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Zhirnov O P - - 2007
Influenza A viruses isolated from the respiratory tract of patients with influenza were cultured in human intestinal epithelium cells (CACO-2 line). The CACO-2 cells were found to be 100-fold more susceptible to the clinical viruses than MDCK cells and chicken embryos. On passaging in CACO-2 cells, clinical isolates of the ...
Jolly Clare C The Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, The University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RE, United Kingdom. - - 2007
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of CD4(+) T cells leads to the production of new virions that assemble at the plasma membrane. Gag and Env accumulate in the context of lipid rafts at the inner and outer leaflets of the plasma membrane, respectively, forming polarized domains from which ...
Dennehy John J - - 2007
Populations are at risk of extinction when unsuitable or when sink habitat exceeds a threshold frequency in the environment. Sinks that present cues associated with high-quality habitats, termed ecological traps, have especially detrimental effects on net population growth at metapopulation scales. Ecological traps for viruses arise naturally, or can be ...
Sawatsky Bevan - - 2007
Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are newly identified members of the family Paramyxoviridae and have been classified in the new genus Henipavirus based on unique genetic characteristics distinct from other paramyxoviruses. Transgenic cell lines were generated that expressed either the attachment protein (G) or the fusion protein (F) ...
Hiscox Julian A JA Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, and Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, Garstang Building, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK. - - 2007
The nucleolus is a dynamic subnuclear structure with roles in ribosome subunit biogenesis, mediation of cell-stress responses and regulation of cell growth. The proteome and structure of the nucleolus are constantly changing in response to metabolic conditions. RNA viruses interact with the nucleolus to usurp host-cell functions and recruit nucleolar ...
Labadie Karine - - 2007
The transcription/replication activity of ribonucleoproteins derived from influenza A primary isolates of human (A/Paris/908/97) or avian origin (A/Mallard/Marquenterre/MZ237/83, A/Hong Kong/156/97) was compared upon reconstitution in mammalian or avian cells, using viral-like reporter RNAs synthesized under the control of the human and chicken RNA polymerase I promoters, respectively. In avian cells, ...
Marban Céline - - 2007
Following entry and reverse transcription, the HIV-1 genome is integrated into the host genome. In contrast to productively infected cells, latently infected cells frequently harbor HIV-1 genomes integrated in heterochromatic structures, allowing persistence of transcriptionally silent proviruses. Microglial cells are the main HIV-1 target cells in the central nervous system ...
Qiao Hongjiang - - 2007
Viral protein R (Vpr) from the human immunodeficiency virus induces cell cycle arrest in proliferating cells, stimulates virus transcription, and regulates activation and apoptosis of infected T-lymphocytes. We report that Jurkat cells overexpressing full-length gelsolin show resistance to Vpr-induced T-cell apoptosis with abrogation of mitochondrial membrane potential loss and the ...
Chen Jing - - 2007
Although many human molecules have been suggested to affect replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the distribution of such cofactors in human cell types is not well understood. Rat W31/D4R4 fibroblasts expressing human CD4 and CXCR4 receptors were infected with HIV-1. The provirus was integrated in the host ...
Sol-Foulon Nathalie - - 2007
HIV efficiently spreads in lymphocytes, likely through virological synapses (VSs). These cell-cell junctions share some characteristics with immunological synapses, but cellular proteins required for their constitution remain poorly characterized. We have examined here the role of ZAP-70, a key kinase regulating T-cell activation and immunological synapse formation, in HIV replication. ...
Qi P - - 2007
A potentially powerful approach for in vivo gene delivery is to target retroviral vectors to specific cells through interactions between cell surface receptors and appropriately engineered viral envelope proteins, but this has so far met with little success. We report here an attempt to target ecotropic MLV retroviral vectors to ...
Métifiot Mathieu - - 2007
We have previously described how a 16 nucleotides ODN (termed 93del) is capable of inhibiting the activity of recombinant integrase in a cell-free system as well as HIV-1 replication in human-infected cells with IC(50) in the low nanomolar range. Intracellular HIV-1 replication was inhibited when the ODN was added at ...
