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Results 201 - 250 of 1584
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Rayne Fabienne - - 2010
The Tat protein is required for efficient HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) transcription. Moreover, Tat is secreted by infected cells, and circulating Tat can affect several cell types, thereby contributing to HIV-1 pathogenesis. We monitored Tat secretion by transfected CD4+ T-cells. A Tat chimaera carrying an N-glycosylation site did ...
Porcellini Simona - - 2010
The long-term expression and the ability of a therapeutic gene to confer survival advantage to transduced cells are mandatory requirements for successful anti-HIV gene therapy. In this context, we developed lentiviral vectors (LVs) expressing the F12-viral infectivity factor (Vif) derivative Chim3. We recently showed that Chim3 inhibits HIV-1 replication in ...
Tsao Kuo-Chien - - 2010
The susceptibility of five cell lines, RD, MRC-5, MK-2, Hep-2 and A549, for various serotypes of human enteroviruses was evaluated. RD cells were susceptible to most serotypes of enteroviruses, especially for human enterovirus A. Consequently, a high prevalence of human enterovirus A in Taiwan may reflect the relative importance of ...
Coswig Lia Treptow - - 2010
Primary isolation of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is carried out using tracheal organ culture (TOC) or chicken embryonated eggs with subsequent adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) or Vero cultures. This study was conducted to evaluate six different cell lines and two avian culture systems for the propagation of aMPV subtypes ...
Li Yi-Jung - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The effect of cyclosporine A (CsA) on polyomavirus BK virus (BKV) replication remains unclear. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of CsA on BKV replication in human uroepithelial cells. METHODS: After infection of a human renal proximal tubular cell line, HK-2 with BKV, ...
Levin Aviad - - 2010
Expression of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev protein is essential for completion of the viral life cycle. Rev mediates nuclear export of partially spliced and unspliced viral transcripts and therefore bears a nuclear localization signal (NLS) as well as a nuclear export signal (NES), which allow its ...
Gali Youssef - - 2010
Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is the predominant mode of infection worldwide. However, the early steps of transepithelial infection still need to be clarified. Using epithelial cells, originating from the female genital tract, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells as subepithelial target cells, an in vitro dual-chamber model of ...
Senac Julien S - - 2010
Oncolytic virotherapy makes use of the natural ability of viruses to infect and kill cancer cells. Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) has been approved for use in humans as a therapy for solid cancers. In this study, we have tested whether Ad5 and low-seroprevalence adenoviruses can be used as oncolytics for ...
Gilham David E - - 2010
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 fails to successfully infect mouse T cells as a result of several blocks in the viral replication cycle. We investigated whether this also impacted on the use of HIV-1 derived lentiviral vectors for stable gene transfer into mouse T cells. METHODS: Freshly isolated primary mouse T cells were ...
Lewis Jennifer D - - 2010
Synaptotagmins are calcium sensors that regulate synaptic vesicle exo/endocytosis. Thought to be exclusive to animals, they have recently been characterized in plants. We show that Arabidopsis synaptotagmin SYTA regulates endosome recycling and movement protein (MP)-mediated trafficking of plant virus genomes through plasmodesmata. SYTA localizes to endosomes in plant cells and ...
Martin Nicola N Department of Pathology, The University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3R, United - - 2010
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can disseminate between CD4(+) T cells via diffusion-limited cell-free viral spread or by directed cell-cell transfer using virally induced structures termed virological synapses. Although T-cell virological synapses have been well characterized, it is unclear whether this mode of viral spread is susceptible to inhibition ...
Gearhart Tricia L - - 2010
Worldwide, there are over 350 million people who are chronically infected with the human hepatitis B virus (HBV); chronic HBV infections are associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The results of various studies suggest that the HBV X protein (HBx) has a role in the development of HBV-associated ...
Chaipan Chawaree - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Platelets are associated with HIV in the blood of infected individuals and might modulate viral dissemination, particularly if the virus is directly transmitted into the bloodstream. The C-type lectin DC-SIGN and the novel HIV attachment factor CLEC-2 are expressed by platelets and facilitate HIV transmission from platelets to T-cells. ...
