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Chartier Nicolas T - - 2011
Integrity of the epithelial barrier is determined by apical junctional complexes which also participate in the signalling pathways inducing intestinal cell differentiation. Lipid rafts (LR) have been proposed to play a role in the organization and the function of these intercellular complexes. This study investigated potential mechanisms by which LR ...
Py Christophe - - 2011
Patch-clamp is an important method to monitor the electrophysiological activity of cells and the role of pharmacological compounds on specific ion channel proteins. In recent years planar patch-clamp chips have been developed as a higher throughput approach to the established glass-pipette method. However, proper conditions to optimize the high resistance ...
Brodrick Brooks - - 2011
Fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR-3) expression in the developing intestine is restricted to the undifferentiated epithelial cells within the lower portion of the crypt. We previously showed that mice lacking functional FGFR-3 have a significant decrease in the number of Paneth cells in the small intestine. Here, we used Caco2 ...
Gerbe François - - 2011
The unique morphology of tuft cells was first revealed by electron microscopy analyses in several endoderm-derived epithelia. Here, we explore the relationship of these cells with the other cell types of the intestinal epithelium and describe the first marker signature allowing their unambiguous identification. We demonstrate that although mature tuft ...
Hoffmann Peter - - 2011
INTRODUCTION: Interferon γ (IFNγ) has been originally identified by its anti-viral activity and has been demonstrated to act as potent modulator of the immune system with a range of target cells limited largely to immune cell populations. Although IFNγ has been shown to directly affect the barrier function of intestinal ...
Ray Ramesh M - - 2011
Integrin binding to the extracellular matrix (ECM) activated Rho GTPases, Src, and focal adhesion kinase in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC)-6. Polyamine depletion inhibited activities of Rac1, RhoA, and Cdc42 and thereby migration. However, constitutively active (CA) Rac1 expression abolished the inhibitory effect of polyamine depletion, indicating that polyamines are involved ...
Akimori Toyokazu - - 2011
The function of brush cells is obscure, but recent cytochemical studies indicate that rat bile duct brush cells secrete NaHCO(3). The aim of this study was to determine the quantitative distribution of brush cells at 16 sites of the rat gastrointestinal tract and to investigate the role of NaHCO(3) secretion ...
Puiman Patrycja J - - 2011
Paneth cell dysfunction has been suggested in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). The aim of this study was to i) study Paneth cell presence, protein expression, and developmental changes in preterm infants with NEC and ii) determine Paneth cell products and antimicrobial capacity in ileostomy outflow fluid. Intestinal tissue from NEC patients ...
Cederlund Maria L ML UCD School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Sciences, UCD Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. - - 2011
Amacrine cells constitute a diverse, yet poorly characterized, cell population in the inner retina. Here, the authors sought to characterize the morphology, molecular physiology, and electrophysiology of a subpopulation of EGFP-expressing retinal amacrine cells identified in a novel zebrafish transgenic line. After 7.2 kb of the zebrafish mab21l2 promoter was ...
Múnera Jorge J Tumor Development Program, Cancer Research Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, - - 2011
Ets2 has both tumor repressive and supportive functions for different types of cancer. We have investigated the role of Ets2 within intestinal epithelial cells in postnatal mouse colon development and tumorigenesis. Conditional inactivation of Ets2 within intestinal epithelial cells results in over representation of Ets2-deficient colon crypts within young and ...
Ohara M M Departments of Bacteriology, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, - - 2011
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is one of the etiological pathogens implicated in the onset of periodontal disease. This pathogen produces cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) that acts as a genotoxin to induce cell cycle arrest and cellular distension in cultured cell lines. Therefore, CDT is a possible virulence factor; however, the in vivo ...
Mo Ran - - 2011
P-glycoprotein (P-gp), expressed in the apical membranes of the epithelial cells of the intestine, can reduce the oral bioavailability of a wide range of drugs. Many surfactants/excipients have been demonstrated to potentially increase drug absorption by inhibiting P-gp. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ...
Van Landeghem Laurianne - - 2011
Wound healing of the gastrointestinal mucosa is essential for the maintenance of gut homeostasis and integrity. Enteric glial cells play a major role in regulating intestinal barrier function, but their role in mucosal barrier repair remains unknown. The impact of conditional ablation of enteric glia on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ...