Lech Patrycja - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Identification of host cell proteins required for HIV-1 infection will add to our knowledge of the life cycle of HIV-1 and in the development of therapeutics to combat viral infection. We and other investigators have mutagenized rodent cells and isolated mutant cell lines resistant to retrovirus infection. Since there ...
Boyer Julie - - 2007
Adenovirus early region 4 (E4) regulates processes in infected cells that include viral late gene expression, nonhomologous end joining, responses to DNA damage, and apoptosis. E4 is essential for viral growth in most cell lines. In this chapter, the current knowledge of the functions of six E4 products is summarized ...
Cornelissen Bart - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to compare the cell penetration and nuclear importation properties of 111In-labeled and 123I-labeled immunoconjugates (ICs) composed of 16-mer peptides (GRKKRRQRRRPPQGYG) derived from HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (tat) protein and anti-mouse IgG (mIgG) in BT-474 breast cancer (BC) cells. METHODS: [111In]tat ICs were constructed by site-specific conjugation ...
Pan X B - - 2007
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is currently still a worldwide heath concern. In our study, we compared HBV replication patterns in two liver-derived cell lines, QSG-7701 and HepG2. Viral markers of HBV replication in culture medium and cells were analyzed after transfection of these cells with plasmid pUC18-HBV1.2 into. We ...
Legoff Jérôme - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a major cofactor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sexual acquisition and transmission. In the present study, we investigated whether HIV-1 and HSV-2 may interact at the cellular level by forming HIV-1 hybrid virions pseudotyped with HSV-2 envelope glycoproteins, as was ...
Yeung Man Lung - - 2007
Recent findings suggest that mammalian cells can use small non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) to regulate physiological viral infections. Here, we comment on several lines of evidence that support this concept. We discuss how viruses may in turn protect, suppress, evade, modulate, or adapt to the host cell's ncRNA regulatory schema.
Cyrklaff Marek - - 2007
At each round of infection, viruses fall apart to release their genome for replication, and then reassemble into stable particles within the same host cell. For most viruses, the structural details that underlie these disassembly and assembly reactions are poorly understood. Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET), a unique method to investigate large ...
Rinne Johanna - - 2007
The cell-penetrating peptide derived from the Human immunodeficiency virus-1 transactivator protein Tat possesses the capacity to promote the effective uptake of various cargo molecules across the plasma membrane in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study was to characterize the uptake and delivery mechanisms of a novel streptavidin ...
Cotmore Susan F SF Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, - - 2007
Parvoviruses elaborate rugged nonenveloped icosahedral capsids of approximately 260 A in diameter that comprise just 60 copies of a common core structural polypeptide. While serving as exceptionally durable shells, capable of protecting the single-stranded DNA genome from environmental extremes, the capsid also undergoes sequential conformational changes that allow it to ...
Schlax Peter E - - 2007
We have isolated stably transfected mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines that inducibly express either the mature encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) or hepatitis A virus (HAV) 3C protease and have used these cells to demonstrate that both proteins are subject to degradation in vivo by the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system. The detection of ...
Ahlqvist Jenny - - 2006
The ultrastructural replication cycle of human herpesvirus 6A and 6B, both T-lymphotropic viruses, with tropism for the central nervous system, was compared by electron microscopy in the same cells, that is, in the T-lymphoblastoid cell line SupT-1 and in human astrocytes. Both HHV-6A and HHV-6B replicated efficiently in SupT-1 and ...
Sourisseau Marion - - 2007
Cell-to-cell viral transfer facilitates the spread of lymphotropic retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), likely through the formation of "virological synapses" between donor and target cells. Regarding HIV replication, the importance of cell contacts has been demonstrated, but this phenomenon remains only partly ...
Wang Jiangfang J Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2007
The viral infectivity factor gene (vif) of HIV-1 increases the infectivity of viral particles by inactivation of cellular anti-viral factors, and supports productive viral replication in primary human CD4 T cells and in certain non-permissive T cell lines. Here, we demonstrate that Vif also contributes to the arrest of HIV-1 ...
