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Mantis Nicholas J NJ Division of Infectious Diseases, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, 120 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA. - - 2007
Both IgG and secretory IgA Abs in mucosal secretions have been implicated in blocking the earliest events in HIV-1 transit across epithelial barriers, although the mechanisms by which this occurs remain largely unknown. In this study, we report the production and characterization of a human rIgA(2) mAb that carries the ...
Song Chisu - - 2007
The host cell protein cyclophilin A (CypA) binds to CA of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and promotes HIV-1 infection of target cells. Disruption of the CypA-CA interaction, either by mutation of the CA residue at G89 or P90 or with the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine (CsA), reduces HIV-1 infection. ...
Ng Chuan Young CY Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases, 10, Biopolis Road, #05-01, Chromos, - - 2007
Self-replicating, non-infectious flavivirus subgenomic replicons have been broadly used in the studies of trans-complementation, adaptive mutation, viral assembly and packaging in Kunjin, yellow fever and West Nile viruses. We describe here the construction of subgenomic EGFP- or Renilla luciferase-reporter based dengue replicons of the type 2 New Guinea C (NGC) ...
Pérez-Martín Eva - - 2007
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is detected in high amounts within the characteristic microscopic lesions of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) affected pigs. In spite of recent advances on disease pathogenesis, the precise cell types that support viral replication are still a major issue of scientific discussion. In this study, ...
Weissenhorn Winfried - - 2007
Many enveloped viruses hijack the cellular ESCRT machinery to catalyze their escape from host cells. One paper in a recent issue of Cell by Kostelansky et al. and another in this issue of Cell Host & Microbe by Morita et al. shed new light on the structure and function of ...
Hrecka Kasia - - 2007
The replication of viruses depends on the cell cycle status of the infected cells. Viruses have evolved functions that alleviate restrictions imposed on their replication by the host. Vpr, an accessory factor of primate lentiviruses, arrests cells at the DNA damage checkpoint in G2 phase of the cell cycle, but ...
Klein Kevin C KC Depts. of Pathobiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, - - 2007
The HIV-1 Gag protein assembles into immature capsids when expressed in human cells. Although self-assembly of Gag was once thought to be sufficient to explain capsid formation, in the past decade it has become increasingly apparent that in cells, the pathway from Gag synthesis to assembled capsids is coordinated and ...
Anthony, Indumathy Dileeni
Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or available through Inter-Library Loan. 1. Among all viruses, the group most potentially suited for ribozyme-mediated interference are the RNA viruses, i.e. those that replicate without the involvement of a DNA intermediate. Rotavirus is a dsRNA virus that causes ...
Bolton Diane L - - 2007
The mechanism of CD4(+) T-cell depletion in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals remains unknown, although mounting evidence suggests that direct viral cytopathicity contributes to this loss. The HIV-1 Vpr accessory protein causes cell death and arrests cells in the G(2)/M phase; however, the molecular mechanism underlying these properties ...
Florez de Sessions Paola - - 2007
Both untranslated regions (UTRs) of plus-strand RNA virus genomes jointly control translation and replication of viral genomes. In the case of the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family, the 5'UTR consists of a cloverleaf-like terminus preceding the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) and the 3' terminus is composed of a ...
Camus Grégory - - 2007
Retroviral assembly is driven by Gag, and nascent viral particles escape cells by recruiting the machinery that forms intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies. In this study, we show that the clathrin adaptor complex AP-1 is involved in retroviral release. The absence of AP-1mu obtained by genetic knock-out or by RNA ...
Kurachi S - - 2007
The interaction between viral capsid proteins and specific molecules exposed on the plasma membrane of the cells is involved in the viral tropism. A human adenovirus (Ad) belonging to subgroups A, C, D, E and F infects cells via the interaction between the fiber knob and the primary receptor, the ...
Calvert Jay G - - 2007
Direct functional screening of a cDNA expression library derived from primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) revealed that CD163 is capable of conferring a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-permissive phenotype when introduced into nonpermissive cells. Transient-transfection experiments showed that full-length CD163 cDNAs from PAM, human U937 cells (histiocytic lymphoma), ...
