fundamental question in tubule formation is how individual cells coordinate their positioning over long spatial scales, which can be as long as the sizes of tubular organs. Recent studies indicate that type I collagen (COL) is important ...
Li Qiang - - 2012
An ultra scale-down device that provides insight of how industrial homogenisation impacts bioprocess performance is desirable in the biopharmaceutical industry, especially at the early stage of process development where only a small quantity of material is available. In this work, we assess the effectiveness of focused acoustics as the basis ...
Cai Lei - - 2012
We present a novel photopolymerizable poly(L-lysine) (PLL) and use it to modify polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels for creating a better, permissive nerve cell niche. Compared with their neutral counterparts, these PLL-grafted hydrogels greatly enhance pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell survival in encapsulation, proliferation, and neurite growth and also promote neural progenitor ...
Reid A J - - 2011
Novel approaches are required in the clinical management of peripheral nerve injuries because current surgical techniques result in deficient sensory recovery. Microsurgery alone fails to address extensive cell death in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), in addition to poor axonal regeneration. Incorporation of cultured cells into nerve conduits may offer ...
Yang Sufang - - 2011
Peripheral nerve blocks with local anesthetics (LAs) are commonly performed to provide surgical anesthesia or postoperative analgesia. Nerve injury resulting in persistent numbness or weakness is a potentially serious complication. Local anesthetics have previously been shown to damage neuronal and Schwann cells via several mechanisms. We sought to test the ...
Chi Guang Fan - - 2011
We induced human melanocyte dedifferentiation to Schwann cell-like cells in vitro by a combination of forskolin, neuregulin-β1, neurotrophin-3, platelet-derived growth factor-aa, basic fibroblast growth factor, laminin, and heparin. Cultured human melanocytes constitutively expressed neural cell and melanocyte markers but melanocyte-specific marker, including microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and tyrosinase, expression was selectively ...
Okayasu I - - 2011
Cytoglobin/stellate cell activation-associated protein (Cygb/STAP), a hemoprotein, functions as part of an O2 reservoir with protective effects against oxidative stress in hepatic stellate cells. Heterogeneous expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)+ and/or α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA)+ has been noted in subepithelial myofibroblasts and interstitial cells of the same ...
Aloe Luigi - - 2011
The nerve growth factor (NGF) is a signaling protein, discovered by Rita Levi-Montalcini in the early 1950's for its effect on growth and differentiation of specific populations of neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Originally identified as neurite outgrowthstimulating factor, later studies revealed that the purified molecule has a number ...
Sakthianandeswaren Anuratha A Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, - - 2011
Studies employing mouse models have identified crypt base and position +4 cells as strong candidates for intestinal epithelial stem cells. Equivalent cell populations are thought to exist in the human intestine; however robust and specific protein markers are lacking. Here, we show that in the human small and large intestine, ...
Takashima Shigeo S Department of Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, - - 2011
The Drosophila larval and adult midguts are derived from two populations of endodermal progenitors that separate from each other in the early embryo. As larval midgut cells differentiate into an epithelial layer, adult midgut progenitors (AMPs) remain as small clusters of proliferating, undifferentiated cells attached to the basal surface of ...
Shimokawa Tetsuya - - 2011
Sugars in the glycocalyx play an important role in the attachment of infectious agents to the respiratory mucosa. We examined the histochemistry of 23 lectins to survey the sugar expression in the glycocalyx of the respiratory mucosa of the Pacific white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens. The ciliated and basal cells were ...
Adnyane I K M - - 2011
With 6 figures and 2 tables SUMMARY: The morphology, distribution and relative frequencies of endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) were investigated. The immunohistochemical method employed used seven types of antisera against chromogranin, serotonin, gastrin, cholecystokinin, somatostatin, glucagon and insulin. Chromogranin and serotonin immunoreactive ...
Kotzé Sanet H - - 2011
A wide range of techniques, including high-throughput DNA sequencing methods, have been applied to the evaluation of the normal intestinal flora. However, the inability to grow many of those species in culture imposes substantial constraints on the techniques used to evaluate this important community. The presence of biofilms in the ...
Zhu Guang - - 2011
Sensitized-type solar cells based on TiO2 photoanodes and CdS quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers have been studied. CdS QDs are grown on TiO2 films, utilizing one-step microwave assisted chemical bath deposition (MACBD) method. This method allows a facile and rapid deposition and integration between CdS QDs and TiO2 films. The ...
Yang Yongtao - - 2011
Numb was originally identified as an important cell fate determinant that is asymmetrically inherited during mitosis and controls the fate of sibling cells by inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway in neural tissue. The small intestinal epithelium originates from the division of stem cells that reside in the crypt, which further ...
Nakajima Tadaaki - - 2011
The uterus and upper 3/5 of the vagina originate from the Müllerian duct; however, these organs show quite distinct characteristics in morphology and function. To investigate factors controlling vaginal epithelial cell differentiation from a single layer of pseudostratified epithelium to a multi-layered stratified epithelium with keratin, we focused on fibroblast ...