Zurakowski Ryan - - 2007
Replicating genetically modified adenoviruses have shown promise as a new treatment approach against cancer. Recombinant adenoviruses replicate only in cancer cells which contain certain mutations, such as the loss of functional p53, as is the case in the virus ONYX-015. The successful entry of the viral particle into target cells ...
Cherubini Gioia - - 2006
In order to take advantage of cell replication machinery, viruses have evolved complex strategies to override cell cycle checkpoints and force host cells into S phase. To do so, virus products must interfere not only with the basal cell cycle regulators, such as pRb or Mad2, but also with the ...
Berarducci Barbara - - 2006
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E (gE) is a multifunctional protein important for cell-cell spread, envelopment, and possibly entry. In contrast to other alphaherpesviruses, gE is essential for VZV replication. Interestingly, the N-terminal region of gE, comprised of amino acids 1 to 188, was shown not to be conserved in the ...
Böttcher Eva - - 2006
Host cell proteases that cleave the hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza viruses in the human respiratory tract are still not identified. Here we cloned two human type II transmembrane serine proteases with known airway localization, TMPRSS2 and HAT, into mammalian expression vector. Cotransfection of mammalian cells with plasmids encoding HA and ...
Lan N T - - 2006
Isolates 007Lm, S124C and Ac96I and a Vero cell-adapted Onderstepoort strain of canine distemper viruses (CDV) were examined for stability after passages in Vero cells expressing the canine signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (dogSLAM, the intrinsic receptor to CDV). These viruses passage once in Vero cells expressing dogSLAM (Vero-DST) cells (original) ...
Ciota Alexander T AT The Arbovirus Laboratories, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, 5668 State Farm Road, Slingerlands, NY 12159, - - 2007
West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was introduced into the U.S. in the New York City area in 1999. Despite its successful establishment and rapid spread in a naive environment, WNV has undergone limited evolution since its introduction. This evolutionary stability has been attributed to compromises made ...
Kim Gyoung Nyoun - - 2007
The matrix (M) protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) plays significant roles in the replication of VSV through its involvement in the assembly of virus particles as well as by facilitating the evasion of innate host cell defense mechanisms. The presence of methionine at position 51 (M51) of the matrix ...
Schildgen Oliver - - 2006
Six cell lines routinely used in laboratories were tested for permissiveness to the infection with the newly identified human coronavirus NL63. Two monkey epithelial cell lines, LLC-MK2 and Vero-B4, showed a cytopathic effect (CPE) and clear viral replication, whereas no CPE or replication was observed in human lung fibroblasts MRC-5s. ...
Noda Takeshi - - 2006
Ebolavirus is responsible for highly lethal hemorrhagic fever. Like all viruses, it must reproduce its various components and assemble them in cells in order to reproduce infectious virions and perpetuate itself. To generate infectious Ebolavirus, a viral genome-protein complex called the nucleocapsid (NC) must be produced and transported to the ...
Meyer Martin - - 2006
PEG shielding of non-viral vectors reduces undesired interactions with the extracellular environment. Combination with cell-binding domains enables in vivo targeting via specific attachment to the target cells. Pegylation, however, also interferes with effective intracellular nucleic acid delivery. Consistently triggered removal of the PEG shield after reaching the target cell would ...
Culp Timothy D - - 2006
Papillomaviruses (PVs) demonstrate both tissue and species tropisms. Because PVs replicate only in terminally differentiating epithelium, the recent production of infectious PV particles in 293 cells marks an important breakthrough. In this article, we demonstrate that infectious PV particles produced in 293TT cells can cause papillomatous growths in the natural ...
Madani Navid N Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2007
The coexpression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins and receptors leads to the lysis of single cells by a process that is dependent upon membrane fusion. This cell lysis was inhibited by low-molecular-weight compounds that interfere with receptor binding or with receptor-induced conformational transitions in the envelope ...
Mesnard Jean-Michel - - 2006
Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) was first described in 1977. A link between ATL and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was clearly established in the early 1980s. Over the years, many aspects of HTLV-1-induced cellular dysfunctions have been clarified. However, the detailed mechanism behind ATL occurrence remains unsolved. Presently, ...