Farley Daniel C - - 2007
Pseudotyping viral vectors with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) enables the transduction of an extensive range of cell types from different species. We have discovered two important parameters of the VSV-G-pseudotyping phenomenon that relate directly to the transduction potential of lentiviral vectors: (1) the glycosylation status of VSV-G, and (2) ...
Tomasicchio Michele - - 2007
The Tetraviridae are a family of small, non-enveloped, insect RNA viruses consisting of one or two single-stranded, positive-sense genomic RNAs encapsidated in an icosahedral capsid with T=4 symmetry. Tetravirus procapsids undergo maturation when exposed to a low pH environment in vitro. While the structural biology of the conformational changes that ...
Tahara Maino - - 2007
Clinical isolates of measles virus (MV) use signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) as a cellular receptor, whereas vaccine and laboratory strains may utilize the ubiquitously expressed CD46 as an additional receptor. MVs also infect, albeit inefficiently, SLAM(-) cells, via a SLAM- and CD46-independent pathway. Our previous study with recombinant chimeric ...
Daoubi Mourad - - 2007
Three new, highly functionalized ingol diterpenes, ingol 7,8,12-triacetate 3-phenylacetate (1), ingol 7,8,12-triacetate 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)acetate (2) and 8-methoxyingol 7,12-diacetate 3-phenylacetate (3), together with the novel spirotriterpene, 3S,4S,5R,7S,9R,14R-3,7-dihydroxy-4,14-dimethyl-7[8-->9]-Abeo-cholestan-8-one (4), have been isolated from Euphorbia officinarum latex. Structures were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR analysis and NOE experiments. ...
Nasir L - - 2007
BPV-1 DNA is the predominant viral type detected in equine sarcoids and represents the only reported natural cross species infection of papillomaviruses. In this study, nucleotide variations in the LCR and the E2 regions of equine sarcoid-associated BPV-1 were characterised by sequence analysis. Variants particular to sarcoid BPV-1 were identified ...
Roth Susan - - 2007
Topical microbicides (cellulose acetate 1,2 benzene dicarboxylate [CAP], PRO 2000, SPL7013, and UC781) are being investigated to reduce the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). These products were shown to prevent the transfer of infectious HIV-1 from urogenital and colorectal epithelial cell lines to peripheral blood mononuclear ...
Woo Soo-Dong - - 2007
This study addresses the susceptibility of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9 and Sf21), Trichoplusia ni (Hi5), and S. exigua (Se301) cells to the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). Although these cells have classically been considered nonpermissive to BmNPV, the cytopathic effect, an increase in viral yield, and viral DNA synthesis by BmNPV were ...
Harrison Sally M - - 2007
The avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a major economic pathogen of domestic poultry that, despite vaccination, causes mortality and significant losses in production. During replication of the RNA genome there is a high frequency of mutation and recombination, which has given rise to many strains of IBV and ...
Jones Jennifer - - 2007
The ability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to persist in a latent stage in memory T cells in the presence of antiretroviral therapy poses a major obstacle to the development of an HIV-1 therapy with curative intent. As latently infected cells are phenotypically not distinguishable from uninfected cells, ...
Zhirnov O P - - 2007
Influenza A viruses isolated from the respiratory tract of patients with influenza were cultured in human intestinal epithelium cells (CACO-2 line). The CACO-2 cells were found to be 100-fold more susceptible to the clinical viruses than MDCK cells and chicken embryos. On passaging in CACO-2 cells, clinical isolates of the ...
Jolly Clare C The Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, The University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RE, United Kingdom. - - 2007
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of CD4(+) T cells leads to the production of new virions that assemble at the plasma membrane. Gag and Env accumulate in the context of lipid rafts at the inner and outer leaflets of the plasma membrane, respectively, forming polarized domains from which ...
Dennehy John J - - 2007
Populations are at risk of extinction when unsuitable or when sink habitat exceeds a threshold frequency in the environment. Sinks that present cues associated with high-quality habitats, termed ecological traps, have especially detrimental effects on net population growth at metapopulation scales. Ecological traps for viruses arise naturally, or can be ...
