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Results 401 - 450 of 1553
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Madani Navid N Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2007
The coexpression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins and receptors leads to the lysis of single cells by a process that is dependent upon membrane fusion. This cell lysis was inhibited by low-molecular-weight compounds that interfere with receptor binding or with receptor-induced conformational transitions in the envelope ...
Mesnard Jean-Michel - - 2006
Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) was first described in 1977. A link between ATL and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was clearly established in the early 1980s. Over the years, many aspects of HTLV-1-induced cellular dysfunctions have been clarified. However, the detailed mechanism behind ATL occurrence remains unsolved. Presently, ...
Schramm Birgit - - 2006
Poxviruses, such as vaccinia virus (VV), replicate their DNA in endoplasmic-reticulum-enclosed cytoplasmic sites. Here, we compare the dynamics of the VV replication sites with those of the attenuated strain, modified VV Ankara (MVA). By live-cell imaging, small, early replication sites of both viruses undergo motility typical of microtubule (MT)-motor-mediated movement. ...
Kamata Masakazu M Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. - - 2006
Viral protein R (Vpr), one of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory proteins, contributes to multiple cytopathic effects, G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The mechanisms of Vpr have been intensely studied because it is believed that they underlie HIV-1 pathogenesis. We here report a cell-based small molecule ...
Cutiño-Moguel Teresa - - 2006
Rabbit cells are poorly permissive to HIV-1 infection, but little is known about the nature of this block. Here, we show that the block to infection is mainly at the level of reverse transcription (RT), is independent of the cell receptor used by the virus for entry, cannot be effectively ...
Hidari Kazuya I P J - - 2006
To investigate involvement of cellular glycosphingolipids in the propagation of influenza viruses in host cells, MDCK cells were treated with inhibitors for sphingolipid biosynthesis, fumonisin B1 and d,l-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol. Continuous treatment of the cells with either inhibitor during pre- and post viral inoculation, but not the pretreatment alone, significantly reduced viral ...
Tang Qiyi - - 2006
Strong species specificity and similar tropisms suggest mouse cytomegalovirus (mCMV) as a potential vector for transgenes into human cells. We reexamined the dogma that mouse cytomegalovirus cannot productively replicate in human cells and found that mouse cytomegalovirus can produce infectious particles albeit at a level that does not sustain an ...
Dezengrini Renata - - 2006
Contamination of cell cultures with adventitious viruses may pose serious risks for virology diagnosis, research and vaccine production. This article reports the selection and characterization of three cell lines resistant to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a major contaminant of cell cultures. The resistant cells were obtained from canine (MDCK), ...
Boggio Roberto - - 2006
Since its discovery in 1997, SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) has been implicated in a range of activities, indicating that this protein is as important in the cell as ubiquitin is. Although it can function throughout the cell, it appears to be involved more in nuclear functions. The growing list of ...
Fackler Oliver T - - 2006
As obligate cell parasites, viruses have evolved into professional manipulators of host cell functions. Accordingly, viruses often remodel the cytoskeleton of target cells in order to convert one of the cell's barriers to viral replication into a vehicle for the virus that facilitates the generation of infectious progeny. Surprisingly little ...
Sibrian-Vazquez Martha - - 2006
A series of four porphyrin-cobaltacarborane conjugates have been synthesized, containing three or four cobaltabisdicarbollide anions linked by O(CH(2)CH(2)O)(2) groups to the porphyrin macrocycle and one of them containing a HIV-1 Tat 48-60 peptide sequence linked via a low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) spacer. The cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and preferential ...
- - 2006
To evaluate virologic response up to 48 weeks, and emergence of HIV-1 resistance mutations at 24 weeks, in therapy-naive adults initiating zidovudine/lamivudine/tenofovir DF. : A cohort within the DART trial. Plasma HIV-1 RNA was assayed in 300 adults with baseline CD4 cell count < 200 cells/mul from sites in Uganda ...