Gunawardene Ashok R - - 2011
With over thirty different hormones identified as being produced in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the gut has been described as 'the largest endocrine organ in the body' (Ann. Oncol., 12, 2003, S63). The classification of these hormones and the cells that produce them, the enteroendocrine cells (EECs), has provided the ...
Li Zhijie - - 2011
After corneal epithelial abrasion, leukocytes and platelets rapidly enter the corneal stroma, and CCR6(+) IL-17(+) γδ T cells migrate into the epithelium. γδ T-cell-deficient (TCRδ(-/-)) mice have significantly reduced inflammation and epithelial wound healing. Epithelial CCL20 mRNA increased 19-fold at 3 h, and protein increased ∼ 16-fold at 6 h ...
Nakayama Fumiaki - - 2011
The extracellular effect of fibroblast growth factor-12 (FGF12) remains unknown because FGF12 cannot activate any fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), and FGF12 is not currently thought to be released from cells. We reported previously that FGF12 plays an intracellular role in the inhibition of radiation-induced apoptosis. In this study, we ...
Kruatrachue M - - 2011
Pomacea canaliculata were exposed experimentally to contaminated sediments from a tributary of the Mae Klong River, Thailand, for 3 months. The highest concentration of Cr, Zn and Fe accumulated in the digestive gland while the gill exhibited the highest concentration of Cu. In addition, histopathological changes (increased mucus vacuoles, loss of ...
Subramanian Veedamali S - - 2011
The water-soluble vitamin B2 (riboflavin, RF) is an essential micronutrient for normal cell function and survival. Recent studies have identified a role for the human riboflavin transporter-2 (hRFT2) in normal intestinal RF absorption. However, little is known about the cell biology of this transporter and specifically about the molecular determinant(s) ...
Rimpiläinen Riikka - - 2011
Abstract Objectives. Previous studies have suggested that gastrointestinal integrity is compromised after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We compared the effects of prolonged minimized (MCPB) and conventional CPB (CCPB) on intestinal mucosal integrity by determining mucosal damage, epithelial cell proliferation rate and distribution of tight junction proteins in a porcine model. Design. ...
O' Neill Martin J - - 2011
Oral delivery of gene therapeutics would facilitate treatment of local intestinal disease, including colon cancer and inflammatory bowel disease, thus avoiding invasive surgery. The aims of this study were to investigate; if the orientation of the lipid tail on the cyclodextrin (CD) influenced the efficacy of a novel poly-6-cationic amphiphilic ...
Ronza P - - 2011
Rainbow trout gastroenteritis (RTGE) is an emerging disease that has acquired new relevance in European rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), culture, because of the economic losses it causes. Disease aetiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. The lesions appear restricted to the gastrointestinal tract where extensive mucosal detachment associated with high numbers ...
Guarino M - - 2011
Background  Females with slow transit constipation (STC) exhibit progesterone receptor (P4R) overexpression in colon muscle that impair their contractility. These studies examined whether these patients have an overexpression of P4R in epithelial cells and whether P4 affects the SERT-5-HT pathway. Methods  Tissues were obtained from surgical specimens of seven females ...
Buelow Daelynn R - - 2011
Although it is known that Campylobacter jejuni invade the cells that line the human intestinal tract, the bacterial proteins that enable this pathogen to survive within Campylobacter-containing vacuoles (CCV) have not been identified. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of a protein that we termed CiaI for Campylobacter invasion ...
Damek-Poprawa M - - 2011
The cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt), expressed by the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, inhibits the proliferation of cultured epithelial cells by arresting the cell cycle. The gingival epithelium is an early line of defense against microbial assault. When damaged, bacteria collectively gain entry into underlying connective tissue where microbial products can ...
Gobbi Giuliana - - 2011
PKC isoenzymes play central roles in various cellular signalling pathways, participating in a variety of protein phosphorylation cascades that regulate/modulate cellular structure and gene expression. It has been firmly established that several isoforms of PKC have a role in the regulation of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) activity. ...
Ding Bao An - - 2011
We demonstrated for the first time the distribution and morphology of argyrophil and of goblet cells in the mucosa of the small intestine of the Muscovy duck during development using the Grimelius silver staining and alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff (AB/PAS) staining technique. The argyrophil cells distribution was variable over the length ...
Green Luke R - - 2011
The tetraspanins are a superfamily of transmembrane proteins with diverse functions and can form extended microdomains within the plasma membrane in conjunction with partner proteins, which probably includes receptors for bacterial adhesins. Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal disease, attaches to host nasopharyngeal epithelial cells via type IV pili ...
Zhang Yong - - 2011
Trefoil factors (TFFs) promote epithelial cell migration to reseal superficial wounds after mucosal injury, but their receptors and the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. In this study, we showed that frog TFF2 activates protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 to induce human platelet aggregation. Based on this result, we ...
