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Results 201 - 250 of 1539
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Bego Mariana G - - 2009
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Vpu enhances virus particle release by counteracting a host factor that retains virions at the surfaces of infected cells. It was recently demonstrated that cellular protein BST-2/CD317/Tetherin restricts HIV-1 release in a Vpu-dependent manner. Calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand (CAML) was also proposed ...
Lam S K - - 2010
A dimeric 64-kDa hemagglutinin was isolated with a high yield from dried Phaseolus vulgaris cultivar "French bean number 35" seeds using a chromatographic protocol that involved Blue-Sepharose, Q-Sepharose, and Superdex 75. The yield was exceptionally high (1.1g hemagglutinin per 100g seed), which is around 10-85 times higher than other Phaseolus ...
Polonis Victoria R - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review we present current advances in our understanding of HIV-1 neutralization assays that employ primary cell types, as compared with those that utilize cell lines and the newer, more standardized pseudovirus assays. A commentary on the challenges of standardizing in-vitro neutralization assays using primary cells ...
Lesner Adam - - 2009
We reported previously the anti-viral activity named HRF (HIV-1 Resistance Factor) secreted by HIV-1 resistant cells. This work describes the identification of HRF from cell culture supernatant of HRF-producing cells (HRF(+) cells). Employing the proteomics and cell based activity assay we recovered ten peptides sharing 80-93% sequence homology with other ...
Vasiliver-Shamis Gaia G Program in Molecular Pathogenesis, Marty and Helen Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine, Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, - - 2009
Cell-to-cell transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) occurs via a virological synapse (VS), a tight cell-cell junction formed between HIV-infected cells and target cells in which the HIV-1-infected cell polarizes and releases virions toward the noninfected target cell in a gp120- and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)-dependent process. ...
Ribbeck Katharina - - 2009
I propose a mechanism by which viruses successfully infect new individuals, despite being immotile particles with no ability for directed movement. Within cells, viral particle movements are directed by motors and elements of the cytoskeleton, but how viruses cross extracellular barriers, like mucus, remains a mystery. I propose that viruses ...
Chu Chia - - 2009
MDCK cells are currently being considered as an alternative to embryonated eggs for influenza virus propagation and hemagglutinin (HA) production intended for vaccine manufacturing. MDCK cells were found suitable for the virus production but their inability to grow in suspension burdens the process of scale up and hence their production ...
Brehm K E - - 2009
A fetal goat cell line (ZZ-R 127) supplied by the Collection of Cell Lines in Veterinary Medicine of the Friedrich Loeffler Institute was examined for susceptibility to infection by foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) and by two other viruses causing clinically indistinguishable vesicular conditions, namely, the viruses of swine vesicular ...
Yamashita Masahiro - - 2009
The ability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to infect nondividing cells is a fundamental property by which HIV replicates in critical target cells, such as macrophages and resting CD4(+) T cells. Recent studies have revealed that the capsid (CA) protein is a dominant factor that determines retrovirus infectivity in nondividing ...
Thorne Barbara A - - 2009
A commercial rAAV manufacturing process needs to provide a safe product at high yield, be easily scalable, regulatory-compliant, and have reasonable cost of goods. Considerations for process development include not only product quantity and quality, but also ease of obtaining equipment, performing validation, and demonstrating control. In these regards, it ...
Jiang Sunny C - - 2009
Human viral contamination in drinking and recreational waters poses health risks. The application of PCR-based molecular technology has advanced our knowledge of the occurrence and prevalence of human viruses in water; however, it has provided no information on viral viability and infectivity. Four human cell lines were compared for their ...
Jin Jing - - 2009
We have investigated the underlying mechanism by which direct cell-cell contact enhances the efficiency of cell-to-cell transmission of retroviruses. Applying 4D imaging to a model retrovirus, the murine leukemia virus, we directly monitor and quantify sequential assembly, release, and transmission events for individual viral particles as they happen in living ...