Tsai Billy - - 2010
Polyomaviruses (Pys) are nonenveloped DNA tumor viruses that include the murine polyomavirus (mPy), simian virus 40 (SV40), and the human BK, JC, KI, WU, and Merkel Cell viruses. To cause infection, Pys must enter host cells and navigate through various intracellular compartments, where they undergo sequential conformational changes enabling them ...
Cano-Monreal Gina L - - 2010
Alphaviruses replicate in vertebrate and arthropod cells and utilize a cellular enzyme called furin to process the PE2 glycoprotein precursor during virus replication in both cell types. Furin cleaves PE2 at a site immediately following a highly conserved four residue cleavage signal. Prior studies demonstrated that the amino acid immediately ...
Mizukoshi Koji - - 2010
We examined the effects of ISP-I (myriocin, thermozymocidin)-a potent inhibitor of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) which is involved in the ceramide synthetic pathway-on skin barrier function in post-UVB-irradiated hairless mouse skin. Disruption of the skin barrier function after UVB irradiation as represented by the increase in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was ...
Lahkim Bennani-Belhaj Kenza - - 2010
Bloom's syndrome (BS) displays one of the strongest known correlations between chromosomal instability and a high risk of cancer at an early age. BS cells combine a reduced average fork velocity with constitutive endogenous replication stress. However, the response of BS cells to replication stress induced by hydroxyurea (HU), which ...
Patterson Bruce K - - 2010
The field of virology is undergoing a revolution as diagnostic tests and new therapies are allowing clinicians to treat, monitor, and predict outcomes of viral diseases. The majority of these techniques, however, destroy the factory of viral production and the information inherent in the reservoir - the cell. In this ...
Stirnnagel Kristin - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The foamy virus (FV) replication cycle displays several unique features, which set them apart from orthoretroviruses. First, like other B/D type orthoretroviruses, FV capsids preassemble at the centrosome, but more similar to hepadnaviruses, FV budding is strictly dependent on cognate viral glycoprotein coexpression. Second, the unusually broad host range ...
Ghigo Eric - - 2010
Viruses must enter host cells to deliver their genetic material and accessory proteins. Endocytosis offers to viruses the opportunity to enter host cells. However, endocytosis is a complex phenomenon that includes different mechanisms, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolin-mediated endocytosis, macropinocytosis, and phagocytosis. Here, I describe the ways used by different viruses to ...
Krieg T - - 2010
The skin is a complex organ composed by two essential components, the epidermis and the dermis. It is developed to protect the organism against all external damage e.g. infectious agents, uv and contains a number of different specialized cell types with distinct functions. The skin is also built up by ...
Arvin Ann M - - 2010
The two VZV glycoproteins, gE and gI, are encoded by genes that are designated open reading frames, ORF67 and ORF68, located in the short unique region of the VZV genome. These proteins have homologs in the other alphaherpesviruses. Like their homologues, VZV gE and gI exhibit prominent co-localization in infected ...
Emerson Vanessa - - 2010
Mutant HIV (HIV-Env-Tr712) lacking the cytoplasmic tail of the viral glycoprotein (Env-CT) exhibits a cell-type specific replication phenotype such that replicative spread occurs in some T-cell lines (referred to as permissive cells) but fails to do so in most T-cell lines or in PBMCs (referred to as non-permissive cells). We ...
Horvath Caroline A J - - 2010
As the primary etiological agents of cervical cancer, human papillomaviruses (HPVs) must deliver their genetic material into the nucleus of the target cell. The viral capsid has evolved to fulfil various roles that are critical to establish viral infection. The particle interacts with the cell surface via interaction of the ...
Zanet Jennifer - - 2010
How human self-renewal tissues co-ordinate proliferation with differentiation is unclear. Human epidermis undergoes continuous cell growth and differentiation and is permanently exposed to mutagenic hazard. Keratinocytes are thought to arrest cell growth and cell cycle prior to terminal differentiation. However, a growing body of evidence does not satisfy this model. ...
Song Y J YJ Department of Life Science, Kyungwon University, Seongnam-Si, Kyeonggi-Dp, 461-701, Korea. - - 2010
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or its immediate-early IE86 protein alone induces cell cycle in quiescent primary human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs), but blocks its progression at the G1/S interphase and inhibits cellular DNA synthesis by a mechanism that is not clearly understood. It is assumed that, in this phenomenon, the binding of ...
