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Gabbianelli Roberta - - 2011
Zinc is an essential element for all living cells. Recent studies have shown that the ZnuABC zinc uptake system significantly contributes to the ability of several pathogens to multiply in the infected host and cause disease, suggesting that zinc is scarcely available within different tissues of the host. To better ...
Kong Jianping - - 2011
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is an intestinal metaplasia that occurs in the setting of chronic acid and bile reflux and is associated with a risk for adenocarcinoma. Expression of intestine-specific transcription factors in the esophagus likely contributes to metaplasia development. Our objective was to explore the effects of an intestine-specific transcription ...
Escobar Marion - - 2011
The idea that stem cells of adult tissues with high turnover are protected from DNA replication-induced mutations by maintaining the same 'immortal' template DNA strands together through successive divisions has been tested in several tissues. In the epithelium of the small intestine, the provided evidence was based on the assumption ...
Blachier Francois - - 2011
Colon epithelium is renewed within few days through asymmetric mitosis of pluripotent cells followed by differentiation and exfoliation. Absorptive colonocytes do not transport amino acids from lumen to bloodstream but import amino acids from plasma. Among amino acids, colonocytes can use L-arginine as a precursor for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis ...
Burgalassi Susi S Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pisa, Via Bonanno 33, Pisa, Italy. - - 2011
Aims of the present investigation were to prove that natural polysaccharide arabinogalactan (AG) is well tolerated after ocular administration and exerts a high restoring effect on corneal epithelium abrasions. AG interactions with corneal cells, as well as its effect on their proliferation, were evaluated employing rabbit corneal epithelial cell cultures. ...
Ma Menglin M Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, - - 2011
Clostridium perfringens vegetative cells cause both histotoxic infections (e.g., gas gangrene) and diseases originating in the intestines (e.g., hemorrhagic necrotizing enteritis or lethal enterotoxemia). Despite their medical and veterinary importance, the molecular pathogenicity of C. perfringens vegetative cells causing diseases of intestinal origin remains poorly understood. However, C. perfringens beta ...
Uemura Takeshi T Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, - - 2011
Polyamine transport plays an important role in the homeostatic regulation of the polyamine levels. In animals, dietary polyamines are absorbed efficiently in the intestinal tract. In the colon, luminal bacterial derived polyamines are important contributors to cellular polyamine contents. Polyamine transport involves unique uptake and export mechanisms. The amino acid ...
Hondo Tetsuya - - 2010
Microfold (M) cells in the follicle associated epithelium (FAE) of Peyer's patches have an important role in mucosal immune responses. A primary difficulty for investigations of bovine M cells is the lack of a specific molecular marker. In order to identify such a marker we investigated the expression of several ...
Bimbo Luis M - - 2011
Mesoporous silicon particles hold great potential in improving the solubility of otherwise poorly soluble drugs. To effectively translate this feature into the clinic, especially via oral or parenteral administration, a thorough understanding of the interactions of the micro- and nanosized material with the physiological environment during the delivery process is ...
Zeng Huawei - - 2010
Determining the effect of selenium (Se) chemical form on uptake, transport, and glutathione peroxidase activity in human intestinal cells is critical to assess Se bioavailability at nutritional doses. In this study, we found that two sources of L-selenomethionine (SeMet) and Se-enriched yeast each increased intracellular Se content more effectively than ...
Nabokina Svetlana M - - 2011
Intestinal absorption of biotin is mediated via the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT). Studies from our laboratory and others have characterized different aspects of the human SMVT (hSMVT), but nothing is currently known about protein(s) that may interact with hSMVT and affect its physiology/biology. In this study, a PDZ-containing protein PDZD11 ...
von Furstenberg Richard J - - 2011
Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) have been studied for more than three decades; however, their isolation has remained a challenge. We hypothesized that, just as for stem cells of other tissues, one or more membrane markers would allow positive selection of ISCs by antibody-based sorting. To explore this hypothesis, microarray data ...