Sawatsky Bevan - - 2007
Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are newly identified members of the family Paramyxoviridae and have been classified in the new genus Henipavirus based on unique genetic characteristics distinct from other paramyxoviruses. Transgenic cell lines were generated that expressed either the attachment protein (G) or the fusion protein (F) ...
Hiscox Julian A JA Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, and Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, Garstang Building, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK. - - 2007
The nucleolus is a dynamic subnuclear structure with roles in ribosome subunit biogenesis, mediation of cell-stress responses and regulation of cell growth. The proteome and structure of the nucleolus are constantly changing in response to metabolic conditions. RNA viruses interact with the nucleolus to usurp host-cell functions and recruit nucleolar ...
Labadie Karine - - 2007
The transcription/replication activity of ribonucleoproteins derived from influenza A primary isolates of human (A/Paris/908/97) or avian origin (A/Mallard/Marquenterre/MZ237/83, A/Hong Kong/156/97) was compared upon reconstitution in mammalian or avian cells, using viral-like reporter RNAs synthesized under the control of the human and chicken RNA polymerase I promoters, respectively. In avian cells, ...
Marban Céline - - 2007
Following entry and reverse transcription, the HIV-1 genome is integrated into the host genome. In contrast to productively infected cells, latently infected cells frequently harbor HIV-1 genomes integrated in heterochromatic structures, allowing persistence of transcriptionally silent proviruses. Microglial cells are the main HIV-1 target cells in the central nervous system ...
Qiao Hongjiang - - 2007
Viral protein R (Vpr) from the human immunodeficiency virus induces cell cycle arrest in proliferating cells, stimulates virus transcription, and regulates activation and apoptosis of infected T-lymphocytes. We report that Jurkat cells overexpressing full-length gelsolin show resistance to Vpr-induced T-cell apoptosis with abrogation of mitochondrial membrane potential loss and the ...
Chen Jing - - 2007
Although many human molecules have been suggested to affect replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the distribution of such cofactors in human cell types is not well understood. Rat W31/D4R4 fibroblasts expressing human CD4 and CXCR4 receptors were infected with HIV-1. The provirus was integrated in the host ...
Sol-Foulon Nathalie - - 2007
HIV efficiently spreads in lymphocytes, likely through virological synapses (VSs). These cell-cell junctions share some characteristics with immunological synapses, but cellular proteins required for their constitution remain poorly characterized. We have examined here the role of ZAP-70, a key kinase regulating T-cell activation and immunological synapse formation, in HIV replication. ...
Qi P - - 2007
A potentially powerful approach for in vivo gene delivery is to target retroviral vectors to specific cells through interactions between cell surface receptors and appropriately engineered viral envelope proteins, but this has so far met with little success. We report here an attempt to target ecotropic MLV retroviral vectors to ...
Métifiot Mathieu - - 2007
We have previously described how a 16 nucleotides ODN (termed 93del) is capable of inhibiting the activity of recombinant integrase in a cell-free system as well as HIV-1 replication in human-infected cells with IC(50) in the low nanomolar range. Intracellular HIV-1 replication was inhibited when the ODN was added at ...
Lech Patrycja - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Identification of host cell proteins required for HIV-1 infection will add to our knowledge of the life cycle of HIV-1 and in the development of therapeutics to combat viral infection. We and other investigators have mutagenized rodent cells and isolated mutant cell lines resistant to retrovirus infection. Since there ...
Boyer Julie - - 2007
Adenovirus early region 4 (E4) regulates processes in infected cells that include viral late gene expression, nonhomologous end joining, responses to DNA damage, and apoptosis. E4 is essential for viral growth in most cell lines. In this chapter, the current knowledge of the functions of six E4 products is summarized ...
Cornelissen Bart - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to compare the cell penetration and nuclear importation properties of 111In-labeled and 123I-labeled immunoconjugates (ICs) composed of 16-mer peptides (GRKKRRQRRRPPQGYG) derived from HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (tat) protein and anti-mouse IgG (mIgG) in BT-474 breast cancer (BC) cells. METHODS: [111In]tat ICs were constructed by site-specific conjugation ...