Schramm Birgit - - 2006
Poxviruses, such as vaccinia virus (VV), replicate their DNA in endoplasmic-reticulum-enclosed cytoplasmic sites. Here, we compare the dynamics of the VV replication sites with those of the attenuated strain, modified VV Ankara (MVA). By live-cell imaging, small, early replication sites of both viruses undergo motility typical of microtubule (MT)-motor-mediated movement. ...
Kamata Masakazu M Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. - - 2006
Viral protein R (Vpr), one of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory proteins, contributes to multiple cytopathic effects, G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The mechanisms of Vpr have been intensely studied because it is believed that they underlie HIV-1 pathogenesis. We here report a cell-based small molecule ...
Cutiño-Moguel Teresa - - 2006
Rabbit cells are poorly permissive to HIV-1 infection, but little is known about the nature of this block. Here, we show that the block to infection is mainly at the level of reverse transcription (RT), is independent of the cell receptor used by the virus for entry, cannot be effectively ...
Hidari Kazuya I P J - - 2006
To investigate involvement of cellular glycosphingolipids in the propagation of influenza viruses in host cells, MDCK cells were treated with inhibitors for sphingolipid biosynthesis, fumonisin B1 and d,l-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol. Continuous treatment of the cells with either inhibitor during pre- and post viral inoculation, but not the pretreatment alone, significantly reduced viral ...
Tang Qiyi - - 2006
Strong species specificity and similar tropisms suggest mouse cytomegalovirus (mCMV) as a potential vector for transgenes into human cells. We reexamined the dogma that mouse cytomegalovirus cannot productively replicate in human cells and found that mouse cytomegalovirus can produce infectious particles albeit at a level that does not sustain an ...
Dezengrini Renata - - 2006
Contamination of cell cultures with adventitious viruses may pose serious risks for virology diagnosis, research and vaccine production. This article reports the selection and characterization of three cell lines resistant to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a major contaminant of cell cultures. The resistant cells were obtained from canine (MDCK), ...
Boggio Roberto - - 2006
Since its discovery in 1997, SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) has been implicated in a range of activities, indicating that this protein is as important in the cell as ubiquitin is. Although it can function throughout the cell, it appears to be involved more in nuclear functions. The growing list of ...
Fackler Oliver T - - 2006
As obligate cell parasites, viruses have evolved into professional manipulators of host cell functions. Accordingly, viruses often remodel the cytoskeleton of target cells in order to convert one of the cell's barriers to viral replication into a vehicle for the virus that facilitates the generation of infectious progeny. Surprisingly little ...
Sibrian-Vazquez Martha - - 2006
A series of four porphyrin-cobaltacarborane conjugates have been synthesized, containing three or four cobaltabisdicarbollide anions linked by O(CH(2)CH(2)O)(2) groups to the porphyrin macrocycle and one of them containing a HIV-1 Tat 48-60 peptide sequence linked via a low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) spacer. The cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and preferential ...
- - 2006
To evaluate virologic response up to 48 weeks, and emergence of HIV-1 resistance mutations at 24 weeks, in therapy-naive adults initiating zidovudine/lamivudine/tenofovir DF. : A cohort within the DART trial. Plasma HIV-1 RNA was assayed in 300 adults with baseline CD4 cell count < 200 cells/mul from sites in Uganda ...
Walisko Oliver - - 2006
Transposable elements are discrete segments of DNA that have the distinctive ability to move and replicate within genomes. Similar to viruses, transposons are best viewed as molecular parasites that propagate themselves using resources of the host cell. Many viruses have developed strategies to modulate the host cell cycle machinery and ...
Frenkel Niza - - 2006
Amplicon-6 and Tamplicon-7 are novel non-integrating vectors derived from the lymphotropic Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7 (HHV-6 and HHV-7). In the presence of helper viruses the amplicon vectors replicate to yield packaged defective genomes of size approximately 150 kb and consisting of multiple repeat units containing (i) the oriLyt DNA ...
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