Terahara Kazutaka - - 2011
The intestinal epithelium contains columnar epithelial cells (ECs) and M cells, and fucosylation of the apical surface of ECs and M cells is involved in distinguishing the two populations and in their response to commensal flora and environmental stress. Here, we show that fucosylated ECs (F-ECs) were induced in the ...
Montgomery Robert K RK Division of Gastroenterology, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2011
The intestinal epithelium is maintained by a population of rapidly cycling (Lgr5(+)) intestinal stem cells (ISCs). It has been postulated, however, that slowly cycling ISCs must also be present in the intestine to protect the genome from accumulating deleterious mutations and to allow for a response to tissue injury. Here, ...
Puttamreddy Supraja - - 2011
During the establishment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection, its capacity to adhere to host intestinal epithelial cells is the critical first step in pathogenesis. It also has the capability to form biofilms, and because both are surface activities, we sought to gain insight into a potential linkage between biofilm formation ...
Roy Hemant K - - 2011
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a safe and effective chemopreventive agent against colorectal carcinogenesis in cell culture, animal models and human subjects. Although the precise molecular mechanism is unclear, we previously reported that PEG suppresses colonic epithelial proliferation. As cellular proliferation is driven by complex G1-S phase transition, we now characterize ...
Acosta-Martinez J P - - 2010
This study examines the use of a capillary shear device for the rapid characterization of human cell lines in terms of their resistance to hydrodynamic stress. An ultra scale-down (USD) approach is presented to allow the use of small quantities of cells available at the early discovery stage and to ...
Takeuchi Hiroki - - 2010
Gingival epithelial cells function as an innate host defence system to prevent intrusion by periodontal bacteria. Nevertheless, Porphyromonas gingivalis, the most well-known periodontal pathogen, can enter gingival epithelial cells and pass through the epithelial barrier into deeper tissues. However, it is poorly understood how this pathogen exits from infected cells ...
Ishikawa Tomo-O TO Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Department of Biological Chemistry, Molecular Biology Institute, and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, - - 2011
Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases are at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Pharmacological inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) function exacerbates symptoms in colitis patients. Animal models of colitis using Cox-2-knockout mice and COX inhibitors also indicate that COX-2 has a protective role against colon inflammation. However, because conventional Cox-2 deletion and ...
Wahlang Banrida - - 2011
Curcumin a poly-phenolic compound possesses diverse pharmacologic activities; however, its development as a drug has been severely impeded by extremely poor oral bioavailability. Poor aqueous solubility and extensive metabolism have been implicated for this but the role of membrane permeability has not been investigated. In the present study, permeability of ...
Lu Lei L Developmental Gastroenterology Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston, USA. - - 2011
It is known that functional maturation of the small intestine occurring during the weaning period is facilitated by glucocorticoids (such as hydrocortisone, HC), including an increased expression of digestive hydrolases. However, the molecular mechanisms are not well understood, particularly in the human gut. Here we report a microarray analysis of ...
Liu Zhi-Hua ZH Department of Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233, - - 2010
To investigate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) in the intestinal permeability and expression of tight junction (TJ) using the normal human colon cell line NCM460. Paracellular permeability of NCM460 monolayers was determined by transepithelial electrical resistance and dextran permeability. Expression of TJ proteins in NCM460 cell monolayers was ...
Albert Marie-Astrid - - 2010
Previous studies have suggested that internalization of the Escherichia coli STb enterotoxin in human and rat intestinal epithelial cells is involved in STb pathogenesis, but toxin uptake in porcine jejunum epithelium, the in vivo target tissue, still remains elusive. Using flow cytometry, we studied the internalization of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled STb ...
Iwasaki Michiko - - 2011
Double balloon endoscopy (DBE) enables the observation and collection of viable specimens from the entire intestine, thereby allowing more detailed investigation of how the structure and function of the human small intestine are regulated. The present study aimed to elucidate the regulation of cell formation in the human small intestine ...
Strauss Erick - - 2010
Variations between single members of a bacterial population can lead to antibiotic resistance that is not gene based. The future of effective infectious disease management might depend on a better understanding of this phenomenon and the potential to manipulate both it and microbial population dynamics in general.
