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Results 201 - 250 of 1522
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Janas Alicia M - - 2009
Characterization of HIV-1 interactions with host cells is critical for cell biology studies of HIV-1. This unit describes a set of methods and protocols to perform quantitative assays of HIV-1 binding, internalization, infection, and cell-cell transmission. The protocols include: (1) generating infectious single-cycle or replication-competent HIV-1 stocks, (2) an HIV-1 ...
Zhu Wenge - - 2009
Eukaryotic cells normally restrict genome duplication to once per cell division. In metazoa, re-replication of DNA during a single S phase seems to be prevented solely by suppressing CDT1 activity, a protein required for loading the replicative MCM DNA helicase. However, siRNA suppression of geminin (a specific inhibitor of CDT1) ...
Weng Jia - - 2009
In vitro propagation studies have established that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is most efficiently transmitted at the virological synapse that forms between producer and target cells. Despite the presence of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) and CD4 and chemokine receptors at the respective surfaces, producer and target cells ...
Dalianis Tina - - 2009
The recent discoveries of KI, WU, and Merkel cell polyomaviruses (PyVs) have rekindled interest in the Polyomaviridae and their relation to human disease. Although it may be too early to draw firm conclusions, it seems apparent that these new viruses follow precedents established by other Py viruses: a benign initial ...
Zhang Jianhua - - 2009
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and in particular Hepatitis B Virus X Protein have been shown to modulate angiogenesis. However, a comprehensive and coordinated mechanism in the HBV-induced angiogenesis remains to be established. In this study, transient transfection of replicative HBV genome was carried out in rat primary hepatocytes (RPHs) ...
Shiina M - - 2009
The ability of oncolytic adenoviruses to replicate in and lyse cancer cells offers a potential therapeutic approach. However, selectivity and efficacy of adenovirus replication need to be improved. In this study, we present that loss of p21(WAF1) promotes adenovirus replication and more effective cell killing. To test our hypothesis, we ...
Sugimoto Nozomi - - 2009
When human cells enter S-phase, overlapping differential inhibitory mechanisms downregulate the replication licensing factors ORC1, CDC6 and Cdt1. Such regulation prevents re-replication so that deregulation of any individual factor alone would not be expected to induce overt re-replication. However, this has been challenged by the fact that overexpression of Cdt1 ...
Kittelmann Katharina - - 2009
The replication-associated protein (Rep) of geminiviruses, single-stranded DNA viruses of higher plants, is essential for virus replication. Since these viruses do not encode their own polymerases, Rep induces differentiated plant cells to reenter the cell cycle by interacting with the plant homologues of retinoblastoma proteins in order to activate the ...
Banfield, Bruce William
A mouse L cell mutant termed gro29 has been isolated (Tufaro et al. 1987) and shown to be defective in the growth of two enveloped viruses, vesicular stom- atitis virus (VSV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). In this thesis it is demonstrated that the rate of transport and ...
Matsuda Mari - - 2009
Lentiviral accessory proteins are thought to play important roles in regulating the viral replication through modulation of host cell functions. For example, Vpr of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) induces the cell cycle G2 arrest in a host cell-specific manner. Similarly, HIV-2 Vpr, but not Vpx, has been shown ...
Pugach Pavel - - 2009
HIV-1 variants resistant to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors such as vicriviroc (VVC) have modified Env complexes that can use both the inhibitor-bound and -free forms of the CCR5 co-receptor to enter target cells. However, entry via the inhibitor-CCR5 complex is inefficient in some, but not all, cell types, particularly cell ...
Perry Jeffrey W - - 2009
Murine norovirus (MNV) is a recently discovered mouse pathogen. Unlike the fastidious human noroviruses that cause the overwhelming majority of non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, MNV readily infects cells in culture. Its replication in primary murine macrophages and dendritic cells and their derived cell lines allows the study of norovirus cell entry ...
