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Results 251 - 300 of 1552
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Sato Kei - - 2009
In this study, we first demonstrate that endogenous hBST-2 is predominantly expressed on the plasma membrane of a human T cell line, MT-4 cells, and that Vpu-deficient HIV-1 was less efficiently released than wild-type HIV-1 from MT-4 cells. In addition, surface hBST-2 was rapidly down-regulated in wild-type but not Vpu-deficient ...
Vashistha Himanshu - - 2009
Renal biopsy data indicate that tubular epithelial cells serve as a reservoir for HIV-1 infection. We studied the effect of HIV-1 gp120 envelope gene expression on tubular cell apoptosis. HIV-1 gp120 was expressed in a lentiviral vector pHR-CMV-IRES2-EGFP-DeltaB. This plasmid construct was used to produce pseudotyped virus using VSV-G envelope ...
Thompson Alex J - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a key component of the innate immune system and TLR2 has been shown to be involved in the immunopathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in vivo. We investigated the role of TLR2 stimulation of virus-infected hepatocyte cell lines as a potential antiviral mechanism in ...
Brown Amanda M - - 2009
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) predominantly infects two main cell types: T-lymphocytes and monocyte-derived cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and Langerhans cells. Studies in patients aimed at uncovering and understanding the molecular mechanisms for viral persistence and latency in macrophages in particular are challenging because these cells ...
Ross Anna Laura - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The human placenta-derived cell line BeWo has been demonstrated to be restrictive to cell-free HIV-1 infection. BeWo cells are however permissive to infection by VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1, which enters cells by a receptor-independent mechanism, and to infection by HIV-1 via a cell-to-cell route. RESULTS: Here we analysed viral entry ...
Owens Róisín M - - 2009
Real-time detection of viral replication inside cells remains a challenge to researchers. The Epic System is a high-throughput, label-free optical detection platform capable of measuring molecular interaction in a biochemical assay, as well as integrated cellular response from measurement of cellular dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) in a cell-based assay. DMR ...
Stang Alexander - - 2009
Contamination of vertebrate cell lines with animal retroviruses has been documented repeatedly before. Although such viral contaminants can be easily identified with high sensitivity by PCR, it is impossible to screen for all potential contaminants. Therefore, we explored two novel methods to identify viral contaminations in cell lines without prior ...
Fassati Ariberto A Wohl Virion Centre, and MRC Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College, London, London, - - 2009
Shortly after penetration into the cell, HIV-1 must reverse transcribe its genome into a double-stranded DNA molecule and must gain access to the nucleus of nondividing cells for productive infection. There is limited knowledge of these early events in HIV-1 life cycle. We have developed methods, which allow the study ...
Lingappa Jaisri R JR Department of Pathobiology, University of Washington, Seattle WA, - - 2009
For many years it has been known that viral capsid proteins are capable of self-assembly, but increasing evidence over the past decade indicates that in cells HIV-1 capsid assembly occurs via a complex but transient series of steps requiring multiple viral-host interactions. To better understand the biochemistry of HIV assembly, ...
Cui Min M Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198-5880, - - 2009
Human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) infection and associated diseases continue to represent major health problem worldwide. FOXO transcriptional factors play an important role in the regulation of cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, stress resistance, metabolism and differentiation. This chapter will discuss the diverse functions of FOXO in different cell ...
Giralt Marta - - 2009
PPARgamma is a ligand-dependent master transcription factor controlling adipocyte differentiation as well as multiple biological processes taking place in other cells present in adipose tissue depots such as macrophages. Recent research indicates that HIV-1 infection-related events may alter adipose tissue biology through several mechanisms involving PPARgamma, ranging from direct effects ...
Romer Daniela - - 2009
The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the cause of adult T-cell leukemia and inflammatory diseases including HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. HTLV-1 can be transmitted through sexual contact, mother-to-child transmission, and exposure to contaminated blood. Microbicides are agents that interfere with microbial infectivity at mucous membranes, and candidates ...
