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Results 401 - 450 of 1539
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Zheng X - - 2006
E1B55K-deleted dl1520 could selectively replicate in cancer cells and has been used in clinical trials as an antitumor agent. The mechanism of virus selective replication in cancer cells, including a possible role of p53, is unclear. Studies with established cancer cell lines have demonstrated that some cancer cells are resistant ...
Schmidt Michael - - 2006
Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are promising gene therapy vectors. We have recently identified a bovine adeno-associated virus (BAAV) that demonstrates unique tropism and transduction activity compared to primate AAVs. To better understand the entry pathway and cell tropism of BAAV, we have characterized the initial cell surface interactions required for ...
Schmitz M - - 2006
Replicating adenovirus (Ad) vectors with tumour tissue specificity hold great promise for treatment of cancer. We have recently constructed a conditionally replicating Ad5 AdDeltaEP-TETP inducing tumour regression in a xenograft mouse model. For further improvement of this vector, we introduced four genetic modifications and analysed the viral cytotoxicity in a ...
Krishna Delfi - - 2006
A number of viruses, when they bind to cells, activate intracellular signals that facilitate post-binding steps of infection. To determine if retroviruses activate intracellular signaling, we transduced HeLa cells with amphotropic retroviruses produced by TelCeB6 cells and examined cell lysates for activated Rac1. We found that retroviruses activate Rac1. Rac1 ...
Chancey Caren J - - 2006
The vaginal and cervical epithelia provide an initial barrier to sexually acquired HIV-1 infection in women. To study the interactions between HIV-1-infected cells or cell-free HIV-1 and the reproductive epithelium, the transmission of HIV-1 by infected cells or cell-free virus across human cervical epithelial cells was examined using a Transwell ...
Bringhurst Ryan M - - 2006
This lab reported previously that the plating efficiency of a herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP0-null mutant was enhanced upon release from an isoleucine block which synchronizes cells to G1 phase (W. Cai and P. A. Schaffer, J. Virol. 65:4078-4090, 1991). Peak plating efficiency occurred as cells cycled out of ...
Rentsendorj A - - 2006
The adenovirus (Ad) penton base protein facilitates viral infection by binding cell surface integrins, triggering receptor-mediated endocytosis and mediating endosomal penetration. Given these multiple functions, recombinant penton base proteins have been utilized as non-viral vehicles for gene transfer by our lab and others. Although we have previously demonstrated that penton ...
Cervantes-Acosta Guillermo - - 2006
The Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line has become the prototypic cell type for studying the mechanisms involved in viral glycoproteins transport and viral assembly in polarized cells. This cell line has been used in our laboratories for studying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), despite the fact that MDCK cells cannot ...
Misinzo Gerald - - 2006
Monocyte/macrophage lineage cells are target cells in vivo for porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) replication. The porcine monocytic cell line 3D4/31 supports PCV2 replication in vitro, and attachment and internalization kinetics of PCV2 have been established in these cells. However, PCV2 receptors remain unknown. Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) are used by several viruses ...
Grummer B - - 2006
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is an economically important pathogen of domestic pigs and wild boar. Due to the highly variable clinical picture of CSF, laboratory methods are essential for an unambiguous diagnosis. Virus isolation using cell culture is still considered the gold standard. It is based on the incubation ...
Tzeng Wen-Pin - - 2006
The rubella virus capsid protein (C) has been shown to complement a lethal deletion (termed deltaNotI) in P150 replicase protein. To investigate this phenomenon, we generated two lines of Vero cells that stably expressed either C (C-Vero cells) or C lacking the eight N-terminal residues (Cdelta8-Vero cells), a construct previously ...
Song Tae-Jin - - 2006
The rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in western countries, along with the poor prognosis offered by present-day treatment modalities, makes novel therapies for this disease necessary. Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are replication-competent viruses that are highly effective in the treatment of a wide variety of experimental models of ...