Baker Matthew M National Center for Macromolecular Imaging, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, - - 2010
Infecting nearly every child by age five, rotaviruses are the major causative agents of severe gastroenteritis in young children. While much is known about the structure of these nonenveloped viruses and their components, the exact mechanism of viral cell entry is still poorly understood. A consensus opinion that appears to ...
Casartelli Nicoletta N Institut Pasteur, Virus and Immunity Unit, URA CNRS 3015, Paris, - - 2010
The IFN-inducible antiviral protein tetherin (or BST-2/CD317/HM1.24) impairs release of mature HIV-1 particles from infected cells. HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes the effect of tetherin. The fate of virions trapped at the cell surface remains poorly understood. Here, we asked whether tetherin impairs HIV cell-to-cell transmission, a major means of viral spread. ...
Llewellyn G Nicholas GN Cellular and Molecular Biology Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of - - 2010
T cells adopt a polarized morphology in lymphoid organs, where cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1 is likely frequent. However, despite the importance of understanding virus spread in vivo, little is known about the HIV-1 life cycle, particularly its late phase, in polarized T cells. Polarized T cells form two ends, the ...
Pais-Correia Ana-Monica - - 2010
Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a lymphotropic retrovirus whose cell-to-cell transmission requires cell contacts. HTLV-1-infected T lymphocytes form 'virological synapses', but the mechanism of HTLV-1 transmission remains poorly understood. We show here that HTLV-1-infected T lymphocytes transiently store viral particles as carbohydrate-rich extracellular assemblies that are ...
Nishimura-Sakurai Yuki - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication is affected by several host factors. Here, we screened host genes and molecular pathways that are involved in HCV replication by comprehensive analyses using two genotypes of HCV replicon-expressing cells, their cured cells and naïve Huh7 cells. METHODS: Huh7 cell lines that stably expressed ...
O'Donnell Christopher D - - 2010
Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans are commonly exploited by multiple viruses for initial attachment to host cells. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is unique because it can use HS for both attachment and penetration, provided specific binding sites for HSV-1 envelope glycoprotein gD are present. The interaction with gD is mediated by ...
Miyashita Shuhei - - 2010
Genetic bottlenecks facilitate the fixation and extinction of variants in populations, and viral populations are no exception to this theory. To examine the existence of genetic bottlenecks in cell-to-cell movement of plant RNA viruses, we prepared constructs for Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus RNA2 vectors carrying two different fluorescent proteins, yellow ...
Bernhoff Eva - - 2010
The immunomodulatory drug leflunomide is frequently used for treating polyomavirus-associated nephropathy, yet its antiviral mechanism is unclear. We characterized the effects of the active leflunomide metabolite A771726 (LEF-A) on the polyomavirus BK (BKV) life cycle in human renal tubular epithelial cells. LEF-A at 10 microg/ml reduced the extracellular BKV load ...
Miyakawa Kei K AIDS Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, - - 2009
Host cell factors can either positively or negatively regulate the assembly and egress of HIV-1 particles from infected cells. Recent reports have identified a previously uncharacterized transmembrane protein, tetherin/CD317/BST-2, as a crucial host restriction factor that acts during a late budding step in HIV-1 replication by inhibiting viral particle release. ...
Lee Yoo Jin - - 2010
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a marked tropism for cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage and accordingly, replicates in fully differentiated alveolar macrophages in the natural host. Despite the identification of several putative receptors for PRRSV on porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM), only CD163 was found to be able ...
Nukuzuma Souichi - - 2009
Pathogenic JCV with rearranged regulatory regions (PML-type) causes PML, a demyelinating disease, in the brains of immunocompromised patients. On the other hand, archetype JCV persistently infecting the kidney is thought to be converted to PML-type virus during JCV replication in the infected host under immunosuppressed conditions. In addition, Tat protein, ...