Ding Xiaoran - - 2009
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health concern around the world, and only a minority of patients receiving current treatments achieve a sustained response following a short course of therapy. The majority of patients require prolonged therapy to suppress viral replication. However, several recent reports show that inhibiting ...
Vieira Helena L A - - 2009
Apoptosis is a major problem in animal cell cultures during production of biopharmaceuticals, such as recombinant proteins or viral vectors. A 293 cell line constitutively expressing vMIA (viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis) was constructed and examined on production of a model recombinant protein, green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the adenovirus-293 ...
Yeh Hsiao-Yun - - 2008
In this study, we describe the use of nuclease-resistant molecular beacons (MBs) for the real-time detection of coxsackievirus B6 replication in living Buffalo green monkey kidney (BGMK) cells via Tat peptide delivery. A nuclease-resistant MB containing 2'-O-methyl RNA bases with phosphorothioate internucleotide linkages was designed to specifically target an 18-bp ...
Hu Yiduo - - 2009
Disruption of replication can lead to loss of genome integrity and increase of cancer susceptibility in mammals. Thus, a replication impediment constitutes a formidable challenge to these organisms. Recent studies indicate that homologous recombination (HR) plays an important role in suppressing genome instability and promoting cell survival after exposure to ...
Passiatore Giovanni G Department of Neuroscience and Center for Neurovirology, Temple University School of Medicine, 1900 North 12th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122, - - 2009
HIV-Encephalopathy (HIVE) is a common neurological disorder associated with HIV-1 infection and AIDS. The activity of the HIV trans-activating protein Tat is thought to contribute to neuronal pathogenesis. While Tat proteins from primary virus isolates consist of 101 or more amino acids, 72 and 86 amino acids forms of Tat ...
Campbell Edward M EM Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, - - 2008
Technology developed in the past 10 years has dramatically increased the ability of researchers to directly visualize and measure various stages of the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) life cycle. In many cases, imaging-based approaches have filled critical gaps in our understanding of how certain aspects of viral replication occur in ...
Akazawa Daisuke - - 2008
The efficient production of infectious HCV from the JFH-1 strain is restricted to the Huh7 cell line and its derivatives. However, the factors involved in this restriction are unknown. In this study, we examined the production of infectious HCV from other liver-derived cell lines, and characterized the produced viruses. Clones ...
Comolli Luis R - - 2009
Fully understanding the biology of acid mine drainage (AMD) is central to our ability to control and manipulate its environmental impact. Although genomics and biogeochemical methods are relatively well established in the field, their combination with high-resolution imaging of intact members of microbial biofilm communities has not yet reached its ...
Berarducci Barbara - - 2009
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E (gE) is the most abundant glycoprotein in infected cells and, in contrast to those of other alphaherpesviruses, is essential for viral replication. The gE ectodomain contains a unique N-terminal region required for viral replication, cell-cell spread, and secondary envelopment; this region also binds to the ...
Qi Mingli - - 2008
Among retroviruses, lentiviruses are unusual in their ability to efficiently infect both dividing and nondividing cells, such as activated T cells and macrophages, respectively. Recent studies implicate the viral capsid protein (CA) as a key determinant of cell-cycle-independent infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We investigated the effects ...
Soto-Rivera, Jackeline
The female genital tract is the main route for heterosexual transmission of HIV-1. Studies with SIV in macaque model indicate that after crossing the mucosa of cervix and vagina, SIV infected cells migrate to draining lymph nodes where the virus expands before it gets disseminated into the gut and other ...
Frecha Cecilia - - 2008
A major limitation of current lentiviral vectors (LVs) is their inability to govern efficient gene transfer into quiescent cells such as primary T cells, which hampers their application for gene therapy. Here we generated high-titer LVs incorporating Edmonston measles virus (MV) glycoproteins H and F on their surface. They allowed ...
Ward Scott M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The frequency of protective antiviral memory B cells after hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination is unknown. METHODS: A novel 2-step immunomagnetic protocol to assess the ex vivo frequency of protective HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-specific memory B cells was used. RESULTS: HBsAg-specific memory B cells were detected in vaccinated individuals, ...