Mellitzer Georg - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine recent papers linking enteroendocrine cells to lipid absorption. RECENT FINDINGS: Specific inactivation of the proendocrine transcription factor neurogenin 3 (Ngn3) in the intestine leads to a loss of enteroendocrine cells, growth retardation, impaired lipid absorption and a high mortality during the weaning period. Furthermore, gain ...
Buhrke Thorsten - - 2011
The human intestinal cell line Caco-2 is a well-established model system to study cellular differentiation of human enterocytes of intestinal origin, because these cells have the capability to differentiate spontaneously into polarized cells with morphological and biochemical features of small intestinal enterocytes. Therefore, the cells are widely used as an ...
Gold Marielle C - - 2011
Mucosal associated invariant T cells are unique T cells localized at high frequencies at the portals of entry for many pathogens. Mucosal associated invariant T cells display a variety of characteristics that suggest their function is to act as effectors in the initial control of microbial infection at mucosal sites.
Leknes I L - - 2011
With 1 figure SUMMARY: The appearance and histochemical properties of mucus cells in various parts of digestive tract in prenatal larvae of platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus), a stomachless teleost, are described and compared. Such cells occurred regularly throughout the entire epithelial cell layer in mouth, pharynx, oesophagus and intestine in 6 mm ...
Steiner Anne - - 2011
PURPOSE:: To evaluate epithelial cell penetration produced by full-thickness "vent incisions." METHODS:: Six donor human corneas with intact epithelium were placed on an artificial anterior chamber. Four perforating paracentral vent incisions were made in each cornea using a diamond knife. RESULTS:: Twenty incisions were analyzed. Of the 20 wounds, 9 ...
Vermeulen Mechteld A R MA Department of Surgery, VU University Medical Center, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The - - 2011
To assess whether glutamate plays a similar role to glutamine in preserving gut wall integrity. The effects of glutamine and glutamate on induced hyperpermeability in intestinal cell lines were studied. Paracellular hyperpermeability was induced in Caco2.BBE and HT-29CL.19A cell lines by adding phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDB) apically, after which the effects of ...
Sothilingam Vithiyanjali - - 2011
The complex physiology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract must permanently be adjusted according to the composition of ingested food, which requires continuous monitoring by appropriate sensory systems. Sensing the dietary constituents is thought to be mediated by chemosensory cells residing in the mucosa of the GI tract. We have examined ...
Grootaert Charlotte - - 2011
Recent developments in host-microbe research give rise to a growing demand for rapid and accurate methods to quantify bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells. Here, we describe a new flow cytometric method to determine the amount and viability of gut bacteria, adhered to a monolayer of differentiated cells. The latter is ...
Joyner P Matthew - - 2011
Exploration of a soft coral (Briareum sp.) from Vanuatu led to the isolation of three new briaranes, designated brialalepolides A (1), B (2), and C (3). Compounds 2 and 3 reduced the expression of COX-2 in human colon adenocarcinoma cells, as well as in murine macrophage cells. This is significant ...
Dean Paul - - 2011
Nucleolin is a prominent nucleolar protein that is mobilized into the cytoplasm during infection by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Nucleolin also exists at low levels at the cell surface of eukaryotic cells and here we show that upon infection of an intestinal cell model, EPEC recruits and subsequently sequesters cell-surface ...
Konig Jorg - - 2011
Therapeutic effects and metabolism of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid; 5-ASA) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease requires intracellular accumulation of the drug in intestinal epithelial cells and hepatocytes. The molecular mechanisms of mesalazine uptake into cells have not been characterized so far. Using HEK cells stably expressing uptake transporters of the ...
Bernardini Nunzia - - 2011
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease with alterations of colonic motility, which influence clinical symptoms. Although morpho-functional abnormalities in the enteric nervous system have been suggested, in UC patients scarce attention has been paid to possible changes in the cells that control colonic motility, including myenteric neurons, glial ...
Bevins Charles L - - 2011
Building and maintaining a homeostatic relationship between a host and its colonizing microbiota entails ongoing complex interactions between the host and the microorganisms. The mucosal immune system, including epithelial cells, plays an essential part in negotiating this equilibrium. Paneth cells (specialized cells in the epithelium of the small intestine) are ...
Ebisawa Masashi - - 2011
M cells are responsible for uptake of mucosal antigens in Peyer's patches (PPs). Differentiation of M cells is thought to be induced by interactions between follicle-associated epithelium and PP cells; however, it remains elusive what types of immune cells function as M-cell inducers. Here, we attempted to identify the cells ...
Vincentini Olimpia - - 2011
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The cytosolic phospolypase A(2) (cPLA(2)) - dependent release of arachidonic acid (AA) from the intra-epithelial lymphocytes plays a pivotal role in arming lymphocytes to cytolysis in the immune response of celiac disease. However, little is known about the role of enterocytes in releasing AA. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ...
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