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Results 351 - 400 of 1522
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Yeung Man Lung - - 2007
Recent findings suggest that mammalian cells can use small non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) to regulate physiological viral infections. Here, we comment on several lines of evidence that support this concept. We discuss how viruses may in turn protect, suppress, evade, modulate, or adapt to the host cell's ncRNA regulatory schema.
Cyrklaff Marek - - 2007
At each round of infection, viruses fall apart to release their genome for replication, and then reassemble into stable particles within the same host cell. For most viruses, the structural details that underlie these disassembly and assembly reactions are poorly understood. Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET), a unique method to investigate large ...
Rinne Johanna - - 2007
The cell-penetrating peptide derived from the Human immunodeficiency virus-1 transactivator protein Tat possesses the capacity to promote the effective uptake of various cargo molecules across the plasma membrane in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study was to characterize the uptake and delivery mechanisms of a novel streptavidin ...
Cotmore Susan F - - 2007
Parvoviruses elaborate rugged nonenveloped icosahedral capsids of approximately 260 A in diameter that comprise just 60 copies of a common core structural polypeptide. While serving as exceptionally durable shells, capable of protecting the single-stranded DNA genome from environmental extremes, the capsid also undergoes sequential conformational changes that allow it to ...
Schlax Peter E - - 2007
We have isolated stably transfected mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines that inducibly express either the mature encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) or hepatitis A virus (HAV) 3C protease and have used these cells to demonstrate that both proteins are subject to degradation in vivo by the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system. The detection of ...
Ahlqvist Jenny - - 2006
The ultrastructural replication cycle of human herpesvirus 6A and 6B, both T-lymphotropic viruses, with tropism for the central nervous system, was compared by electron microscopy in the same cells, that is, in the T-lymphoblastoid cell line SupT-1 and in human astrocytes. Both HHV-6A and HHV-6B replicated efficiently in SupT-1 and ...
Sourisseau Marion - - 2007
Cell-to-cell viral transfer facilitates the spread of lymphotropic retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), likely through the formation of "virological synapses" between donor and target cells. Regarding HIV replication, the importance of cell contacts has been demonstrated, but this phenomenon remains only partly ...
Wang Jiangfang - - 2007
The viral infectivity factor gene (vif) of HIV-1 increases the infectivity of viral particles by inactivation of cellular anti-viral factors, and supports productive viral replication in primary human CD4 T cells and in certain non-permissive T cell lines. Here, we demonstrate that Vif also contributes to the arrest of HIV-1 ...
Zurakowski Ryan - - 2007
Replicating genetically modified adenoviruses have shown promise as a new treatment approach against cancer. Recombinant adenoviruses replicate only in cancer cells which contain certain mutations, such as the loss of functional p53, as is the case in the virus ONYX-015. The successful entry of the viral particle into target cells ...
Cherubini Gioia - - 2006
In order to take advantage of cell replication machinery, viruses have evolved complex strategies to override cell cycle checkpoints and force host cells into S phase. To do so, virus products must interfere not only with the basal cell cycle regulators, such as pRb or Mad2, but also with the ...
Berarducci Barbara - - 2006
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E (gE) is a multifunctional protein important for cell-cell spread, envelopment, and possibly entry. In contrast to other alphaherpesviruses, gE is essential for VZV replication. Interestingly, the N-terminal region of gE, comprised of amino acids 1 to 188, was shown not to be conserved in the ...
Böttcher Eva - - 2006
Host cell proteases that cleave the hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza viruses in the human respiratory tract are still not identified. Here we cloned two human type II transmembrane serine proteases with known airway localization, TMPRSS2 and HAT, into mammalian expression vector. Cotransfection of mammalian cells with plasmids encoding HA and ...
Lan N T - - 2006
Isolates 007Lm, S124C and Ac96I and a Vero cell-adapted Onderstepoort strain of canine distemper viruses (CDV) were examined for stability after passages in Vero cells expressing the canine signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (dogSLAM, the intrinsic receptor to CDV). These viruses passage once in Vero cells expressing dogSLAM (Vero-DST) cells (original) ...