Walisko Oliver - - 2006
Transposable elements are discrete segments of DNA that have the distinctive ability to move and replicate within genomes. Similar to viruses, transposons are best viewed as molecular parasites that propagate themselves using resources of the host cell. Many viruses have developed strategies to modulate the host cell cycle machinery and ...
Frenkel Niza - - 2006
Amplicon-6 and Tamplicon-7 are novel non-integrating vectors derived from the lymphotropic Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7 (HHV-6 and HHV-7). In the presence of helper viruses the amplicon vectors replicate to yield packaged defective genomes of size approximately 150 kb and consisting of multiple repeat units containing (i) the oriLyt DNA ...
Zheng X - - 2006
E1B55K-deleted dl1520 could selectively replicate in cancer cells and has been used in clinical trials as an antitumor agent. The mechanism of virus selective replication in cancer cells, including a possible role of p53, is unclear. Studies with established cancer cell lines have demonstrated that some cancer cells are resistant ...
Schmidt Michael - - 2006
Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are promising gene therapy vectors. We have recently identified a bovine adeno-associated virus (BAAV) that demonstrates unique tropism and transduction activity compared to primate AAVs. To better understand the entry pathway and cell tropism of BAAV, we have characterized the initial cell surface interactions required for ...
Schmitz M - - 2006
Replicating adenovirus (Ad) vectors with tumour tissue specificity hold great promise for treatment of cancer. We have recently constructed a conditionally replicating Ad5 AdDeltaEP-TETP inducing tumour regression in a xenograft mouse model. For further improvement of this vector, we introduced four genetic modifications and analysed the viral cytotoxicity in a ...
Krishna Delfi - - 2006
A number of viruses, when they bind to cells, activate intracellular signals that facilitate post-binding steps of infection. To determine if retroviruses activate intracellular signaling, we transduced HeLa cells with amphotropic retroviruses produced by TelCeB6 cells and examined cell lysates for activated Rac1. We found that retroviruses activate Rac1. Rac1 ...
Chancey Caren J - - 2006
The vaginal and cervical epithelia provide an initial barrier to sexually acquired HIV-1 infection in women. To study the interactions between HIV-1-infected cells or cell-free HIV-1 and the reproductive epithelium, the transmission of HIV-1 by infected cells or cell-free virus across human cervical epithelial cells was examined using a Transwell ...
Bringhurst Ryan M - - 2006
This lab reported previously that the plating efficiency of a herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP0-null mutant was enhanced upon release from an isoleucine block which synchronizes cells to G1 phase (W. Cai and P. A. Schaffer, J. Virol. 65:4078-4090, 1991). Peak plating efficiency occurred as cells cycled out of ...
Rentsendorj A - - 2006
The adenovirus (Ad) penton base protein facilitates viral infection by binding cell surface integrins, triggering receptor-mediated endocytosis and mediating endosomal penetration. Given these multiple functions, recombinant penton base proteins have been utilized as non-viral vehicles for gene transfer by our lab and others. Although we have previously demonstrated that penton ...
Cervantes-Acosta Guillermo - - 2006
The Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line has become the prototypic cell type for studying the mechanisms involved in viral glycoproteins transport and viral assembly in polarized cells. This cell line has been used in our laboratories for studying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), despite the fact that MDCK cells cannot ...
Misinzo Gerald - - 2006
Monocyte/macrophage lineage cells are target cells in vivo for porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) replication. The porcine monocytic cell line 3D4/31 supports PCV2 replication in vitro, and attachment and internalization kinetics of PCV2 have been established in these cells. However, PCV2 receptors remain unknown. Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) are used by several viruses ...
Grummer B - - 2006
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is an economically important pathogen of domestic pigs and wild boar. Due to the highly variable clinical picture of CSF, laboratory methods are essential for an unambiguous diagnosis. Virus isolation using cell culture is still considered the gold standard. It is based on the incubation ...
