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Results 201 - 250 of 1571
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Tsai Billy - - 2010
Polyomaviruses (Pys) are nonenveloped DNA tumor viruses that include the murine polyomavirus (mPy), simian virus 40 (SV40), and the human BK, JC, KI, WU, and Merkel Cell viruses. To cause infection, Pys must enter host cells and navigate through various intracellular compartments, where they undergo sequential conformational changes enabling them ...
Cano-Monreal Gina L - - 2010
Alphaviruses replicate in vertebrate and arthropod cells and utilize a cellular enzyme called furin to process the PE2 glycoprotein precursor during virus replication in both cell types. Furin cleaves PE2 at a site immediately following a highly conserved four residue cleavage signal. Prior studies demonstrated that the amino acid immediately ...
Mizukoshi Koji - - 2010
We examined the effects of ISP-I (myriocin, thermozymocidin)-a potent inhibitor of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) which is involved in the ceramide synthetic pathway-on skin barrier function in post-UVB-irradiated hairless mouse skin. Disruption of the skin barrier function after UVB irradiation as represented by the increase in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was ...
Lahkim Bennani-Belhaj Kenza - - 2010
Bloom's syndrome (BS) displays one of the strongest known correlations between chromosomal instability and a high risk of cancer at an early age. BS cells combine a reduced average fork velocity with constitutive endogenous replication stress. However, the response of BS cells to replication stress induced by hydroxyurea (HU), which ...
Patterson Bruce K - - 2010
The field of virology is undergoing a revolution as diagnostic tests and new therapies are allowing clinicians to treat, monitor, and predict outcomes of viral diseases. The majority of these techniques, however, destroy the factory of viral production and the information inherent in the reservoir - the cell. In this ...
Stirnnagel Kristin - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The foamy virus (FV) replication cycle displays several unique features, which set them apart from orthoretroviruses. First, like other B/D type orthoretroviruses, FV capsids preassemble at the centrosome, but more similar to hepadnaviruses, FV budding is strictly dependent on cognate viral glycoprotein coexpression. Second, the unusually broad host range ...
Ghigo Eric - - 2010
Viruses must enter host cells to deliver their genetic material and accessory proteins. Endocytosis offers to viruses the opportunity to enter host cells. However, endocytosis is a complex phenomenon that includes different mechanisms, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolin-mediated endocytosis, macropinocytosis, and phagocytosis. Here, I describe the ways used by different viruses to ...
Krieg T - - 2010
The skin is a complex organ composed by two essential components, the epidermis and the dermis. It is developed to protect the organism against all external damage e.g. infectious agents, uv and contains a number of different specialized cell types with distinct functions. The skin is also built up by ...
Arvin Ann M - - 2010
The two VZV glycoproteins, gE and gI, are encoded by genes that are designated open reading frames, ORF67 and ORF68, located in the short unique region of the VZV genome. These proteins have homologs in the other alphaherpesviruses. Like their homologues, VZV gE and gI exhibit prominent co-localization in infected ...
Emerson Vanessa - - 2010
Mutant HIV (HIV-Env-Tr712) lacking the cytoplasmic tail of the viral glycoprotein (Env-CT) exhibits a cell-type specific replication phenotype such that replicative spread occurs in some T-cell lines (referred to as permissive cells) but fails to do so in most T-cell lines or in PBMCs (referred to as non-permissive cells). We ...
Horvath Caroline A J - - 2010
As the primary etiological agents of cervical cancer, human papillomaviruses (HPVs) must deliver their genetic material into the nucleus of the target cell. The viral capsid has evolved to fulfil various roles that are critical to establish viral infection. The particle interacts with the cell surface via interaction of the ...
Zanet Jennifer - - 2010
How human self-renewal tissues co-ordinate proliferation with differentiation is unclear. Human epidermis undergoes continuous cell growth and differentiation and is permanently exposed to mutagenic hazard. Keratinocytes are thought to arrest cell growth and cell cycle prior to terminal differentiation. However, a growing body of evidence does not satisfy this model. ...