Petermann Eva E Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, Science Park Road, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9RQ, UK. - - 2006
Chk1 protein kinase maintains replication fork stability in metazoan cells in response to DNA damage and DNA replication inhibitors. Here, we have employed DNA fiber labeling to quantify, for the first time, the extent to which Chk1 maintains global replication fork rates during normal vertebrate S phase. We report that ...
Varthakavi Vasundhara - - 2006
The HIV-1 accessory gene product Vpu is required for efficient viral particle release from infected human cells. The mechanism by which Vpu enhances particle assembly or release is not yet defined. Here, we identify an intracellular site that is critical for Vpu-mediated enhancement of particle release. Vpu was found to ...
McCormick Christopher J - - 2006
Knowledge of how hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins associate with components of the host cell to form a functional replication complex is still limited. To address this issue, HCV replicon constructs were generated where either green fluorescent protein (GFP) or the Propionibacterium shermanii transcarboxylase domain (PSTCD) was introduced into the ...
Donoval Betty A - - 2006
Numerous epidemiologic studies have found significant associations between lack of circumcision and HIV-1 acquisition in men. To our knowledge, this is the first study of human foreskin tissue that examines biologic mechanisms that increase susceptibility of uncircumcised African men to HIV-1. Foreskin specimens from 20 men with and 19 men ...
Ruiz Zandra - - 2006
The MVM NS2 proteins are required for viral replication in cells of its normal murine host, but are dispensable in transformed human 324K cells. Alternate splicing at the minor intron controls synthesis of three forms of this protein, which differ in their C-terminal hexapeptides and in their relative abundance, with ...
Devlin J M - - 2006
In alphaherpesviruses, glycoprotein I (gI) and glycoprotein E (gE) form a heterodimer that functions in cell-to-cell spread of the virus. Generally, alphaherpesvirus mutants that lack these glycoproteins are replication competent in cell culture but show a reduced capacity for cell-to-cell spread and hence smaller plaque sizes. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), ...
Marsh Mark - - 2006
Detailed information about the replication cycle of viruses and their interactions with host organisms is required to develop strategies to stop them. Cell biology studies, live-cell imaging, and systems biology have started to illuminate the multiple and subtly different pathways that animal viruses use to enter host cells. These insights ...
Sakai Keiko - - 2006
HIV type I (HIV-1) can cause G(2) cell cycle arrest and death of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in vitro and inexorable depletion of these cells in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism of viral cytopathicity has not been satisfactorily elucidated. Previously, we showed that HIV-1 kills T cells by a necrotic form ...
Sibley Christopher D - - 2006
The predicted chromosomal origin of replication (oriC) from the alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti is shown to allow autonomous replication of a normally non-replicating plasmid within S. meliloti cells. This is the first chromosomal replication origin to be experimentally localized in the Rhizobiaceae and its location, adjacent to hemE, is the ...
Vellinga Jort - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The adenovirus 14.3 kDa hexon-associated protein IX (pIX) functions in the viral capsid as 'cement' and assembles the hexons in stable groups-of-nine (GONs). Although viruses lacking pIX do not form GONs, and are less heat-stable than wild-type (wt) viruses, they can be propagated with the same kinetics and yields ...
Sebastian Sarah - - 2006
Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) increased human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infectivity when particular Homo sapiens and Cercopithecus aethiops cell lines were used as targets. Knockdown of human TRIM5alpha by RNA interference eliminated the As(2)O(3) effect, demonstrating that the drug acts by modulating the activity of this retroviral restriction factor. In ...
Nelson Heather B - - 2006
An intimate relationship between hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and the physiological state of the host liver cells has been reported. In particular, a highly reproducible and reversible inhibitory effect of high cell density on HCV replication was observed: high levels of HCV RNA and protein can be detected in ...
Gonçalves Manuel A F V - - 2006
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene (DMD), making it amenable to gene- or cell-based therapies. Another possible treatment entails the combination of both principles by transplantation of autologous myogenic cells after their genetic complementation. This approach requires efficient and stable transduction of these cells ...