Ghosh Mimi M Department of Physiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH, - - 2009
CCL20/MIP3alpha is a chemokine for immature dendritic cells as well as an antibacterial against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The role of CCL20/MIP3alpha as an antiviral is unknown. In this study, we have examined the production of CCL20/MIP3alpha by epithelial cells from the upper female reproductive tract as well as its ...
Wong Swee Kee - - 2009
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) does not replicate in primary cells of New World primates. To better understand this restriction, we expressed owl monkey (Aotus nancymaae) CD4 and CXCR4 in the owl monkey kidney cell line, OMK. An HIV-1 variant modified to evade the owl monkey restriction factor TRIM-cyp ...
Epel Bernard L - - 2009
Plant viruses spread cell-to-cell by exploiting and modifying plasmodesmata, coaxial membranous channels that cross cell walls and interlink the cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum and plasma-membranes of contiguous cells. To facilitate viral spread, viruses encode for one or more movement proteins that interact with ER and ER derived membranes, bind vRNA and ...
Hacker Kari - - 2009
This study compared the ability of mosquito and mammalian cell-derived dengue virus (DENV) to infect human dendritic cell-specific ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN)-expressing cells and characterized the structure of envelope (E) protein N-linked glycans on DENV derived from the two cell types. DENVs derived from both cell types were equally effective at ...
Vasilakis Nikos - - 2009
Like other arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV) is maintained in an alternating cycle of replication in arthropod and vertebrate hosts. The trade-off hypothesis suggests that this alternation constrains DENV evolution because a fitness increase in one host usually diminishes fitness in the other. Moreover, the hypothesis predicts that ...
Zhu Wenge - - 2009
Eukaryotic cells normally restrict genome duplication to once per cell division. In metazoa, re-replication of DNA during a single S phase seems to be prevented solely by suppressing CDT1 activity, a protein required for loading the replicative MCM DNA helicase. However, siRNA suppression of geminin (a specific inhibitor of CDT1) ...
Janas Alicia M AM Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, - - 2009
Characterization of HIV-1 interactions with host cells is critical for cell biology studies of HIV-1. This unit describes a set of methods and protocols to perform quantitative assays of HIV-1 binding, internalization, infection, and cell-cell transmission. The protocols include: (1) generating infectious single-cycle or replication-competent HIV-1 stocks, (2) an HIV-1 ...
Weng Jia - - 2009
In vitro propagation studies have established that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is most efficiently transmitted at the virological synapse that forms between producer and target cells. Despite the presence of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) and CD4 and chemokine receptors at the respective surfaces, producer and target cells ...
Dalianis Tina - - 2009
The recent discoveries of KI, WU, and Merkel cell polyomaviruses (PyVs) have rekindled interest in the Polyomaviridae and their relation to human disease. Although it may be too early to draw firm conclusions, it seems apparent that these new viruses follow precedents established by other Py viruses: a benign initial ...
Zhang Jianhua - - 2009
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and in particular Hepatitis B Virus X Protein have been shown to modulate angiogenesis. However, a comprehensive and coordinated mechanism in the HBV-induced angiogenesis remains to be established. In this study, transient transfection of replicative HBV genome was carried out in rat primary hepatocytes (RPHs) ...
Shiina M - - 2009
The ability of oncolytic adenoviruses to replicate in and lyse cancer cells offers a potential therapeutic approach. However, selectivity and efficacy of adenovirus replication need to be improved. In this study, we present that loss of p21(WAF1) promotes adenovirus replication and more effective cell killing. To test our hypothesis, we ...
Sugimoto Nozomi - - 2009
When human cells enter S-phase, overlapping differential inhibitory mechanisms downregulate the replication licensing factors ORC1, CDC6 and Cdt1. Such regulation prevents re-replication so that deregulation of any individual factor alone would not be expected to induce overt re-replication. However, this has been challenged by the fact that overexpression of Cdt1 ...
Kittelmann Katharina - - 2009
The replication-associated protein (Rep) of geminiviruses, single-stranded DNA viruses of higher plants, is essential for virus replication. Since these viruses do not encode their own polymerases, Rep induces differentiated plant cells to reenter the cell cycle by interacting with the plant homologues of retinoblastoma proteins in order to activate the ...