Ciota Alexander T - - 2007
West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was introduced into the U.S. in the New York City area in 1999. Despite its successful establishment and rapid spread in a naive environment, WNV has undergone limited evolution since its introduction. This evolutionary stability has been attributed to compromises made ...
Kim Gyoung Nyoun - - 2007
The matrix (M) protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) plays significant roles in the replication of VSV through its involvement in the assembly of virus particles as well as by facilitating the evasion of innate host cell defense mechanisms. The presence of methionine at position 51 (M51) of the matrix ...
Schildgen Oliver - - 2006
Six cell lines routinely used in laboratories were tested for permissiveness to the infection with the newly identified human coronavirus NL63. Two monkey epithelial cell lines, LLC-MK2 and Vero-B4, showed a cytopathic effect (CPE) and clear viral replication, whereas no CPE or replication was observed in human lung fibroblasts MRC-5s. ...
Noda Takeshi - - 2006
Ebolavirus is responsible for highly lethal hemorrhagic fever. Like all viruses, it must reproduce its various components and assemble them in cells in order to reproduce infectious virions and perpetuate itself. To generate infectious Ebolavirus, a viral genome-protein complex called the nucleocapsid (NC) must be produced and transported to the ...
Meyer Martin - - 2006
PEG shielding of non-viral vectors reduces undesired interactions with the extracellular environment. Combination with cell-binding domains enables in vivo targeting via specific attachment to the target cells. Pegylation, however, also interferes with effective intracellular nucleic acid delivery. Consistently triggered removal of the PEG shield after reaching the target cell would ...
Culp Timothy D - - 2006
Papillomaviruses (PVs) demonstrate both tissue and species tropisms. Because PVs replicate only in terminally differentiating epithelium, the recent production of infectious PV particles in 293 cells marks an important breakthrough. In this article, we demonstrate that infectious PV particles produced in 293TT cells can cause papillomatous growths in the natural ...
Madani Navid N Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2007
The coexpression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins and receptors leads to the lysis of single cells by a process that is dependent upon membrane fusion. This cell lysis was inhibited by low-molecular-weight compounds that interfere with receptor binding or with receptor-induced conformational transitions in the envelope ...
Mesnard Jean-Michel - - 2006
Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) was first described in 1977. A link between ATL and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was clearly established in the early 1980s. Over the years, many aspects of HTLV-1-induced cellular dysfunctions have been clarified. However, the detailed mechanism behind ATL occurrence remains unsolved. Presently, ...
Schramm Birgit - - 2006
Poxviruses, such as vaccinia virus (VV), replicate their DNA in endoplasmic-reticulum-enclosed cytoplasmic sites. Here, we compare the dynamics of the VV replication sites with those of the attenuated strain, modified VV Ankara (MVA). By live-cell imaging, small, early replication sites of both viruses undergo motility typical of microtubule (MT)-motor-mediated movement. ...
Kamata Masakazu - - 2006
Viral protein R (Vpr), one of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory proteins, contributes to multiple cytopathic effects, G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The mechanisms of Vpr have been intensely studied because it is believed that they underlie HIV-1 pathogenesis. We here report a cell-based small molecule ...
Cutiño-Moguel Teresa - - 2006
Rabbit cells are poorly permissive to HIV-1 infection, but little is known about the nature of this block. Here, we show that the block to infection is mainly at the level of reverse transcription (RT), is independent of the cell receptor used by the virus for entry, cannot be effectively ...
Hidari Kazuya I P J - - 2006
To investigate involvement of cellular glycosphingolipids in the propagation of influenza viruses in host cells, MDCK cells were treated with inhibitors for sphingolipid biosynthesis, fumonisin B1 and d,l-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol. Continuous treatment of the cells with either inhibitor during pre- and post viral inoculation, but not the pretreatment alone, significantly reduced viral ...
