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Results 401 - 450 of 1520
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Sakai Keiko - - 2006
HIV type I (HIV-1) can cause G(2) cell cycle arrest and death of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in vitro and inexorable depletion of these cells in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism of viral cytopathicity has not been satisfactorily elucidated. Previously, we showed that HIV-1 kills T cells by a necrotic form ...
Sibley Christopher D - - 2006
The predicted chromosomal origin of replication (oriC) from the alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti is shown to allow autonomous replication of a normally non-replicating plasmid within S. meliloti cells. This is the first chromosomal replication origin to be experimentally localized in the Rhizobiaceae and its location, adjacent to hemE, is the ...
Vellinga Jort - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The adenovirus 14.3 kDa hexon-associated protein IX (pIX) functions in the viral capsid as 'cement' and assembles the hexons in stable groups-of-nine (GONs). Although viruses lacking pIX do not form GONs, and are less heat-stable than wild-type (wt) viruses, they can be propagated with the same kinetics and yields ...
Sebastian Sarah - - 2006
Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) increased human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infectivity when particular Homo sapiens and Cercopithecus aethiops cell lines were used as targets. Knockdown of human TRIM5alpha by RNA interference eliminated the As(2)O(3) effect, demonstrating that the drug acts by modulating the activity of this retroviral restriction factor. In ...
Nelson Heather B - - 2006
An intimate relationship between hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and the physiological state of the host liver cells has been reported. In particular, a highly reproducible and reversible inhibitory effect of high cell density on HCV replication was observed: high levels of HCV RNA and protein can be detected in ...
Gonçalves Manuel A F V - - 2006
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene (DMD), making it amenable to gene- or cell-based therapies. Another possible treatment entails the combination of both principles by transplantation of autologous myogenic cells after their genetic complementation. This approach requires efficient and stable transduction of these cells ...
Kaye Matthew - - 2006
Given the potential for laboratory-associated severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infections, we must know which cell lines are susceptible to the virus. We investigated 21 cell lines routinely used for virus isolation or research. After infection with SARS-CoV, cells were observed for cytopathic effects, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain ...
Antal J - - 2006
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral protein R (Vpr) exerts multiple effects on viral and host cellular activities during infection, including induction of the cell cycle G2 arrest, and cell death in both human cells and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that treament of exponential-phase wild-type Vpr-expressing ...
Peruzzi Francesca - - 2006
The HIV-1 transactivating factor Tat plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Originally discovered as a potent activator of viral replication, Tat has now been found to be involved in the regulation of both viral and cellular gene expression. Due to its structure, Tat protein can be secreted by ...
Muratori Claudia - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The availability of cell lines releasing fluorescent viral particles can significantly support a variety of investigations, including the study of virus-cell interaction and the screening of antiviral compounds. Regarding HIV-1, the recovery of such biologic reagents represents a very hard challenge due to the intrinsic cytotoxicity of many HIV-1 ...
Ochsenbauer-Jambor Christina - - 2006
The rapid increase of viral strains that are resistant to the currently available antiretroviral drugs is a threat to the success of current human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) treatment and emphasizes the importance of developing novel anti-HIV-1 compounds. To improve the current abilities to screen for novel HIV-1 inhibitors, ...
Seiler Michael P - - 2006
The transduction efficiency of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors in various somatic tissues is determined primarily by the viral capsid proteins. In contrast to vectors made with AAV type 2 capsids, those having type 5 or 6 capsids show high transduction rates in airway epithelial cells, in a range that should ...
Lopez S - - 2006
Rotaviruses, the leading cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide, are non-enveloped viruses formed by three concentric layers of protein that enclose a genome of double-stranded RNA. These viruses have a specific cell tropism in vivo, infecting primarily the mature enterocytes of the villi of the ...
Singh Harsharan K - - 2006
Polyomaviruses of the BK- and JC-strains often remain latent within the transitional cell layer of the bladder, ureters and the renal pelvis as well as in tubular epithelial cells of the kidney. Slight changes in the immune status and/or an immunocompromised condition can lead to the (re)activation of latent polyomaviruses, ...
Freed Eric O - - 2006
In recognition of the growing influence of cell biology in retrovirus research, we recently organized a Summer conference sponsored by the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) on the Cell Biology of HIV-1 and other Retroviruses (July 20-23, 2006, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia). The meeting brought together a number of ...
Sorin Masha - - 2006
INI1/hSNF5 is a cellular protein that directly interacts with HIV-1 integrase (IN). It is specifically incorporated into HIV-1 virions. A dominant negative mutant derived from INI1 inhibits HIV-1 replication. Recent studies indicate that INI1 is associated with pre-integration and reverse transcription complexes that are formed upon viral entry into the ...
Hatziioannou Theodora - - 2005
Defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly in murine cells is accompanied by poor plasma membrane binding and proteolytic processing of the HIV-1 Gag precursor. Here, we show that such defects are induced by the propensity of the HIV-1 MA globular head to inhibit membrane binding and particle assembly, ...