Song Y J YJ Department of Life Science, Kyungwon University, Seongnam-Si, Kyeonggi-Dp, 461-701, Korea. - - 2010
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or its immediate-early IE86 protein alone induces cell cycle in quiescent primary human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs), but blocks its progression at the G1/S interphase and inhibits cellular DNA synthesis by a mechanism that is not clearly understood. It is assumed that, in this phenomenon, the binding of ...
Baker Matthew M National Center for Macromolecular Imaging, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, - - 2010
Infecting nearly every child by age five, rotaviruses are the major causative agents of severe gastroenteritis in young children. While much is known about the structure of these nonenveloped viruses and their components, the exact mechanism of viral cell entry is still poorly understood. A consensus opinion that appears to ...
Casartelli Nicoletta N Institut Pasteur, Virus and Immunity Unit, URA CNRS 3015, Paris, - - 2010
The IFN-inducible antiviral protein tetherin (or BST-2/CD317/HM1.24) impairs release of mature HIV-1 particles from infected cells. HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes the effect of tetherin. The fate of virions trapped at the cell surface remains poorly understood. Here, we asked whether tetherin impairs HIV cell-to-cell transmission, a major means of viral spread. ...
Llewellyn G Nicholas GN Cellular and Molecular Biology Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of - - 2010
T cells adopt a polarized morphology in lymphoid organs, where cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1 is likely frequent. However, despite the importance of understanding virus spread in vivo, little is known about the HIV-1 life cycle, particularly its late phase, in polarized T cells. Polarized T cells form two ends, the ...
Pais-Correia Ana-Monica - - 2010
Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a lymphotropic retrovirus whose cell-to-cell transmission requires cell contacts. HTLV-1-infected T lymphocytes form 'virological synapses', but the mechanism of HTLV-1 transmission remains poorly understood. We show here that HTLV-1-infected T lymphocytes transiently store viral particles as carbohydrate-rich extracellular assemblies that are ...
Nishimura-Sakurai Yuki - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication is affected by several host factors. Here, we screened host genes and molecular pathways that are involved in HCV replication by comprehensive analyses using two genotypes of HCV replicon-expressing cells, their cured cells and naïve Huh7 cells. METHODS: Huh7 cell lines that stably expressed ...
O'Donnell Christopher D - - 2010
Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans are commonly exploited by multiple viruses for initial attachment to host cells. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is unique because it can use HS for both attachment and penetration, provided specific binding sites for HSV-1 envelope glycoprotein gD are present. The interaction with gD is mediated by ...
Miyashita Shuhei - - 2010
Genetic bottlenecks facilitate the fixation and extinction of variants in populations, and viral populations are no exception to this theory. To examine the existence of genetic bottlenecks in cell-to-cell movement of plant RNA viruses, we prepared constructs for Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus RNA2 vectors carrying two different fluorescent proteins, yellow ...
Bernhoff Eva - - 2010
The immunomodulatory drug leflunomide is frequently used for treating polyomavirus-associated nephropathy, yet its antiviral mechanism is unclear. We characterized the effects of the active leflunomide metabolite A771726 (LEF-A) on the polyomavirus BK (BKV) life cycle in human renal tubular epithelial cells. LEF-A at 10 microg/ml reduced the extracellular BKV load ...
Miyakawa Kei K AIDS Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, - - 2009
Host cell factors can either positively or negatively regulate the assembly and egress of HIV-1 particles from infected cells. Recent reports have identified a previously uncharacterized transmembrane protein, tetherin/CD317/BST-2, as a crucial host restriction factor that acts during a late budding step in HIV-1 replication by inhibiting viral particle release. ...
Lee Yoo Jin - - 2010
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a marked tropism for cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage and accordingly, replicates in fully differentiated alveolar macrophages in the natural host. Despite the identification of several putative receptors for PRRSV on porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM), only CD163 was found to be able ...
Nukuzuma Souichi - - 2009
Pathogenic JCV with rearranged regulatory regions (PML-type) causes PML, a demyelinating disease, in the brains of immunocompromised patients. On the other hand, archetype JCV persistently infecting the kidney is thought to be converted to PML-type virus during JCV replication in the infected host under immunosuppressed conditions. In addition, Tat protein, ...