Guan Yanfang - - 2011
We questioned how tight junctions contribute to intestinal barrier function during the cell shedding that is part of physiological cell renewal. Intravital confocal microscopy studied the jejunal villus epithelium of mice expressing a fluorescent zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) fusion protein. Vital staining also visualized the cell nucleus (Hoechst staining) or ...
Sawa Shinichiro - - 2011
Lymphoid cells that express for the nuclear hormone receptor RORγt are involved in containment of the large intestinal microbiota and defense against pathogens through the production of interleukin 17 (IL-17) and IL-22. They include adaptive IL-17-producing helper T cells (T(H)17 cells), as well as innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) such as ...
Motoki Takayuki T Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Transplant, and Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama, 700-8558, - - 2011
To investigate the possible biological outcome and effect of glutamine depletion in neonatal mice and rodent intestinal epithelial cells. We developed three kinds of artificial milk with different amounts of glutamine; Complete amino acid milk (CAM), which is based on maternal mouse milk, glutamine-depleted milk (GDM), and glutamine-rich milk (GRM). ...
Chamot-Rooke Julia - - 2011
The Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria meningitidis asymptomatically colonizes the throat of 10 to 30% of the human population, but throat colonization can also act as the port of entry to the blood (septicemia) and then the brain (meningitis). Colonization is mediated by filamentous organelles referred to as type IV pili, which ...
Liou Alice P - - 2011
Dietary protein is a major stimulant for cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion by the intestinal I cell, however, the mechanism by which protein is detected is unknown. Indirect functional evidence suggests that PepT1 may play a role in CCK-mediated changes in gastric motor function. However, it is unclear whether this oligopeptide transporter ...
Paredes-Sabja Daniel - - 2011
Spores of pathogenic Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile must germinate in the food vehicle and/or host's intestinal tract to cause disease. In this work, we examined the germination response of spores of C. perfringens and C. difficile upon incubation with cultured human epithelial cell lines (Caco-2, HeLa and HT-29). C. ...
Powell Anne E - - 2011
The most deadly phase in cancer progression is attributed to the inappropriate acquisition of molecular machinery leading to metastatic transformation and spread of disease to distant organs. Although it is appreciated that metastasis involves epithelial-mesenchymal interplay, the underlying mechanism defining this process is poorly understood. Specifically, how cancer cells evade ...
Kant Prashant P Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, Wellcome Trust Brenner Building, St James's University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF, - - 2011
Rectal epithelial cell mitosis and crypt size, as well as expression of proinflammatory genes including macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), are increased 6 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in morbidly obese patients. Tests were carried out to determine whether these putative colorectal cancer risk biomarkers remained elevated long term ...
Rosa Antonella - - 2011
The importance of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) intake has long been recognized in human nutrition. Although health benefits, n-3 PUFA are subject to rapid and/or extensive oxidation during processing and storage, resulting in potential alteration in nutritional composition and quality of food. Bottarga, a salted and semi-dried mullet ...
Quintero Maria - - 2011
Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that has been implicated in meningitis, NEC, and sepsis in neonates. Colonization and subsequent infection and invasion of C. sakazakii require that the organism adheres to host cell surfaces. Agents that inhibit or block attachment of the pathogen to epithelial cells could be useful ...
Watanabe Eiko - - 2011
BACKGROUND.: At present, autologous intestinal segments are often used for bladder reconstruction. However, the gastrointestinal mucosa often causes various complications. METHODS.: Oral mucosal tissues were obtained from the buccal cavity of beagle dogs. Primary oral mucosal epithelial cells were cultured on temperature-responsive culture dishes with a mitomycin C-treated 3T3 feeder ...
Chiba Sayuri - - 2011
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) invades the host intestine using listerial invasion proteins, internalins. The in vivo role of internalin A (InlA) and internalin B (InlB) is reported here. Intragastric (i.g.) administration and ligated loop assays with ΔinlB-Lm demonstrated that a lack of InlB significantly attenuates the invasive ability of Lm into ...