Belshan Michael - - 2006
The HIV-2 viral accessory protein Vpx is related to, but distinct from the Vpr protein of HIV-1. Vpx is packaged into virions and as a component of the viral preintegration complex (PIC) is required for efficient virus replication in non-dividing cells. We have previously reported that the minimal transferable region ...
Novak N - - 2005
Summary Herpes simplex virus (HSV) represents a smart pathogen, which displays both lytic and latent modes of interaction with its natural human host. In order to be optimally equipped for immune evasion and to reply to any attacks of the host during reactivation, HSV has developed a multitude of cleverly ...
Nesbeth Darren - - 2006
Nonviral, host-derived proteins on lentiviral vector surfaces can have a profound effect on the vector's biology as they can both promote infection and provide resistance to complement inactivation. We have exploited this to engineer a specific posttranslational modification of a "nonenvelope," virally associated protein. The bacterial biotin ligase (BirA) and ...
Greene Ivorlyne P - - 2005
Mosquito-borne alphaviruses, which replicate alternately and obligately in mosquitoes and vertebrates, appear to experience lower rates of evolution than do many RNA viruses that replicate solely in vertebrates. This genetic stability is hypothesized to result from the alternating host cycle, which constrains evolution by imposing compromise fitness solutions in each ...
Fang Shou Guo - - 2005
An interesting question posed by the current evidence that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus may be originated from an animal coronavirus is how such an animal coronavirus breaks the host species barrier and becomes zoonotic. In this report, we study the chronological order of genotypic changes in the spike protein ...
Markosyan Ruben M - - 2005
A method has been developed to follow fusion of individual pseudotyped virus expressing HIV-1 Env to cells by time-resolved fluorescence microscopy. Viral envelopes were labeled with a fluorescent lipid dye (DiD) and virus content was rendered visible by incorporating a Gag-GFP chimera. The Gag-GFP is naturally cleaved to the much ...
Kong Byung-Whi - - 2006
Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) is a respiratory viral pathogen that causes turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) or swollen head syndrome (SHS) in chickens. AMPV was first isolated in South Africa during the early 1970s and has subsequently spread worldwide during the 1980s to include Europe, Asia, and South America. In 1996, a genetically ...
Heffernan Jane M - - 2005
We describe a Monte Carlo simulation of the within-host dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). The simulation proceeds at the level of individual T-cells and virions in a small volume of plasma, thus capturing the inherent stochasticity in viral replication, mutation and T-cell infection. When cell lifetimes are distributed ...
Blanco Julià - - 2005
A flow cytometry-based assay was used to simultaneously quantify X4 and R5 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope-mediated cell-to-cell viral transfer, cell death, and cell-to-cell fusion. In this assay, different anti-HIV envelope drugs showed characteristic inhibitory profiles for each measured parameter, allowing for the rapid identification of the mode of action ...
Yoshizuka Naoto - - 2005
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr protein has important functions in advancing HIV pathogenesis via several effects on the host cell. Vpr mediates nuclear import of the preintegration complex, induces host cell apoptosis, and inhibits cell cycle progression at G(2), which increases HIV gene expression. Some of Vpr's ...
Jolly Clare - - 2005
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can spread directly between T cells by forming a supramolecular structure termed a virological synapse (VS). HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) are required for VS assembly, but their mode of recruitment is unclear. We investigated the distribution of GM1-rich lipid rafts in HIV-1-infected (effector) T ...
Cilliers Tonie - - 2005
Two HIV-1 isolates (CM4 and CM9) able to use alternate HIV-1 coreceptors on transfected cell lines were tested for their sensitivity to inhibitors of HIV-1 entry on primary cells. CM4 was able to use CCR5 and Bob/GPR15 efficiently in transfected cells. The R5 isolate grew in Delta32/Delta32 CCR5 PBMC in ...
Chen Yi-Heng - - 2005
We have recently demonstrated the assembly of hepatitis delta virus-like particles (HDV VLP) by co-transducing hepatoma cells using two recombinant baculoviruses, one encoding hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and one encoding large delta antigen (L-HDAg). In this study, we further demonstrated the assembly and secretion of VLP in other mammalian ...
Vaillancourt Mei Ting - - 2005
Cultured primary human cells have been widely used to assess the selectivity of oncolytic viruses as potential anticancer agents. As culture conditions can potentially have a significant impact on virus replication and ultimately cell killing, we evaluated the effects of dl309, a wild-type adenovirus, and dl01 / 07, a conditionally ...
Sauer John-Demian - - 2005
Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii are phylogenetically related intracellular bacteria that cause aerosol-transmitted lung infections. In host cells both pathogens proliferate in vacuoles whose biogenesis displays some common features. To test the functional similarity of their respective intracellular niches, African green monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cells, A/J mouse bone marrow-derived ...
Hollier Mark J - - 2005
In addition to the major ectodomain, the gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein of HIV-1 is now known to have a minor ectodomain that is part of the long C-terminal tail. Both ectodomains are highly antigenic, carry neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes, and are involved in virus-mediated fusion activity. However, data have so far ...
Yu Zhenkun - - 2005
PURPOSE: Although a variety of malignant tumors are susceptible to therapy with oncolytic herpes simplex viruses, the determinants of tumor sensitivity to these viruses are poorly understood. Nectin-1 is a cell surface adhesion molecule that is a component of intercellular adherens junctions and also functions as a herpes viral receptor. ...