Kuzmina Tatyana V - - 2010
The celomic system of the articulate brachiopod Hemithyris psittacea is composed of the perivisceral cavity, the canal system of the lophophore, and the periesophageal celom. We study the microscopic anatomy and ultrastructure of the periesophageal celom using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The periesophageal celom surrounds the esophagus, is isolated ...
Kuzmina Tatyana V - - 2011
The celomic system of the articulate brachiopod Hemithyris psittacea is composed of the perivisceral cavity, the canal system of the lophophore, and the periesophageal celom. We study the microscopic anatomy and ultrastructure of the periesophageal celom using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The periesophageal celom surrounds the esophagus, is isolated ...
Rumessen Jüri J - - 2011
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) at the submuscular border of the human colon (ICC-SMP) are the proposed pacemaker cells of the musculature. In patients with Crohn's disease (CD) of the colon, ICC-SMP showed characteristic cytological changes from controls. The changes comprised secondary lysosomes in connection with lipid droplets and cytoplasmic ...
Wang Xiao-dan - - 2010
Gastrodin (GAS) is the major bioactive component of the extracts from the rhizome of Gastrodia elata Blume. The aim of this study is to investigate the transport of GAS in Caco-2 cells and the interaction of P-glycoprotein and GAS. The apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) of GAS were measured as a ...
Kaji Izumi - - 2010
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a multifunctional hormone in glucose metabolism and intestinal function released by enteroendocrine L-cells. The plasma concentration of GLP-1 is increased by indigestible carbohydrates and luminal infusion of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). However, the triggers and modulators of the GLP-1 release remain unclear. We hypothesized that ...
Yeşilağaç Reyhan - - 2011
8-Hydroxyquinoline (8-OHQ) is a long-known molecule which due to its metal-complexation ability is frequently used for analysis. It is also called oxine. Oxine and derivatives have been investigated to process antitumor and antimicrobial activities. 8-Hydroxyquinolyl-glucuronide (8-OHQ-Glu) was enzymatically synthesized using microsome preparates separated from Hutu-80 cells, labeled with (125)I to ...
Ren Fangfang F Department of Developmental Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, - - 2010
Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the Drosophila adult midgut are essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis and replenishing lost cells in response to tissue damage. Here we demonstrate that the Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway, an evolutionarily conserved pathway implicated in organ size control and tumorigenesis, plays an essential role in regulating ...
Cyster Jason G - - 2010
The mechanisms of B cell selection in lymphoid tissues are poorly understood. In this issue, Victora et al. (2010) use imaging of photoactivatable green fluorescent protein to define the movements of B cells in germinal centers and provide evidence that antibody affinity maturation is driven by competition for T cell help.
Victora Gabriel D GD Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, - - 2010
The germinal center (GC) reaction produces high-affinity antibodies by random mutation and selective clonal expansion of B cells with high-affinity receptors. The mechanism by which B cells are selected remains unclear, as does the role of the two anatomically defined areas of the GC, light zone (LZ) and dark zone ...
Studer Deborah - - 2010
To monitor cellular processes in individual cells, it is important to measure the concentrations of intracellular metabolites and to retrieve them for analysis. The use of functionalized polyelectrolyte microcapsules as intracellular sensors for in vivo reporting is persented. Capsules loaded with streptavidin-rhodamine, which was introduced into fibroblasts by electroporation, autonomously ...
Geens Mieke - - 2011
To investigate whether a selective matrix adhesion-based protocol can enrich germ cells and deplete cancer cells from contaminated human testicular cell suspensions. Artificially contaminated and control testicular cell suspensions were selectively cultured. After each experimental step, the presence of B cells was evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and/or polymerase ...
Yamada Hiroya - - 2010
Recent studies using stem cells or cancer stem cells have revealed the importance of detecting minor populations of cells in blood or tissue and analyzing their biological characteristics. The only possible method for carrying out such procedures is fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). However, FACS has the following two limitations. First, ...