Kalthoff Donata - - 2008
The role of the UL49 gene product, VP22, of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) in virus replication was characterized with respect to a putative functional interaction of VP22 with the viral glycoprotein E (gE) during BoHV-1 cell-to-cell spread. Deletion of the open reading frames of UL49 and/or gE from an ...
Lemay Julie - - 2008
Like all retroviruses, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) undergoes reverse transcription during its replication cycle. The cellular cofactors potentially involved in this process still remain to be identified. We show here that A-kinase anchoring protein 149 (AKAP149) interacts with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) in both the yeast two-hybrid system ...
Boisvert Mélissa - - 2008
Intestinal epithelial cells play an important role in early stages of HIV-1 infection and long-term persistence of the virus. Here we determined the mechanism that regulates HIV-1 activation via prostaglandin J(2) (PGJ(2)) in Caco-2 cells. We showed that treatment of Caco-2 cells with PGJ(2) decreased the infectivity of a luciferase ...
Lucifora J - - 2008
One of the major problems in gaining further insight into hepatitis B virus (HBV)/host-cell interactions is to improve the existing cellular models for the study of HBV replication. The first objective of this study was to improve the system based on transduction of HepG2 cells with a recombinant baculovirus to ...
Baba Kenji - - 2008
RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence-specific RNA degradation process. To inhibit feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) replication by RNAi, we generated a lentiviral vector expressing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) that targeted the gag gene of FIV (shGag). shGag transfer significantly inhibited viral replication in cell lines that were chronically infected ...
Asokan A A Department of Pharmacology, Gene Therapy Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7352, - - 2008
Current technologies for visualizing infectious pathways of viruses rely on fluorescent labeling of capsid proteins by chemical conjugation or genetic manipulation. For noninvasive in vivo imaging of such agents in mammalian tissue, we engineered bioluminescent Gaussia luciferase-tagged Adeno-associated viral (gLuc/AAV) vectors. The enzyme was incorporated into recombinant AAV serotypes 1, ...
Lee C-W - - 2008
Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are isolated routinely and propagated in specific pathogen free embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) and mammalian origin Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line. Continuous avian cell lines offer advantages for propagation of AIVs over MDCK cells because they maintain species specificity, and lower recurring costs compared to ...
Roberts Sally - - 2008
Productive infections by human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are restricted to nondividing, differentiated keratinocytes. HPV early proteins E6 and E7 deregulate cell cycle progression and activate the host cell DNA replication machinery in these cells, changes essential for virus synthesis. Productive virus replication is accompanied by abundant expression of the HPV E4 ...
Chang Kyeong-Ok - - 2008
The inability to grow human noroviruses in cell culture has greatly impeded the studies of their pathogenesis and immunity. Vesiviruses, in the family Caliciviridae, grow efficiently in cell culture and encode a unique protein in the subgenomic region designated as leader of the capsid protein (LC). We hypothesized that LC ...
Sheikh Ali Hanan M - - 2009
Camel pox viruses isolated in Sudan and VD45 (African camel pox strain) and Vaccinia virus (Elstree strain) were used for inoculation of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated eggs (EE) and cell culture (CC). In EE Lesions were seen as pocks ranging in size from 1 to 1.5 mm in diameter, ...
Steiner Esther - - 2008
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the causative agent of a multifactorial disease associated with immunocompromisation and co-infections. In vivo, viral DNA and antigens are found in monocytic, epithelial and endothelial cells. Of these, PCV2 replication has only been studied in monocytic cells, in which little or no replication was ...
O'Donnell Vivian - - 2008
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) utilizes different cell surface macromolecules to facilitate infection of cultured cells. Virus, which is virulent for susceptible animals, infects cells via four members of the alpha(V) subclass of cellular integrins. In contrast, tissue culture adaptation of some FMDV serotypes results in the loss of viral virulence ...