Tzeng Wen-Pin - - 2006
The rubella virus capsid protein (C) has been shown to complement a lethal deletion (termed deltaNotI) in P150 replicase protein. To investigate this phenomenon, we generated two lines of Vero cells that stably expressed either C (C-Vero cells) or C lacking the eight N-terminal residues (Cdelta8-Vero cells), a construct previously ...
Petermann Eva E Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, Science Park Road, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9RQ, UK. - - 2006
Chk1 protein kinase maintains replication fork stability in metazoan cells in response to DNA damage and DNA replication inhibitors. Here, we have employed DNA fiber labeling to quantify, for the first time, the extent to which Chk1 maintains global replication fork rates during normal vertebrate S phase. We report that ...
Song Tae-Jin TJ Gastric and Mixed Tumor Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, - - 2006
The rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in western countries, along with the poor prognosis offered by present-day treatment modalities, makes novel therapies for this disease necessary. Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are replication-competent viruses that are highly effective in the treatment of a wide variety of experimental models of ...
Varthakavi Vasundhara - - 2006
The HIV-1 accessory gene product Vpu is required for efficient viral particle release from infected human cells. The mechanism by which Vpu enhances particle assembly or release is not yet defined. Here, we identify an intracellular site that is critical for Vpu-mediated enhancement of particle release. Vpu was found to ...
McCormick Christopher J - - 2006
Knowledge of how hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins associate with components of the host cell to form a functional replication complex is still limited. To address this issue, HCV replicon constructs were generated where either green fluorescent protein (GFP) or the Propionibacterium shermanii transcarboxylase domain (PSTCD) was introduced into the ...
Donoval Betty A - - 2006
Numerous epidemiologic studies have found significant associations between lack of circumcision and HIV-1 acquisition in men. To our knowledge, this is the first study of human foreskin tissue that examines biologic mechanisms that increase susceptibility of uncircumcised African men to HIV-1. Foreskin specimens from 20 men with and 19 men ...
Ruiz Zandra - - 2006
The MVM NS2 proteins are required for viral replication in cells of its normal murine host, but are dispensable in transformed human 324K cells. Alternate splicing at the minor intron controls synthesis of three forms of this protein, which differ in their C-terminal hexapeptides and in their relative abundance, with ...
Devlin J M - - 2006
In alphaherpesviruses, glycoprotein I (gI) and glycoprotein E (gE) form a heterodimer that functions in cell-to-cell spread of the virus. Generally, alphaherpesvirus mutants that lack these glycoproteins are replication competent in cell culture but show a reduced capacity for cell-to-cell spread and hence smaller plaque sizes. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), ...
Marsh Mark - - 2006
Detailed information about the replication cycle of viruses and their interactions with host organisms is required to develop strategies to stop them. Cell biology studies, live-cell imaging, and systems biology have started to illuminate the multiple and subtly different pathways that animal viruses use to enter host cells. These insights ...
Sakai Keiko - - 2006
HIV type I (HIV-1) can cause G(2) cell cycle arrest and death of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in vitro and inexorable depletion of these cells in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism of viral cytopathicity has not been satisfactorily elucidated. Previously, we showed that HIV-1 kills T cells by a necrotic form ...
Sibley Christopher D - - 2006
The predicted chromosomal origin of replication (oriC) from the alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti is shown to allow autonomous replication of a normally non-replicating plasmid within S. meliloti cells. This is the first chromosomal replication origin to be experimentally localized in the Rhizobiaceae and its location, adjacent to hemE, is the ...
Vellinga Jort - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The adenovirus 14.3 kDa hexon-associated protein IX (pIX) functions in the viral capsid as 'cement' and assembles the hexons in stable groups-of-nine (GONs). Although viruses lacking pIX do not form GONs, and are less heat-stable than wild-type (wt) viruses, they can be propagated with the same kinetics and yields ...