Pan X B - - 2007
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is currently still a worldwide heath concern. In our study, we compared HBV replication patterns in two liver-derived cell lines, QSG-7701 and HepG2. Viral markers of HBV replication in culture medium and cells were analyzed after transfection of these cells with plasmid pUC18-HBV1.2 into. We ...
Legoff Jérôme - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a major cofactor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sexual acquisition and transmission. In the present study, we investigated whether HIV-1 and HSV-2 may interact at the cellular level by forming HIV-1 hybrid virions pseudotyped with HSV-2 envelope glycoproteins, as was ...
Yeung Man Lung - - 2007
Recent findings suggest that mammalian cells can use small non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) to regulate physiological viral infections. Here, we comment on several lines of evidence that support this concept. We discuss how viruses may in turn protect, suppress, evade, modulate, or adapt to the host cell's ncRNA regulatory schema.
Cyrklaff Marek - - 2007
At each round of infection, viruses fall apart to release their genome for replication, and then reassemble into stable particles within the same host cell. For most viruses, the structural details that underlie these disassembly and assembly reactions are poorly understood. Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET), a unique method to investigate large ...
Rinne Johanna - - 2007
The cell-penetrating peptide derived from the Human immunodeficiency virus-1 transactivator protein Tat possesses the capacity to promote the effective uptake of various cargo molecules across the plasma membrane in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study was to characterize the uptake and delivery mechanisms of a novel streptavidin ...
Cotmore Susan F SF Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, - - 2007
Parvoviruses elaborate rugged nonenveloped icosahedral capsids of approximately 260 A in diameter that comprise just 60 copies of a common core structural polypeptide. While serving as exceptionally durable shells, capable of protecting the single-stranded DNA genome from environmental extremes, the capsid also undergoes sequential conformational changes that allow it to ...
Schlax Peter E - - 2007
We have isolated stably transfected mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines that inducibly express either the mature encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) or hepatitis A virus (HAV) 3C protease and have used these cells to demonstrate that both proteins are subject to degradation in vivo by the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system. The detection of ...
Ahlqvist Jenny - - 2006
The ultrastructural replication cycle of human herpesvirus 6A and 6B, both T-lymphotropic viruses, with tropism for the central nervous system, was compared by electron microscopy in the same cells, that is, in the T-lymphoblastoid cell line SupT-1 and in human astrocytes. Both HHV-6A and HHV-6B replicated efficiently in SupT-1 and ...
Sourisseau Marion - - 2007
Cell-to-cell viral transfer facilitates the spread of lymphotropic retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), likely through the formation of "virological synapses" between donor and target cells. Regarding HIV replication, the importance of cell contacts has been demonstrated, but this phenomenon remains only partly ...
Wang Jiangfang J Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2007
The viral infectivity factor gene (vif) of HIV-1 increases the infectivity of viral particles by inactivation of cellular anti-viral factors, and supports productive viral replication in primary human CD4 T cells and in certain non-permissive T cell lines. Here, we demonstrate that Vif also contributes to the arrest of HIV-1 ...
Zurakowski Ryan - - 2007
Replicating genetically modified adenoviruses have shown promise as a new treatment approach against cancer. Recombinant adenoviruses replicate only in cancer cells which contain certain mutations, such as the loss of functional p53, as is the case in the virus ONYX-015. The successful entry of the viral particle into target cells ...
Cherubini Gioia - - 2006
In order to take advantage of cell replication machinery, viruses have evolved complex strategies to override cell cycle checkpoints and force host cells into S phase. To do so, virus products must interfere not only with the basal cell cycle regulators, such as pRb or Mad2, but also with the ...
Berarducci Barbara - - 2006
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E (gE) is a multifunctional protein important for cell-cell spread, envelopment, and possibly entry. In contrast to other alphaherpesviruses, gE is essential for VZV replication. Interestingly, the N-terminal region of gE, comprised of amino acids 1 to 188, was shown not to be conserved in the ...
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