DeHart Jason L - - 2008
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif recruits a Cullin 5 ubiquitin ligase that targets APOBEC3 proteins for degradation. Recently, Vif has also been shown to induce cell cycle disturbance in G(2). We show that in contrast to the expression of Vpr, the expression of Vif does not preclude cell ...
Balestrieri Emanuela - - 2008
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy individuals can be infected by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) upon cocultivation of the PBMCs with irradiated HTLV-1-transformed human MT-2 cells. This model system closely mimics HTLV-1 transmission through cell-to-cell contact. Carbohydrate-binding agents (CBAs) such as the alpha(1,3)/alpha(1,6)mannose-specific Hippeastrum hybrid agglutinin and ...
Akhtar Jihan J Departments of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, - - 2008
The human conjunctiva is a natural target for herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 infection. The goals of this study were to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of HSV-1 entry into human conjunctival epithelial (HCjE) cells. Specific features of entry studied included the method of initial viral binding to cells, pH ...
Terrazas-Aranda Katty - - 2008
Conceptually, blocking human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integration is the last possibility for preventing irreversible cellular infection. Using cocultures of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and CD4(+) T cells, which represent primary targets in sexual transmission, we demonstrated that blocking integration with integrase strand transfer inhibitors (InSTIs), particularly L-870812, could consistently ...
Jenssen Håvard - - 2008
The milk protein lactoferrin (Lf) has multiple functions, including immune stimulation and antiviral activity towards herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2); antiviral activity has also been reported for the N-terminal pepsin-derived fragment lactoferricin (Lfcin). The anti-HSV mode of action of Lf and Lfcin is assumed to involve, ...
Silva Ana Carina - - 2008
Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR) is considered as one of the major constraints to the productivity of small ruminants in Africa and Asian countries. Currently PPR control is done by vaccination with an attenuated PPR strain (Nigeria 75/1) produced in monolayers of Vero cells grown in roller bottles or static ...
Chevalier Sébastien Alain - - 2008
We and others have uncovered the existence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 3 (HTLV-3). We have now generated an HTLV-3 proviral clone. We established that gag, env, pol, pro, and tax/rex as well as minus-strand mRNAs are present in cells transfected with the HTLV-3 clone. HTLV-3 p24(gag) protein is ...
Benki Sarah S Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, - - 2008
Levels of HIV-1 RNA in endocervical specimens fluctuate with the menstrual cycle, suggesting that cell-free HIV-1 levels may vary during the cycle, which could influence infectivity. Here, we examined daily changes in endocervical HIV-1-infected cells during 1 cycle. There were significant positive associations between the number of days from the ...
Endress Thomas - - 2008
Single virus tracing (SVT) allows the direct investigation of the entry pathway of viruses into living cells. Using fluorescently labeled virus-like particles (VLPs) and SVT, we have studied the interaction between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the plasma membrane of living cells. From the trajectories of freely diffusing ...
Pradier S - - 2008
The transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) is strongly influenced by environmental factors. In France, two endemic areas for WNV have been identified: Camargue and Var. The objective of our study was to test whether landscape characteristics could be associated with the risk of endemic circulation of WNV in these ...
Rodríguez Roberto A - - 2008
The objective of this study was to compare PLC/PRF/5 and BGM cell lines for use in a total culturable viral assay (TCVA) of treated sewage effluents. Samples were collected before and after chlorination from an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant and from the effluent of a high-rate enhanced flocculation system, ...
van Grevenynghe Julien - - 2008
The persistence of central memory CD4(+) T cells (T(CM) cells) is a major correlate of immunological protection in HIV/AIDS, as the rate of T(CM) cell decline predicts HIV disease progression. In this study, we show that T(CM) cells and effector memory CD4(+) T cells (T(EM) cells) from HIV(+) elite controller ...
Jung Cindy - - 2008
We have previously shown that the envelope glycoproteins of human parainfluenza type 3 (HPIV3), F and HN, are able to pseudotype lentiviruses, but the titers of these viruses are too low for use in clinical gene transfer. In this study we investigated the cause of these low titers. We compared ...
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