Banfield, Bruce William
A mouse L cell mutant termed gro29 has been isolated (Tufaro et al. 1987) and shown to be defective in the growth of two enveloped viruses, vesicular stom- atitis virus (VSV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). In this thesis it is demonstrated that the rate of transport and ...
Matsuda Mari - - 2009
Lentiviral accessory proteins are thought to play important roles in regulating the viral replication through modulation of host cell functions. For example, Vpr of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) induces the cell cycle G2 arrest in a host cell-specific manner. Similarly, HIV-2 Vpr, but not Vpx, has been shown ...
Pugach Pavel P Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, - - 2009
HIV-1 variants resistant to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors such as vicriviroc (VVC) have modified Env complexes that can use both the inhibitor-bound and -free forms of the CCR5 co-receptor to enter target cells. However, entry via the inhibitor-CCR5 complex is inefficient in some, but not all, cell types, particularly cell ...
Perry Jeffrey W JW Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5620, United - - 2009
Murine norovirus (MNV) is a recently discovered mouse pathogen. Unlike the fastidious human noroviruses that cause the overwhelming majority of non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, MNV readily infects cells in culture. Its replication in primary murine macrophages and dendritic cells and their derived cell lines allows the study of norovirus cell entry ...
Martin Nicola - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The ability of HIV-1 to move between cells via direct cell-cell transmission is currently receiving a lot of attention. This review will discuss cell-cell spread of HIV-1 in terms of cellular and molecular mechanisms and will consider the evidence for immune and therapeutic evasion. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent ...
Bantel-Schaal Ursula - - 2009
The helper-dependent adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) have attracted great interest as vectors for gene therapy. Uptake and intracellular trafficking pathways of AAV are of importance, since they are often rate-limiting steps in infection. Here, we have investigated the entry of AAV type 5 (AAV5) in primary human embryo fibroblasts. At low ...
Aljofan Mohamad - - 2009
We have recently described the development and validation of a high throughput screening assay suitable for henipavirus antiviral identification. While we are confident this assay is robust and effective, we wished to investigate assay performance in a range of alternative cell lines to determine if assay sensitivity and specificity could ...
Cao Ming-Mei - - 2009
Studies of GB virus type C (GBV-C) replication in vitro have been limited because of poor growth of GBV-C in cell culture. In order to address the infection of GBV-C, two GBV-C subgenomic replicons (GBCrepEGFP and GBCrepTNF) were developed from a GBV-C full-length genomic cDNA. The viral replication, protein expression ...
Tsuda Yoshimi - - 2009
Many influenza A viruses form plaques on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in the presence of trypsin. A/duck/Siberia/272/1998 (H13N6) (Sib272), however, does not form plaque on MDCK cells. After three blind passages of the strain on MDCK cells, plaque-forming variant was obtained and designated as A/duck/Siberia/272PF/1998 (H13N6) (Sib272PF). Genetic and ...
Boy Sonja C - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The role of the oral mucosa as a target of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection and persistence is unclear. HIV-1 has been reported in oral epithelial cells, but this has not been confirmed. Cellular reservoirs may impede antiretroviral therapies and should be identified. This study was performed to determine ...
Chen Yu-Lian - - 2009
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) replication and transcription activator (Rta/BRLF1) is an immediate-early transcription factor that controls the conversion of the latent viral genome into one undergoing lytic replication. By using a doxycycline-inducible expression system, the present study demonstrates that EBV Rta efficiently elicits growth arrest in the human epithelial cell line ...
Yu Zhenkun - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Novel therapies are necessary to improve outcomes for patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the head and neck. Historically, vaccinia virus was administered widely to humans as a vaccine and led to the eradication of smallpox. We examined the therapeutic effects of an attenuated, replication-competent vaccinia virus (GLV-1h68) ...