Sebastian Sarah - - 2006
Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) increased human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infectivity when particular Homo sapiens and Cercopithecus aethiops cell lines were used as targets. Knockdown of human TRIM5alpha by RNA interference eliminated the As(2)O(3) effect, demonstrating that the drug acts by modulating the activity of this retroviral restriction factor. In ...
Nelson Heather B - - 2006
An intimate relationship between hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and the physiological state of the host liver cells has been reported. In particular, a highly reproducible and reversible inhibitory effect of high cell density on HCV replication was observed: high levels of HCV RNA and protein can be detected in ...
Gonçalves Manuel A F V - - 2006
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene (DMD), making it amenable to gene- or cell-based therapies. Another possible treatment entails the combination of both principles by transplantation of autologous myogenic cells after their genetic complementation. This approach requires efficient and stable transduction of these cells ...
Kaye Matthew - - 2006
Given the potential for laboratory-associated severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infections, we must know which cell lines are susceptible to the virus. We investigated 21 cell lines routinely used for virus isolation or research. After infection with SARS-CoV, cells were observed for cytopathic effects, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain ...
Antal J - - 2006
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral protein R (Vpr) exerts multiple effects on viral and host cellular activities during infection, including induction of the cell cycle G2 arrest, and cell death in both human cells and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that treament of exponential-phase wild-type Vpr-expressing ...
Peruzzi Francesca - - 2006
The HIV-1 transactivating factor Tat plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Originally discovered as a potent activator of viral replication, Tat has now been found to be involved in the regulation of both viral and cellular gene expression. Due to its structure, Tat protein can be secreted by ...
Muratori Claudia - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The availability of cell lines releasing fluorescent viral particles can significantly support a variety of investigations, including the study of virus-cell interaction and the screening of antiviral compounds. Regarding HIV-1, the recovery of such biologic reagents represents a very hard challenge due to the intrinsic cytotoxicity of many HIV-1 ...
Ochsenbauer-Jambor Christina - - 2006
The rapid increase of viral strains that are resistant to the currently available antiretroviral drugs is a threat to the success of current human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) treatment and emphasizes the importance of developing novel anti-HIV-1 compounds. To improve the current abilities to screen for novel HIV-1 inhibitors, ...
Seiler Michael P - - 2006
The transduction efficiency of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors in various somatic tissues is determined primarily by the viral capsid proteins. In contrast to vectors made with AAV type 2 capsids, those having type 5 or 6 capsids show high transduction rates in airway epithelial cells, in a range that should ...
Lopez S - - 2006
Rotaviruses, the leading cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide, are non-enveloped viruses formed by three concentric layers of protein that enclose a genome of double-stranded RNA. These viruses have a specific cell tropism in vivo, infecting primarily the mature enterocytes of the villi of the ...
Singh Harsharan K - - 2006
Polyomaviruses of the BK- and JC-strains often remain latent within the transitional cell layer of the bladder, ureters and the renal pelvis as well as in tubular epithelial cells of the kidney. Slight changes in the immune status and/or an immunocompromised condition can lead to the (re)activation of latent polyomaviruses, ...
Freed Eric O - - 2006
In recognition of the growing influence of cell biology in retrovirus research, we recently organized a Summer conference sponsored by the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) on the Cell Biology of HIV-1 and other Retroviruses (July 20-23, 2006, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia). The meeting brought together a number of ...
Sorin Masha - - 2006
INI1/hSNF5 is a cellular protein that directly interacts with HIV-1 integrase (IN). It is specifically incorporated into HIV-1 virions. A dominant negative mutant derived from INI1 inhibits HIV-1 replication. Recent studies indicate that INI1 is associated with pre-integration and reverse transcription complexes that are formed upon viral entry into the ...
Hatziioannou Theodora - - 2005
Defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly in murine cells is accompanied by poor plasma membrane binding and proteolytic processing of the HIV-1 Gag precursor. Here, we show that such defects are induced by the propensity of the HIV-1 MA globular head to inhibit membrane binding and particle assembly, ...
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