Tran-Minh Nhut - - 2011
Clogging failure is common for microfilters in living cells concentration; for instance, the CaSki Cell-lines (Epidermoid cervical carcinoma cells) utilizing the flat membrane structure. In order to avoid the clogging, counter-flow concentration units with turbine blade-like micropillar are proposed in microconcentrator design. Due to the unusual geometrical-profiles and extraordinary microfluidic ...
Breton François - - 2011
We have recently reported the analytical performance of an immunosensor comprising one mm-scale parallel plate laminar flow chamber and applied to capture MCF7 breast cancer cells (Ehrhart et al., Biosens. Bioelectr. 24, 467, 2008). Herein we present a new multiplex immunosensor embodying four parallel plate laminar flow chambers that fit ...
Atarashi Koji - - 2011
The mammalian alimentary tract harbors hundreds of bacterial species that constitute the indigenous microbial flora. The indigenous microbial flora has long been appreciated for its role in host immune system development. Recent reports suggest that components of the microbial flora differentially affect the proportion and number of functionally distinct subsets ...
Gonçalves Pedro - - 2011
Butyrate (BT) is one of the main end products of anaerobic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber within the human colon. Among its recognized effects, BT inhibits colon carcinogenesis. Our aim was to characterize uptake of BT by two nontransformed intestinal epithelial cell lines: rat small intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) and fetal ...
Kim Tae-Hee - - 2011
Notch signaling is active in many sites, and its diverse activities must require tissue-specific intermediaries, which are largely unknown. In the intestinal epithelium, Notch promotes crypt cell proliferation and inhibits goblet cell differentiation. Pharmacologic studies suggest that the latter effect occurs through the transcription factor Math1/Atoh1, which specifies all intestinal ...
Nardi James B - - 2011
Cell renewal continuously replaces dead or dying cells in organs such as human and insect intestinal (midgut) epithelia; in insects, control of self-renewal determines insects' responses to any of the myriad pathogens and parasites of medical and agricultural importance that enter and cross their midgut epithelia. Regenerative cells occur in ...
van der Veen Stijn - - 2011
The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is able to colonize the human gastro-intestinal tract and subsequently cross the intestinal barrier. Thus, for L. monocytogenes to become virulent, it must survive the low pH of the stomach, high bile concentrations in the small intestine, and invade the epithelial cells. In this study, ...
Liu Chu-Ting - - 2011
Cell fractions including heat-treated cells, crude cell walls, intracellular extracts and exopolysaccharides (EPSs) obtained from Lactobacillus casei 01 were first studied for their effects on the proliferation of human intestinal epithelial cells, intestine 407 and the human colon cancer cell, HT-29. Their effects on the cytotoxicity of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) ...
Liu Zhihao - - 2011
Cyclo-trans-4-l-hydroxyprolyl-l-serine (JBP485) is a dipeptide with anti-hepatitis activity that has been chemically synthesized. Previous experiments in rats showed that JBP485 was well absorbed by the intestine after oral administration. The human peptide transporter (PEPT1) is expressed in the intestine and recognizes compounds such as dipeptides and tripeptides. The purposes of ...
Tamaki Kumiko - - 2011
BACKGROUND: In the clinical field, increasing incidence of small intestinal ulcers associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has become a topic with the advances of capsule endoscopy and balloon enteroscopy technology for the detection of small intestinal lesions. However, the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced mucosal damage, defensive mechanism of intestinal epithelial ...
Ishimoto Yoko - - 2011
We previously reported that apoptosis of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells is induced by coculturing with human macrophage-like THP-1 cells, mainly via the action of TNF-a secreted from THP-1 cells (Satsu et al., 2006). Our recent DNA microarray analysis of cocultured Caco-2 cells showed that immediate early response gene X-1 (IEX-1) ...
Pereira-Fantini Prue M - - 2011
If we are to develop successful interventions to improve clinical outcomes for short bowel syndrome patients we require (1) knowledge of changes within the epithelial population following small bowel resection (SBR) and (2) an idea of when these changes occur to inform on the timing of potential interventions aimed at ...