Tang Qiyi - - 2006
Strong species specificity and similar tropisms suggest mouse cytomegalovirus (mCMV) as a potential vector for transgenes into human cells. We reexamined the dogma that mouse cytomegalovirus cannot productively replicate in human cells and found that mouse cytomegalovirus can produce infectious particles albeit at a level that does not sustain an ...
Dezengrini Renata - - 2006
Contamination of cell cultures with adventitious viruses may pose serious risks for virology diagnosis, research and vaccine production. This article reports the selection and characterization of three cell lines resistant to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a major contaminant of cell cultures. The resistant cells were obtained from canine (MDCK), ...
Boggio Roberto - - 2006
Since its discovery in 1997, SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) has been implicated in a range of activities, indicating that this protein is as important in the cell as ubiquitin is. Although it can function throughout the cell, it appears to be involved more in nuclear functions. The growing list of ...
Fackler Oliver T - - 2006
As obligate cell parasites, viruses have evolved into professional manipulators of host cell functions. Accordingly, viruses often remodel the cytoskeleton of target cells in order to convert one of the cell's barriers to viral replication into a vehicle for the virus that facilitates the generation of infectious progeny. Surprisingly little ...
Sibrian-Vazquez Martha - - 2006
A series of four porphyrin-cobaltacarborane conjugates have been synthesized, containing three or four cobaltabisdicarbollide anions linked by O(CH(2)CH(2)O)(2) groups to the porphyrin macrocycle and one of them containing a HIV-1 Tat 48-60 peptide sequence linked via a low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) spacer. The cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and preferential ...
- - 2006
To evaluate virologic response up to 48 weeks, and emergence of HIV-1 resistance mutations at 24 weeks, in therapy-naive adults initiating zidovudine/lamivudine/tenofovir DF. : A cohort within the DART trial. Plasma HIV-1 RNA was assayed in 300 adults with baseline CD4 cell count < 200 cells/mul from sites in Uganda ...
Walisko Oliver - - 2006
Transposable elements are discrete segments of DNA that have the distinctive ability to move and replicate within genomes. Similar to viruses, transposons are best viewed as molecular parasites that propagate themselves using resources of the host cell. Many viruses have developed strategies to modulate the host cell cycle machinery and ...
Frenkel Niza - - 2006
Amplicon-6 and Tamplicon-7 are novel non-integrating vectors derived from the lymphotropic Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7 (HHV-6 and HHV-7). In the presence of helper viruses the amplicon vectors replicate to yield packaged defective genomes of size approximately 150 kb and consisting of multiple repeat units containing (i) the oriLyt DNA ...
Zheng X - - 2006
E1B55K-deleted dl1520 could selectively replicate in cancer cells and has been used in clinical trials as an antitumor agent. The mechanism of virus selective replication in cancer cells, including a possible role of p53, is unclear. Studies with established cancer cell lines have demonstrated that some cancer cells are resistant ...
Schmidt Michael - - 2006
Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are promising gene therapy vectors. We have recently identified a bovine adeno-associated virus (BAAV) that demonstrates unique tropism and transduction activity compared to primate AAVs. To better understand the entry pathway and cell tropism of BAAV, we have characterized the initial cell surface interactions required for ...
Schmitz M - - 2006
Replicating adenovirus (Ad) vectors with tumour tissue specificity hold great promise for treatment of cancer. We have recently constructed a conditionally replicating Ad5 AdDeltaEP-TETP inducing tumour regression in a xenograft mouse model. For further improvement of this vector, we introduced four genetic modifications and analysed the viral cytotoxicity in a ...
Krishna Delfi - - 2006
A number of viruses, when they bind to cells, activate intracellular signals that facilitate post-binding steps of infection. To determine if retroviruses activate intracellular signaling, we transduced HeLa cells with amphotropic retroviruses produced by TelCeB6 cells and examined cell lysates for activated Rac1. We found that retroviruses activate Rac1. Rac1 ...