Kaye Matthew - - 2006
Given the potential for laboratory-associated severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infections, we must know which cell lines are susceptible to the virus. We investigated 21 cell lines routinely used for virus isolation or research. After infection with SARS-CoV, cells were observed for cytopathic effects, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain ...
Antal J - - 2006
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral protein R (Vpr) exerts multiple effects on viral and host cellular activities during infection, including induction of the cell cycle G2 arrest, and cell death in both human cells and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that treament of exponential-phase wild-type Vpr-expressing ...
Peruzzi Francesca - - 2006
The HIV-1 transactivating factor Tat plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Originally discovered as a potent activator of viral replication, Tat has now been found to be involved in the regulation of both viral and cellular gene expression. Due to its structure, Tat protein can be secreted by ...
Muratori Claudia - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The availability of cell lines releasing fluorescent viral particles can significantly support a variety of investigations, including the study of virus-cell interaction and the screening of antiviral compounds. Regarding HIV-1, the recovery of such biologic reagents represents a very hard challenge due to the intrinsic cytotoxicity of many HIV-1 ...
Ochsenbauer-Jambor Christina - - 2006
The rapid increase of viral strains that are resistant to the currently available antiretroviral drugs is a threat to the success of current human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) treatment and emphasizes the importance of developing novel anti-HIV-1 compounds. To improve the current abilities to screen for novel HIV-1 inhibitors, ...
Seiler Michael P - - 2006
The transduction efficiency of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors in various somatic tissues is determined primarily by the viral capsid proteins. In contrast to vectors made with AAV type 2 capsids, those having type 5 or 6 capsids show high transduction rates in airway epithelial cells, in a range that should ...
Lopez S - - 2006
Rotaviruses, the leading cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide, are non-enveloped viruses formed by three concentric layers of protein that enclose a genome of double-stranded RNA. These viruses have a specific cell tropism in vivo, infecting primarily the mature enterocytes of the villi of the ...
Singh Harsharan K - - 2006
Polyomaviruses of the BK- and JC-strains often remain latent within the transitional cell layer of the bladder, ureters and the renal pelvis as well as in tubular epithelial cells of the kidney. Slight changes in the immune status and/or an immunocompromised condition can lead to the (re)activation of latent polyomaviruses, ...
Freed Eric O - - 2006
In recognition of the growing influence of cell biology in retrovirus research, we recently organized a Summer conference sponsored by the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) on the Cell Biology of HIV-1 and other Retroviruses (July 20-23, 2006, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia). The meeting brought together a number of ...
Sorin Masha - - 2006
INI1/hSNF5 is a cellular protein that directly interacts with HIV-1 integrase (IN). It is specifically incorporated into HIV-1 virions. A dominant negative mutant derived from INI1 inhibits HIV-1 replication. Recent studies indicate that INI1 is associated with pre-integration and reverse transcription complexes that are formed upon viral entry into the ...
Hatziioannou Theodora - - 2005
Defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly in murine cells is accompanied by poor plasma membrane binding and proteolytic processing of the HIV-1 Gag precursor. Here, we show that such defects are induced by the propensity of the HIV-1 MA globular head to inhibit membrane binding and particle assembly, ...
Belshan Michael - - 2006
The HIV-2 viral accessory protein Vpx is related to, but distinct from the Vpr protein of HIV-1. Vpx is packaged into virions and as a component of the viral preintegration complex (PIC) is required for efficient virus replication in non-dividing cells. We have previously reported that the minimal transferable region ...
Novak N - - 2005
Summary Herpes simplex virus (HSV) represents a smart pathogen, which displays both lytic and latent modes of interaction with its natural human host. In order to be optimally equipped for immune evasion and to reply to any attacks of the host during reactivation, HSV has developed a multitude of cleverly ...