Ohno Hiroshi - - 2010
Membranous (M) cells are specialized epithelial antigen-transporting cells scattered in the follicle-associated epithelium covering the gut lymphoid follicles such as Peyer's patches. Although the importance of M cells as a main portal for luminal antigens has long been recognized, molecular mechanisms for M-cell antigen uptake has remained largely elusive. We ...
Witte Martin D - - 2010
Deficiency of glucocerebrosidase (GBA) underlies Gaucher disease, a common lysosomal storage disorder. Carriership for Gaucher disease has recently been identified as major risk for parkinsonism. Presently, no method exists to visualize active GBA molecules in situ. We here report the design, synthesis and application of two fluorescent activity-based probes allowing ...
Frimat Jean-Philippe - - 2011
We present a highly parallel microfluidic approach for contacting single cell pairs. The approach combines a differential fluidic resistance trapping method with a novel cellular valving principle for homotypic and heterotypic single cell co-culturing. Differential fluidic resistance was used for sequential single cell arraying, with the adhesion and flattening of ...
Bastien Christian - - 2011
The performance of two field probes (YSI 6600 and TriOS), used for the measurement of in vivo phycocyanin fluorescence, was compared and validated in the laboratory in 2008 and 2009 with cultures of Microcystis aeruginosa and field samples. The background noise of the two probes was low and the detection ...
Lindström Sara - - 2010
Numerous microdevices developed for single-cell analyses have been presented in the last decades. Practical usefulness in biological and clinical settings has become an important focus during the development and implementation of new structures and assays. Single-cell analysis has been applied in intracellular research, gene- and protein content and expression, PCR, ...
Starmans L W E - - 2011
Quantum dot micelles (pQDs) with a paramagnetic coating are promising nanoparticles for bimodal molecular imaging. Their bright fluorescence allows for optical detection, while their Gd payload enables visualization with contrast-enhanced MRI. A popular approach in molecular MRI is the targeting of abundantly expressed cell surface receptors. Ligand-receptor binding often results ...
Park Min Cheol - - 2011
Extracting single-cell information during cellular responses to external signals in a high-throughput manner is an essential step for quantitative single-cell analyses. Here, we have developed a simple yet robust microfluidic platform for measuring time-course single-cell response on a large scale. Our method combines a simple microwell-based cell docking process inside ...
Liu Chuansen - - 2010
This paper describes a method of fabricating rounded bottom microwell arrays (MA) in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) by molding a monolayer of ordered polystyrene (PS) microspheres. PS microspheres were self-assembled on a glass slide and partially melted mainly from the bottom at 240 °C to increase adhesive force with the substrate. The ...
Pihlasalo Sari - - 2010
We have developed easy-to-use homogeneous methods utilizing time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) and fluorescence quenching for quantification of eukaryotic cells. The methods rely on a competitive adsorption of cells and fluorescently labeled protein onto citrate-stabilized colloidal gold nanoparticles or carboxylate-modified polystyrene nanoparticles doped with an Eu(III) chelate. In the ...
Girnth Anne-Christin - - 2011
A mat-forming population of the giant sulfur bacterium Thiomargarita was discovered at the flank of the mud volcano Amon on the Nile Deep Sea Fan in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. All cells were of a spherical and vacuolated phenotype and internally stored globules of elemental sulfur. With a diameter of ...
Chang De-Wei - - 2011
The effect of an algal metabolite, β-cyclocitral, on the cell integrity of two cyanobacteria and one diatom was investigated. The cyanobacteria, Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7005 and PCC 7820, and the diatom, Nitzschia palea, were exposed to various concentrations of β-cyclocitral. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) results indicate that the cells of ...
Xiao Xi - - 2010
The current trend of global warming is expected to stimulate the expansion of harmful cyanobacteria blooms. Previously, the occidental type of barley straw has been used to control blooms in Europe and America, but very little is known about the antialgal abilities of its oriental relative. We tested the use ...
Cui Kai - - 2011
A resorufin derivative with a DBS group (probe 1) was designed and investigated for the detection of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and inhibitor screening. The new assay is based on cascade enzymatic and chemical reactions of ATC, AChE and probe 1, and it can be carried out in a dual-signal detection mode. ...
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