Chancey Caren J - - 2006
The vaginal and cervical epithelia provide an initial barrier to sexually acquired HIV-1 infection in women. To study the interactions between HIV-1-infected cells or cell-free HIV-1 and the reproductive epithelium, the transmission of HIV-1 by infected cells or cell-free virus across human cervical epithelial cells was examined using a Transwell ...
Bringhurst Ryan M - - 2006
This lab reported previously that the plating efficiency of a herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP0-null mutant was enhanced upon release from an isoleucine block which synchronizes cells to G1 phase (W. Cai and P. A. Schaffer, J. Virol. 65:4078-4090, 1991). Peak plating efficiency occurred as cells cycled out of ...
Rentsendorj A - - 2006
The adenovirus (Ad) penton base protein facilitates viral infection by binding cell surface integrins, triggering receptor-mediated endocytosis and mediating endosomal penetration. Given these multiple functions, recombinant penton base proteins have been utilized as non-viral vehicles for gene transfer by our lab and others. Although we have previously demonstrated that penton ...
Cervantes-Acosta Guillermo - - 2006
The Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line has become the prototypic cell type for studying the mechanisms involved in viral glycoproteins transport and viral assembly in polarized cells. This cell line has been used in our laboratories for studying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), despite the fact that MDCK cells cannot ...
Misinzo Gerald - - 2006
Monocyte/macrophage lineage cells are target cells in vivo for porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) replication. The porcine monocytic cell line 3D4/31 supports PCV2 replication in vitro, and attachment and internalization kinetics of PCV2 have been established in these cells. However, PCV2 receptors remain unknown. Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) are used by several viruses ...
Grummer B - - 2006
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is an economically important pathogen of domestic pigs and wild boar. Due to the highly variable clinical picture of CSF, laboratory methods are essential for an unambiguous diagnosis. Virus isolation using cell culture is still considered the gold standard. It is based on the incubation ...
Tzeng Wen-Pin - - 2006
The rubella virus capsid protein (C) has been shown to complement a lethal deletion (termed deltaNotI) in P150 replicase protein. To investigate this phenomenon, we generated two lines of Vero cells that stably expressed either C (C-Vero cells) or C lacking the eight N-terminal residues (Cdelta8-Vero cells), a construct previously ...
Song Tae-Jin - - 2006
The rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in western countries, along with the poor prognosis offered by present-day treatment modalities, makes novel therapies for this disease necessary. Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are replication-competent viruses that are highly effective in the treatment of a wide variety of experimental models of ...
Petermann Eva E Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, Science Park Road, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9RQ, UK. - - 2006
Chk1 protein kinase maintains replication fork stability in metazoan cells in response to DNA damage and DNA replication inhibitors. Here, we have employed DNA fiber labeling to quantify, for the first time, the extent to which Chk1 maintains global replication fork rates during normal vertebrate S phase. We report that ...
Varthakavi Vasundhara - - 2006
The HIV-1 accessory gene product Vpu is required for efficient viral particle release from infected human cells. The mechanism by which Vpu enhances particle assembly or release is not yet defined. Here, we identify an intracellular site that is critical for Vpu-mediated enhancement of particle release. Vpu was found to ...
McCormick Christopher J - - 2006
Knowledge of how hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins associate with components of the host cell to form a functional replication complex is still limited. To address this issue, HCV replicon constructs were generated where either green fluorescent protein (GFP) or the Propionibacterium shermanii transcarboxylase domain (PSTCD) was introduced into the ...
Donoval Betty A - - 2006
Numerous epidemiologic studies have found significant associations between lack of circumcision and HIV-1 acquisition in men. To our knowledge, this is the first study of human foreskin tissue that examines biologic mechanisms that increase susceptibility of uncircumcised African men to HIV-1. Foreskin specimens from 20 men with and 19 men ...
Ruiz Zandra - - 2006
The MVM NS2 proteins are required for viral replication in cells of its normal murine host, but are dispensable in transformed human 324K cells. Alternate splicing at the minor intron controls synthesis of three forms of this protein, which differ in their C-terminal hexapeptides and in their relative abundance, with ...
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