Masuda Sayuri - - 2011
Epithelial cell contacts consist of not only bicellular contacts but also tricellular contacts, where the corners of three cells meet. At tricellular contacts, tight junctions (TJs) generate specialized structures termed tricellular TJs (tTJs) to seal the intercellular space. Tricellulin is the only known molecular component of tTJs and is involved ...
Mullan N N Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Nottingham Nottingham, UK. - - 2011
Colonic inflammation in Clostridium difficile infection is mediated by released toxins A and B. We investigated responses to C. difficile toxins A and B by isolated primary human colonic myofibroblasts, which represent a distinct subpopulation of mucosal cells that are normally located below the intestinal epithelium. Following incubation with either ...
Morton Jennifer P - - 2011
Comment on: Ashton GH, et al. Dev Cell 2010; 19:259-69.
Múnera Jorge - - 2011
Ets2 has both tumor repressive and supportive functions for different types of cancer. We have investigated the role of Ets2 within intestinal epithelial cells in postnatal mouse colon development and tumorigenesis. Conditional inactivation of Ets2 within intestinal epithelial cells results in over representation of Ets2 deficient colon crypts within young ...
Lavoie Elise G - - 2011
Extracellular nucleotides and adenosine are biologically active molecules that bind members of the P2 and P1 receptor families, respectively. In the digestive system, these receptors modulate various functions, including salivary, gastric and intestinal epithelial secretion, and enteric neurotransmission. The availability of P1 and P2 ligands is modulated by ectonucleotidases, enzymes ...
Fukui Toshiro - - 2011
BACKGROUND: The gastric corpus and antrum are believed to contain epithelial stem cells in the isthmus. However, the lack of useful markers has hindered studies of their origin. We explored whether Smad2/3, phosphorylated at specific linker threonine residues (pSmad2/3L-Thr), could serve as a marker for stem cells. METHODS: Stomachs, small ...
Chun Wanjoo - - 2011
A primary pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease brain is the presence of neurofibrillary tangles, which are highly aggregated and insoluble accumulations of the microtubule-associated protein tau. Although it is becoming increasingly apparent that the mature neurofibrillary tangles are not the toxic species, intermediates between soluble tau and the neurofibrillary tangles ...
Zhou Huiping - - 2011
The integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier plays a crucial role in maintaining symbiotic homeostasis between microbes in the gut lumen and eukaryotic cells. Disruption of intestinal epithelial barrier function occurs commonly under various pathological conditions, including trauma, inflammatory bowel disease, and drug-induced gastrointestinal toxicity, exhibiting increased intestinal epithelial paracellular ...
Uchiyama Kazuhiko - - 2011
Background/Aims: The apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in colonic epithelial cells is very important for the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15, the human ortholog of FGF19, is reported to be secreted from colonic myofibroblasts and enhances colonic epithelial restitution, but little is known ...
Wächtler Betty - - 2011
Candida albicans frequently causes superficial infections by invading and damaging epithelial cells, but may also cause systemic infections by penetrating through epithelial barriers. C. albicans is an unusual pathogen because it can invade epithelial cells via two distinct mechanisms: induced endocytosis, analogous to facultative intracellular enteropathogenic bacteria, and active penetration, ...
Valverde-Islas Laura E - - 2011
Flame cells are the terminal cells of protonephridial systems, which are part of the excretory systems of invertebrates. Although the knowledge of their biological role is incomplete, there is a consensus that these cells perform excretion/secretion activities. It has been suggested that the flame cells participate in the maintenance of ...
Uemura Takeshi - - 2011
Polyamine transport plays an important role in the homeostatic regulation of the polyamine levels. In animals, dietary polyamines are absorbed efficiently in the intestinal tract. In the colon, luminal bacterial derived polyamines are important contributors to cellular polyamine contents. Polyamine transport involves unique uptake and export mechanisms. The amino acid ...
Ma Menglin - - 2011
Clostridium perfringens vegetative cells cause both histotoxic infections (e.g., gas gangrene) and diseases originating in the intestines (e.g., hemorrhagic necrotizing enteritis or lethal enterotoxemia). Despite their medical and veterinary importance, the molecular pathogenicity of C. perfringens vegetative cells causing diseases of intestinal origin remains poorly understood. However, C. perfringens beta ...
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