Martin Nicola - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The ability of HIV-1 to move between cells via direct cell-cell transmission is currently receiving a lot of attention. This review will discuss cell-cell spread of HIV-1 in terms of cellular and molecular mechanisms and will consider the evidence for immune and therapeutic evasion. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent ...
Bantel-Schaal Ursula - - 2009
The helper-dependent adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) have attracted great interest as vectors for gene therapy. Uptake and intracellular trafficking pathways of AAV are of importance, since they are often rate-limiting steps in infection. Here, we have investigated the entry of AAV type 5 (AAV5) in primary human embryo fibroblasts. At low ...
Aljofan Mohamad - - 2009
We have recently described the development and validation of a high throughput screening assay suitable for henipavirus antiviral identification. While we are confident this assay is robust and effective, we wished to investigate assay performance in a range of alternative cell lines to determine if assay sensitivity and specificity could ...
Cao Ming-Mei - - 2009
Studies of GB virus type C (GBV-C) replication in vitro have been limited because of poor growth of GBV-C in cell culture. In order to address the infection of GBV-C, two GBV-C subgenomic replicons (GBCrepEGFP and GBCrepTNF) were developed from a GBV-C full-length genomic cDNA. The viral replication, protein expression ...
Tsuda Yoshimi - - 2009
Many influenza A viruses form plaques on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in the presence of trypsin. A/duck/Siberia/272/1998 (H13N6) (Sib272), however, does not form plaque on MDCK cells. After three blind passages of the strain on MDCK cells, plaque-forming variant was obtained and designated as A/duck/Siberia/272PF/1998 (H13N6) (Sib272PF). Genetic and ...
Boy Sonja C - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The role of the oral mucosa as a target of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection and persistence is unclear. HIV-1 has been reported in oral epithelial cells, but this has not been confirmed. Cellular reservoirs may impede antiretroviral therapies and should be identified. This study was performed to determine ...
Chen Yu-Lian - - 2009
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) replication and transcription activator (Rta/BRLF1) is an immediate-early transcription factor that controls the conversion of the latent viral genome into one undergoing lytic replication. By using a doxycycline-inducible expression system, the present study demonstrates that EBV Rta efficiently elicits growth arrest in the human epithelial cell line ...
Yu Zhenkun - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Novel therapies are necessary to improve outcomes for patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the head and neck. Historically, vaccinia virus was administered widely to humans as a vaccine and led to the eradication of smallpox. We examined the therapeutic effects of an attenuated, replication-competent vaccinia virus (GLV-1h68) ...
Sato Kei - - 2009
In this study, we first demonstrate that endogenous hBST-2 is predominantly expressed on the plasma membrane of a human T cell line, MT-4 cells, and that Vpu-deficient HIV-1 was less efficiently released than wild-type HIV-1 from MT-4 cells. In addition, surface hBST-2 was rapidly down-regulated in wild-type but not Vpu-deficient ...
Vashistha Himanshu - - 2009
Renal biopsy data indicate that tubular epithelial cells serve as a reservoir for HIV-1 infection. We studied the effect of HIV-1 gp120 envelope gene expression on tubular cell apoptosis. HIV-1 gp120 was expressed in a lentiviral vector pHR-CMV-IRES2-EGFP-DeltaB. This plasmid construct was used to produce pseudotyped virus using VSV-G envelope ...
Thompson Alex J - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a key component of the innate immune system and TLR2 has been shown to be involved in the immunopathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in vivo. We investigated the role of TLR2 stimulation of virus-infected hepatocyte cell lines as a potential antiviral mechanism in ...
Brown Amanda M - - 2009
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) predominantly infects two main cell types: T-lymphocytes and monocyte-derived cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and Langerhans cells. Studies in patients aimed at uncovering and understanding the molecular mechanisms for viral persistence and latency in macrophages in particular are challenging because these cells ...
Ross Anna Laura - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The human placenta-derived cell line BeWo has been demonstrated to be restrictive to cell-free HIV-1 infection. BeWo cells are however permissive to infection by VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1, which enters cells by a receptor-independent mechanism, and to infection by HIV-1 via a cell-to-cell route. RESULTS: Here we analysed viral entry ...