Sato Kei - - 2009
In this study, we first demonstrate that endogenous hBST-2 is predominantly expressed on the plasma membrane of a human T cell line, MT-4 cells, and that Vpu-deficient HIV-1 was less efficiently released than wild-type HIV-1 from MT-4 cells. In addition, surface hBST-2 was rapidly down-regulated in wild-type but not Vpu-deficient ...
Vashistha Himanshu - - 2009
Renal biopsy data indicate that tubular epithelial cells serve as a reservoir for HIV-1 infection. We studied the effect of HIV-1 gp120 envelope gene expression on tubular cell apoptosis. HIV-1 gp120 was expressed in a lentiviral vector pHR-CMV-IRES2-EGFP-DeltaB. This plasmid construct was used to produce pseudotyped virus using VSV-G envelope ...
Thompson Alex J - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a key component of the innate immune system and TLR2 has been shown to be involved in the immunopathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in vivo. We investigated the role of TLR2 stimulation of virus-infected hepatocyte cell lines as a potential antiviral mechanism in ...
Brown Amanda M - - 2009
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) predominantly infects two main cell types: T-lymphocytes and monocyte-derived cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and Langerhans cells. Studies in patients aimed at uncovering and understanding the molecular mechanisms for viral persistence and latency in macrophages in particular are challenging because these cells ...
Ross Anna Laura - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The human placenta-derived cell line BeWo has been demonstrated to be restrictive to cell-free HIV-1 infection. BeWo cells are however permissive to infection by VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1, which enters cells by a receptor-independent mechanism, and to infection by HIV-1 via a cell-to-cell route. RESULTS: Here we analysed viral entry ...
Owens Róisín M - - 2009
Real-time detection of viral replication inside cells remains a challenge to researchers. The Epic System is a high-throughput, label-free optical detection platform capable of measuring molecular interaction in a biochemical assay, as well as integrated cellular response from measurement of cellular dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) in a cell-based assay. DMR ...
Stang Alexander - - 2009
Contamination of vertebrate cell lines with animal retroviruses has been documented repeatedly before. Although such viral contaminants can be easily identified with high sensitivity by PCR, it is impossible to screen for all potential contaminants. Therefore, we explored two novel methods to identify viral contaminations in cell lines without prior ...
Fassati Ariberto A Wohl Virion Centre, and MRC Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College, London, London, - - 2009
Shortly after penetration into the cell, HIV-1 must reverse transcribe its genome into a double-stranded DNA molecule and must gain access to the nucleus of nondividing cells for productive infection. There is limited knowledge of these early events in HIV-1 life cycle. We have developed methods, which allow the study ...
Lingappa Jaisri R JR Department of Pathobiology, University of Washington, Seattle WA, - - 2009
For many years it has been known that viral capsid proteins are capable of self-assembly, but increasing evidence over the past decade indicates that in cells HIV-1 capsid assembly occurs via a complex but transient series of steps requiring multiple viral-host interactions. To better understand the biochemistry of HIV assembly, ...
Cui Min M Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198-5880, - - 2009
Human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) infection and associated diseases continue to represent major health problem worldwide. FOXO transcriptional factors play an important role in the regulation of cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, stress resistance, metabolism and differentiation. This chapter will discuss the diverse functions of FOXO in different cell ...
Giralt Marta - - 2009
PPARgamma is a ligand-dependent master transcription factor controlling adipocyte differentiation as well as multiple biological processes taking place in other cells present in adipose tissue depots such as macrophages. Recent research indicates that HIV-1 infection-related events may alter adipose tissue biology through several mechanisms involving PPARgamma, ranging from direct effects ...
Romer Daniela - - 2009
The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the cause of adult T-cell leukemia and inflammatory diseases including HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. HTLV-1 can be transmitted through sexual contact, mother-to-child transmission, and exposure to contaminated blood. Microbicides are agents that interfere with microbial infectivity at mucous membranes, and candidates ...
Ding Xiaoran - - 2009
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health concern around the world, and only a minority of patients receiving current treatments achieve a sustained response following a short course of therapy. The majority of patients require prolonged therapy to suppress viral replication. However, several recent reports show that inhibiting ...
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