Nesbeth Darren - - 2006
Nonviral, host-derived proteins on lentiviral vector surfaces can have a profound effect on the vector's biology as they can both promote infection and provide resistance to complement inactivation. We have exploited this to engineer a specific posttranslational modification of a "nonenvelope," virally associated protein. The bacterial biotin ligase (BirA) and ...
Greene Ivorlyne P - - 2005
Mosquito-borne alphaviruses, which replicate alternately and obligately in mosquitoes and vertebrates, appear to experience lower rates of evolution than do many RNA viruses that replicate solely in vertebrates. This genetic stability is hypothesized to result from the alternating host cycle, which constrains evolution by imposing compromise fitness solutions in each ...
Fang Shou Guo - - 2005
An interesting question posed by the current evidence that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus may be originated from an animal coronavirus is how such an animal coronavirus breaks the host species barrier and becomes zoonotic. In this report, we study the chronological order of genotypic changes in the spike protein ...
Markosyan Ruben M - - 2005
A method has been developed to follow fusion of individual pseudotyped virus expressing HIV-1 Env to cells by time-resolved fluorescence microscopy. Viral envelopes were labeled with a fluorescent lipid dye (DiD) and virus content was rendered visible by incorporating a Gag-GFP chimera. The Gag-GFP is naturally cleaved to the much ...
Kong Byung-Whi - - 2006
Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) is a respiratory viral pathogen that causes turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) or swollen head syndrome (SHS) in chickens. AMPV was first isolated in South Africa during the early 1970s and has subsequently spread worldwide during the 1980s to include Europe, Asia, and South America. In 1996, a genetically ...
Heffernan Jane M - - 2005
We describe a Monte Carlo simulation of the within-host dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). The simulation proceeds at the level of individual T-cells and virions in a small volume of plasma, thus capturing the inherent stochasticity in viral replication, mutation and T-cell infection. When cell lifetimes are distributed ...
Blanco Julià - - 2005
A flow cytometry-based assay was used to simultaneously quantify X4 and R5 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope-mediated cell-to-cell viral transfer, cell death, and cell-to-cell fusion. In this assay, different anti-HIV envelope drugs showed characteristic inhibitory profiles for each measured parameter, allowing for the rapid identification of the mode of action ...
Yoshizuka Naoto - - 2005
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr protein has important functions in advancing HIV pathogenesis via several effects on the host cell. Vpr mediates nuclear import of the preintegration complex, induces host cell apoptosis, and inhibits cell cycle progression at G(2), which increases HIV gene expression. Some of Vpr's ...
Jolly Clare - - 2005
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can spread directly between T cells by forming a supramolecular structure termed a virological synapse (VS). HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) are required for VS assembly, but their mode of recruitment is unclear. We investigated the distribution of GM1-rich lipid rafts in HIV-1-infected (effector) T ...
Cilliers Tonie T AIDS Virus Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Private Bag X4, Sandringham 2131, Johannesburg, South - - 2005
Two HIV-1 isolates (CM4 and CM9) able to use alternate HIV-1 coreceptors on transfected cell lines were tested for their sensitivity to inhibitors of HIV-1 entry on primary cells. CM4 was able to use CCR5 and Bob/GPR15 efficiently in transfected cells. The R5 isolate grew in Delta32/Delta32 CCR5 PBMC in ...
Chen Yi-Heng - - 2005
We have recently demonstrated the assembly of hepatitis delta virus-like particles (HDV VLP) by co-transducing hepatoma cells using two recombinant baculoviruses, one encoding hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and one encoding large delta antigen (L-HDAg). In this study, we further demonstrated the assembly and secretion of VLP in other mammalian ...
Vaillancourt Mei Ting - - 2005
Cultured primary human cells have been widely used to assess the selectivity of oncolytic viruses as potential anticancer agents. As culture conditions can potentially have a significant impact on virus replication and ultimately cell killing, we evaluated the effects of dl309, a wild-type adenovirus, and dl01 / 07, a conditionally ...
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