Tseng Yang-Hao - - 2009
The triple gene block protein 2 (TGBp2) of Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) is a transmembrane protein which is known to be required for the cell-to-cell movement of potexviruses. This protein has two conserved Cys residues, Cys-109 and Cys-112, at its C-terminal tail, which is supposed to be exposed on the ...
Sealy Robert R Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, - - 2009
HIV-1 transinfection is a process by which one cell acts as an HIV-1 "escort" to enhance infection of another. There has recently been much debate concerning (1) the types of cells that may act as escorts, (2) requirements for virus internalization by the escort, and (3) the sensitivity of transinfection ...
Jenabian Mohammad-Ali MA Université Paris Descartes (Paris V), and Laboratoire de Virologie, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, - - 2009
To block the different mechanisms of HIV mucosal transmission, it is likely that use of several microbicide molecules will lead to the best protection against HIV transmission. Indeed, the combination of microbicides with complementary mechanisms of action is expected to increase the antiviral potency of the formulation. The gp120-interacting plant ...
Böttcher Eva - - 2009
Cleavage of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) by host cell proteases is essential for virus infectivity and, therefore, relevant proteases may present promising new drug targets. We recently demonstrated that serine proteases TMPRSS2 and HAT from human airways activate influenza virus HA with monobasic cleavage site in vitro. In the ...
Nowotny Boris - - 2010
Inhibition of the interaction of the human cytidine-deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-specific viral infectivity factor (Vif) represents a novel therapeutic approach in which a cellular factor with potent antiviral activity (A3G) plays a key role. In HIV-infected cells, the interaction of Vif with A3G ...
Feng Wenyi - - 2009
Yeast replication checkpoint mutants lose viability following transient exposure to hydroxyurea, a replication-impeding drug. In an effort to understand the basis for this lethality, we discovered that different events are responsible for inviability in checkpoint-deficient cells harboring mutations in the mec1 and rad53 genes. By monitoring genomewide replication dynamics of ...
Forterre Patrick - - 2009
Our conceptions on the origin, nature, and role of viruses have been shaken recently by several independent lines of research. There are many reasons to believe now that viruses are more ancient than modern cells and have always been more abundant and diverse than their cellular targets. Viruses can be ...
He Fang F Institute for Tissue Transplantation and Immunology, Jinan University, 510630, Guangzhou, People's Republic of - - 2009
HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) can induce cell cycle arrest and cell death, and may be beneficial in cancer therapy to suppress malignantly proliferative cell types, such as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells. In this study, we examined the feasibility of employing the HIV-vpr gene, via targeted gene transfer, as ...
Bego Mariana G - - 2009
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Vpu enhances virus particle release by counteracting a host factor that retains virions at the surfaces of infected cells. It was recently demonstrated that cellular protein BST-2/CD317/Tetherin restricts HIV-1 release in a Vpu-dependent manner. Calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand (CAML) was also proposed ...
Lam S K - - 2010
A dimeric 64-kDa hemagglutinin was isolated with a high yield from dried Phaseolus vulgaris cultivar "French bean number 35" seeds using a chromatographic protocol that involved Blue-Sepharose, Q-Sepharose, and Superdex 75. The yield was exceptionally high (1.1g hemagglutinin per 100g seed), which is around 10-85 times higher than other Phaseolus ...
Polonis Victoria R - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review we present current advances in our understanding of HIV-1 neutralization assays that employ primary cell types, as compared with those that utilize cell lines and the newer, more standardized pseudovirus assays. A commentary on the challenges of standardizing in-vitro neutralization assays using primary cells ...
Lesner Adam - - 2009
We reported previously the anti-viral activity named HRF (HIV-1 Resistance Factor) secreted by HIV-1 resistant cells. This work describes the identification of HRF from cell culture supernatant of HRF-producing cells (HRF(+) cells). Employing the proteomics and cell based activity assay we recovered ten peptides sharing 80-93% sequence homology with other ...
Vasiliver-Shamis Gaia G Program in Molecular Pathogenesis, Marty and Helen Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine, Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, - - 2009
Cell-to-cell transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) occurs via a virological synapse (VS), a tight cell-cell junction formed between HIV-infected cells and target cells in which the HIV-1-infected cell polarizes and releases virions toward the noninfected target cell in a gp120- and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)-dependent process. ...