Tseng Yang-Hao - - 2009
The triple gene block protein 2 (TGBp2) of Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) is a transmembrane protein which is known to be required for the cell-to-cell movement of potexviruses. This protein has two conserved Cys residues, Cys-109 and Cys-112, at its C-terminal tail, which is supposed to be exposed on the ...
Sealy Robert R Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, - - 2009
HIV-1 transinfection is a process by which one cell acts as an HIV-1 "escort" to enhance infection of another. There has recently been much debate concerning (1) the types of cells that may act as escorts, (2) requirements for virus internalization by the escort, and (3) the sensitivity of transinfection ...
Jenabian Mohammad-Ali MA Université Paris Descartes (Paris V), and Laboratoire de Virologie, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, - - 2009
To block the different mechanisms of HIV mucosal transmission, it is likely that use of several microbicide molecules will lead to the best protection against HIV transmission. Indeed, the combination of microbicides with complementary mechanisms of action is expected to increase the antiviral potency of the formulation. The gp120-interacting plant ...
Böttcher Eva - - 2009
Cleavage of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) by host cell proteases is essential for virus infectivity and, therefore, relevant proteases may present promising new drug targets. We recently demonstrated that serine proteases TMPRSS2 and HAT from human airways activate influenza virus HA with monobasic cleavage site in vitro. In the ...
Nowotny Boris - - 2010
Inhibition of the interaction of the human cytidine-deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-specific viral infectivity factor (Vif) represents a novel therapeutic approach in which a cellular factor with potent antiviral activity (A3G) plays a key role. In HIV-infected cells, the interaction of Vif with A3G ...
Feng Wenyi - - 2009
Yeast replication checkpoint mutants lose viability following transient exposure to hydroxyurea, a replication-impeding drug. In an effort to understand the basis for this lethality, we discovered that different events are responsible for inviability in checkpoint-deficient cells harboring mutations in the mec1 and rad53 genes. By monitoring genomewide replication dynamics of ...
Forterre Patrick - - 2009
Our conceptions on the origin, nature, and role of viruses have been shaken recently by several independent lines of research. There are many reasons to believe now that viruses are more ancient than modern cells and have always been more abundant and diverse than their cellular targets. Viruses can be ...
He Fang F Institute for Tissue Transplantation and Immunology, Jinan University, 510630, Guangzhou, People's Republic of - - 2009
HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) can induce cell cycle arrest and cell death, and may be beneficial in cancer therapy to suppress malignantly proliferative cell types, such as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells. In this study, we examined the feasibility of employing the HIV-vpr gene, via targeted gene transfer, as ...
Bego Mariana G - - 2009
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Vpu enhances virus particle release by counteracting a host factor that retains virions at the surfaces of infected cells. It was recently demonstrated that cellular protein BST-2/CD317/Tetherin restricts HIV-1 release in a Vpu-dependent manner. Calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand (CAML) was also proposed ...
Lam S K - - 2010
A dimeric 64-kDa hemagglutinin was isolated with a high yield from dried Phaseolus vulgaris cultivar "French bean number 35" seeds using a chromatographic protocol that involved Blue-Sepharose, Q-Sepharose, and Superdex 75. The yield was exceptionally high (1.1g hemagglutinin per 100g seed), which is around 10-85 times higher than other Phaseolus ...
Polonis Victoria R - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review we present current advances in our understanding of HIV-1 neutralization assays that employ primary cell types, as compared with those that utilize cell lines and the newer, more standardized pseudovirus assays. A commentary on the challenges of standardizing in-vitro neutralization assays using primary cells ...
Lesner Adam - - 2009
We reported previously the anti-viral activity named HRF (HIV-1 Resistance Factor) secreted by HIV-1 resistant cells. This work describes the identification of HRF from cell culture supernatant of HRF-producing cells (HRF(+) cells). Employing the proteomics and cell based activity assay we recovered ten peptides sharing 80-93% sequence homology with other ...
Vasiliver-Shamis Gaia G Program in Molecular Pathogenesis, Marty and Helen Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine, Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, - - 2009
Cell-to-cell transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) occurs via a virological synapse (VS), a tight cell-cell junction formed between HIV-infected cells and target cells in which the HIV-1-infected cell polarizes and releases virions toward the noninfected target cell in a gp120- and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)-dependent process. ...
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