Ahn Jeonghyun - - 2005
We examined the ability of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to disrupt infection by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3). The incorporation of siRNAs dramatically decreased cell death in permissive HeLa cells in parallel with a reduction in viral replication. Three of four siRNAs had potent anti-CVB3 activity. The present study thus demonstrates that ...
Rose Kristine M - - 2005
APOBEC3G and 3F (A3G and A3F) cytidine deaminases incorporate into retroviral cores where they lethally hypermutate nascent DNA reverse transcripts. As substantiated here, the viral infectivity factor (Vif) encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) binds A3G and A3F and induces their degradation, thereby precluding their incorporation into viral progeny. ...
Day Craig W - - 2005
Ribavirin has been reported to cause error-prone replication and viral extinction in RNA viruses. The antiviral activity of ribavirin against West Nile virus (WNV) was evaluated in various cell lines to select a model in which mutagenic effects could be studied. The antiviral activity was greatest in HeLa cells as ...
McCance Dennis J - - 2005
Human papillomaviruses cause cancer of the stratified epithelium, and the incidence of infection with these viruses in the genital tract is high. The alterations in the biology of normal epithelial cells that lead to malignancy are a consequence of the activity of certain viral proteins, whose function is to create ...
Fang Jianhua - - 2005
Productive infection by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) in the central nervous system (CNS) involves mainly macrophages and microglial cells. A frequency of less than 10% of human astrocytes is estimated to be infectable with HIV-1. Nonetheless, this relatively low percentage of infected astrocytes, but associated with a large ...
Hartl I - - 2005
Viruses conditionally replicating in cancer cells form an attractive novel class of antitumoral agents. To engineer such viruses infectivity can be coupled with proteolytic activity of the target cell by modifying the envelope (Env) protein of murine leukaemia virus (MLV) with blocking domains that prevent cell entry unless they are ...
Gigout Laure - - 2005
Over the past decade, AAV-based vectors have emerged as promising candidates for gene therapeutic applications. Despite the broad tropism of the first eight serotypes identified, certain cell types are refractory to transduction with AAV-based vectors. Furthermore, for certain applications the targeting of specific cell types is desirable. To improve on ...
Mahot Ségolène - - 2005
A number of viral proteins have the property to penetrate into the cells when present in the extra-cellular compartment. Here, we report that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transcriptional activator EB1/Zta, which is responsible for the activation of the EBV lytic replication, binds to lymphoid cells surface, is efficiently translocated and ...
Harris Julie R - - 2005
Many steps of viral replication are dependent on the interaction of viral proteins with host cell components. To identify rhinovirus proteins involved in such interactions, human rhinovirus 39 (HRV39), a virus unable to replicate in mouse cells, was adapted to efficient growth in mouse cells producing the viral receptor ICAM-1 ...
Lan Nguyen Thi - - 2005
To know growth profiles of canine distemper virus (CDV) on Vero cells stably expressing canine signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (Vero-DogSLAMtag; Vero-DST cells), the propagation of three strains of CDV was tested in Vero-DST cells in comparison with parental Vero cells. Strain MD77 could grow well in both cell lines, but ...
Tempaku Akira - - 2005
Infection of human cell with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) was suppressed by cellular genetic factor(s) at reverse transcription step. Although same amount of virus adsorbed on both cells, small amount of HIV-1 (IIIB strain) infected HeLa (MAGI/CCR5) cell, while large amount of HIV-1 infected HOS (GHOST/CXCR4) cell. Regulation of ...
Sloane Andrew J - - 2005
CXCR4, the chemotactic cell receptor for SDF-1alpha, is essential for immune trafficking and HIV infection. CXCR4 is remarkably heterogeneous and the purpose of this study was to better identify the isoforms expressed by cells and compare their structure and function. We found that cells express either a predominant isoform or ...
Patnayak Devi P - - 2005
The isolation of avian pneumovirus (APV) (avian metapneumovirus) is usually performed in embryonated chicken eggs or chicken embryo fibroblast cell cultures followed by adaptation in continuous cell lines such as Vero cells. This study was conducted to find a suitable cell line that could be used to propagate vaccine strains ...
Coskun Ayse Kubra - - 2005
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first human retrovirus identified and causes both adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy, among other disorders. In vitro, HTLV-1 has an extremely broad host cell tropism in that it is capable of infecting most mammalian cell types, although at ...
Janoo Anwar - - 2005
HIV-1, the etiologic agent of human AIDS, causes cell death in host and non-host cells via HIV-1 Vpr, one of its auxiliary gene product. HIV-1 Vpr can also cause cell cycle arrest in several cell types. The cellular processes that link HIV-1 Vpr to the cell death machinery are not ...
Feigelstock Dino A - - 2005
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been adapted to grow efficiently in primate and some nonprimate cell lines but not in cells of murine origin. To understand the inability of the virus to grow in mouse cells, we studied the replication of HAV in immortalized and nontransformed MMH-D3 mouse liver cells, ...
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