Lingappa Jaisri R - - 2009
For many years it has been known that viral capsid proteins are capable of self-assembly, but increasing evidence over the past decade indicates that in cells HIV-1 capsid assembly occurs via a complex but transient series of steps requiring multiple viral-host interactions. To better understand the biochemistry of HIV assembly, ...
Owens Róisín M - - 2009
Real-time detection of viral replication inside cells remains a challenge to researchers. The Epic System is a high-throughput, label-free optical detection platform capable of measuring molecular interaction in a biochemical assay, as well as integrated cellular response from measurement of cellular dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) in a cell-based assay. DMR ...
Stang Alexander - - 2009
Contamination of vertebrate cell lines with animal retroviruses has been documented repeatedly before. Although such viral contaminants can be easily identified with high sensitivity by PCR, it is impossible to screen for all potential contaminants. Therefore, we explored two novel methods to identify viral contaminations in cell lines without prior ...
Fassati Ariberto A Wohl Virion Centre, and MRC Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College, London, London, - - 2009
Shortly after penetration into the cell, HIV-1 must reverse transcribe its genome into a double-stranded DNA molecule and must gain access to the nucleus of nondividing cells for productive infection. There is limited knowledge of these early events in HIV-1 life cycle. We have developed methods, which allow the study ...
Cui Min M Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198-5880, - - 2009
Human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) infection and associated diseases continue to represent major health problem worldwide. FOXO transcriptional factors play an important role in the regulation of cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, stress resistance, metabolism and differentiation. This chapter will discuss the diverse functions of FOXO in different cell ...
Giralt Marta - - 2009
PPARgamma is a ligand-dependent master transcription factor controlling adipocyte differentiation as well as multiple biological processes taking place in other cells present in adipose tissue depots such as macrophages. Recent research indicates that HIV-1 infection-related events may alter adipose tissue biology through several mechanisms involving PPARgamma, ranging from direct effects ...
Romer Daniela - - 2009
The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the cause of adult T-cell leukemia and inflammatory diseases including HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. HTLV-1 can be transmitted through sexual contact, mother-to-child transmission, and exposure to contaminated blood. Microbicides are agents that interfere with microbial infectivity at mucous membranes, and candidates ...
Ding Xiaoran - - 2009
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health concern around the world, and only a minority of patients receiving current treatments achieve a sustained response following a short course of therapy. The majority of patients require prolonged therapy to suppress viral replication. However, several recent reports show that inhibiting ...
Vieira Helena L A - - 2009
Apoptosis is a major problem in animal cell cultures during production of biopharmaceuticals, such as recombinant proteins or viral vectors. A 293 cell line constitutively expressing vMIA (viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis) was constructed and examined on production of a model recombinant protein, green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the adenovirus-293 ...
Yeh Hsiao-Yun - - 2008
In this study, we describe the use of nuclease-resistant molecular beacons (MBs) for the real-time detection of coxsackievirus B6 replication in living Buffalo green monkey kidney (BGMK) cells via Tat peptide delivery. A nuclease-resistant MB containing 2'-O-methyl RNA bases with phosphorothioate internucleotide linkages was designed to specifically target an 18-bp ...
Hu Yiduo - - 2009
Disruption of replication can lead to loss of genome integrity and increase of cancer susceptibility in mammals. Thus, a replication impediment constitutes a formidable challenge to these organisms. Recent studies indicate that homologous recombination (HR) plays an important role in suppressing genome instability and promoting cell survival after exposure to ...
Passiatore Giovanni - - 2009
HIV-Encephalopathy (HIVE) is a common neurological disorder associated with HIV-1 infection and AIDS. The activity of the HIV trans-activating protein Tat is thought to contribute to neuronal pathogenesis. While Tat proteins from primary virus isolates consist of 101 or more amino acids, 72 and 86 amino acids forms of Tat ...