Ribbeck Katharina - - 2009
I propose a mechanism by which viruses successfully infect new individuals, despite being immotile particles with no ability for directed movement. Within cells, viral particle movements are directed by motors and elements of the cytoskeleton, but how viruses cross extracellular barriers, like mucus, remains a mystery. I propose that viruses ...
Chu Chia - - 2009
MDCK cells are currently being considered as an alternative to embryonated eggs for influenza virus propagation and hemagglutinin (HA) production intended for vaccine manufacturing. MDCK cells were found suitable for the virus production but their inability to grow in suspension burdens the process of scale up and hence their production ...
Brehm K E - - 2009
A fetal goat cell line (ZZ-R 127) supplied by the Collection of Cell Lines in Veterinary Medicine of the Friedrich Loeffler Institute was examined for susceptibility to infection by foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) and by two other viruses causing clinically indistinguishable vesicular conditions, namely, the viruses of swine vesicular ...
Yamashita Masahiro - - 2009
The ability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to infect nondividing cells is a fundamental property by which HIV replicates in critical target cells, such as macrophages and resting CD4(+) T cells. Recent studies have revealed that the capsid (CA) protein is a dominant factor that determines retrovirus infectivity in nondividing ...
Thorne Barbara A - - 2009
A commercial rAAV manufacturing process needs to provide a safe product at high yield, be easily scalable, regulatory-compliant, and have reasonable cost of goods. Considerations for process development include not only product quantity and quality, but also ease of obtaining equipment, performing validation, and demonstrating control. In these regards, it ...
Jiang Sunny C - - 2009
Human viral contamination in drinking and recreational waters poses health risks. The application of PCR-based molecular technology has advanced our knowledge of the occurrence and prevalence of human viruses in water; however, it has provided no information on viral viability and infectivity. Four human cell lines were compared for their ...
Jin Jing - - 2009
We have investigated the underlying mechanism by which direct cell-cell contact enhances the efficiency of cell-to-cell transmission of retroviruses. Applying 4D imaging to a model retrovirus, the murine leukemia virus, we directly monitor and quantify sequential assembly, release, and transmission events for individual viral particles as they happen in living ...
Ghosh Mimi M Department of Physiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH, - - 2009
CCL20/MIP3alpha is a chemokine for immature dendritic cells as well as an antibacterial against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The role of CCL20/MIP3alpha as an antiviral is unknown. In this study, we have examined the production of CCL20/MIP3alpha by epithelial cells from the upper female reproductive tract as well as its ...
Wong Swee Kee SK Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, and New England Primate Research Center, Southborough, Massachusettts 01772, - - 2009
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) does not replicate in primary cells of New World primates. To better understand this restriction, we expressed owl monkey (Aotus nancymaae) CD4 and CXCR4 in the owl monkey kidney cell line, OMK. An HIV-1 variant modified to evade the owl monkey restriction factor TRIM-cyp ...
Epel Bernard L - - 2009
Plant viruses spread cell-to-cell by exploiting and modifying plasmodesmata, coaxial membranous channels that cross cell walls and interlink the cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum and plasma-membranes of contiguous cells. To facilitate viral spread, viruses encode for one or more movement proteins that interact with ER and ER derived membranes, bind vRNA and ...
Hacker Kari - - 2009
This study compared the ability of mosquito and mammalian cell-derived dengue virus (DENV) to infect human dendritic cell-specific ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN)-expressing cells and characterized the structure of envelope (E) protein N-linked glycans on DENV derived from the two cell types. DENVs derived from both cell types were equally effective at ...
Vasilakis Nikos - - 2009
Like other arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV) is maintained in an alternating cycle of replication in arthropod and vertebrate hosts. The trade-off hypothesis suggests that this alternation constrains DENV evolution because a fitness increase in one host usually diminishes fitness in the other. Moreover, the hypothesis predicts that ...
Zhu Wenge - - 2009
Eukaryotic cells normally restrict genome duplication to once per cell division. In metazoa, re-replication of DNA during a single S phase seems to be prevented solely by suppressing CDT1 activity, a protein required for loading the replicative MCM DNA helicase. However, siRNA suppression of geminin (a specific inhibitor of CDT1) ...
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