Campbell Edward M - - 2008
Technology developed in the past 10 years has dramatically increased the ability of researchers to directly visualize and measure various stages of the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) life cycle. In many cases, imaging-based approaches have filled critical gaps in our understanding of how certain aspects of viral replication occur in ...
Akazawa Daisuke - - 2008
The efficient production of infectious HCV from the JFH-1 strain is restricted to the Huh7 cell line and its derivatives. However, the factors involved in this restriction are unknown. In this study, we examined the production of infectious HCV from other liver-derived cell lines, and characterized the produced viruses. Clones ...
Comolli Luis R - - 2009
Fully understanding the biology of acid mine drainage (AMD) is central to our ability to control and manipulate its environmental impact. Although genomics and biogeochemical methods are relatively well established in the field, their combination with high-resolution imaging of intact members of microbial biofilm communities has not yet reached its ...
Berarducci Barbara - - 2009
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E (gE) is the most abundant glycoprotein in infected cells and, in contrast to those of other alphaherpesviruses, is essential for viral replication. The gE ectodomain contains a unique N-terminal region required for viral replication, cell-cell spread, and secondary envelopment; this region also binds to the ...
Qi Mingli - - 2008
Among retroviruses, lentiviruses are unusual in their ability to efficiently infect both dividing and nondividing cells, such as activated T cells and macrophages, respectively. Recent studies implicate the viral capsid protein (CA) as a key determinant of cell-cycle-independent infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We investigated the effects ...
Soto-Rivera, Jackeline
The female genital tract is the main route for heterosexual transmission of HIV-1. Studies with SIV in macaque model indicate that after crossing the mucosa of cervix and vagina, SIV infected cells migrate to draining lymph nodes where the virus expands before it gets disseminated into the gut and other ...
Frecha Cecilia - - 2008
A major limitation of current lentiviral vectors (LVs) is their inability to govern efficient gene transfer into quiescent cells such as primary T cells, which hampers their application for gene therapy. Here we generated high-titer LVs incorporating Edmonston measles virus (MV) glycoproteins H and F on their surface. They allowed ...
Ward Scott M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The frequency of protective antiviral memory B cells after hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination is unknown. METHODS: A novel 2-step immunomagnetic protocol to assess the ex vivo frequency of protective HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-specific memory B cells was used. RESULTS: HBsAg-specific memory B cells were detected in vaccinated individuals, ...
Kalthoff Donata - - 2008
The role of the UL49 gene product, VP22, of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) in virus replication was characterized with respect to a putative functional interaction of VP22 with the viral glycoprotein E (gE) during BoHV-1 cell-to-cell spread. Deletion of the open reading frames of UL49 and/or gE from an ...
Lemay Julie - - 2008
Like all retroviruses, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) undergoes reverse transcription during its replication cycle. The cellular cofactors potentially involved in this process still remain to be identified. We show here that A-kinase anchoring protein 149 (AKAP149) interacts with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) in both the yeast two-hybrid system ...
Boisvert Mélissa - - 2008
Intestinal epithelial cells play an important role in early stages of HIV-1 infection and long-term persistence of the virus. Here we determined the mechanism that regulates HIV-1 activation via prostaglandin J(2) (PGJ(2)) in Caco-2 cells. We showed that treatment of Caco-2 cells with PGJ(2) decreased the infectivity of a luciferase ...
Lucifora J - - 2008
One of the major problems in gaining further insight into hepatitis B virus (HBV)/host-cell interactions is to improve the existing cellular models for the study of HBV replication. The first objective of this study was to improve the system based on transduction of HepG2 cells with a recombinant baculovirus to ...
Baba Kenji - - 2008
RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence-specific RNA degradation process. To inhibit feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) replication by RNAi, we generated a lentiviral vector expressing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) that targeted the gag gene of FIV (shGag). shGag transfer significantly inhibited viral replication in cell lines that were chronically infected ...
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