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Ojosnegros Samuel - - 2010
A single and purified clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus diversified in cell culture into two subpopulations that were genetically distinct. The subpopulation with higher virulence was a minority and was suppressed by the dominant but less virulent one. These two populations follow the competitioncolonization dynamics described in ecology. Virulent viruses ...
Lentz Thomas B TB McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53706, - - 2010
Establishment of an infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) requires synthesis and maintenance of a covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) form of the viral genome in the nucleus of host cells. To facilitate the investigation of the synthesis of cccDNA, cell cultures were developed that express HBV to high levels. ...
Welsch Sonja - - 2010
Viruses are perfect opportunists that have evolved to modify numerous cellular processes in order to complete their replication cycle in the host cell. An article by Reggiori and coworkers in this issue of Cell Host & Microbe reveals how coronaviruses can divert a cellular quality control pathway that normally functions ...
Paupoo A A V - - 2010
Novel therapeutic approaches for endometriosis based on molecular strategies may prove to be useful. Conditionally replicative adenoviruses (CRAds) are designed to exploit key differences between target and normal cells. The wild-type adenovirus (Adwt) promoter can be replaced by tissue-specific promoters, allowing viral replication only in target cells. Viral infectivity can ...
Wu Zujian - - 2010
The protein(s) that support intercellular movement of Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) have not yet been identified. In this study, the role of three nonstructural proteins Pns6, Pns7 and Pns10 in cell-to-cell movement were determined with a movement-deficient Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) vector. The results showed that only the Pns6 ...
Kesisoglou Filippos - - 2010
Understanding virus-cell interaction is a key to the design of successful gene delivery vectors. In the present study we investigated Ad5 transduction of enterocytes and M-cells utilizing differentiated Caco-2 cells and cocultures of Caco-2 cells with lymphocytes. Transduction inhibition studies showed that CAR is the major receptor mediating apical and ...
Chen Rongjun - - 2010
Desthiobiotin-tagged lentiviral vectors have been metabolically produced by DBL producer cells in a 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid (7-DAPA) dependent manner for envelope independent, single-step affinity purification. 7-DAPA, which has little or no affinity for avidin/streptavidin, was synthesised and verified by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. By expressing the biotin acceptor, biotin ligase ...
Wang N - - 2010
A new marine fish cell line, TK, derived from turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) kidney, was established by the method of trypsin digestion and subcultured for more than 50 passages over a period of 300 days. The TK cells were maintained in Minimum Essential Medium Eagle (MEM) supplemented with HEPES, antibiotics, fetal ...
Quax Tessa E F - - 2010
Recently a unique mechanism of virion release was discovered in Archaea, different from lysis and egress systems of bacterial and eukaryotic viruses. It involves formation of pyramidal structures on the host cell surface that rupture the S-layer and by opening outwards, create apertures through which mature virions escape the cell. ...
Zeng Lanying L Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, - - 2010
When the process of cell-fate determination is examined at single-cell resolution, it is often observed that individual cells undergo different fates even when subject to identical conditions. This "noisy" phenotype is usually attributed to the inherent stochasticity of chemical reactions in the cell. Here we demonstrate how the observed single-cell ...
Stern Melissa A - - 2010
Nonprimate animal models of HIV-1 infection are prevented by missing cellular cofactors and by antiviral actions of species-specific host defense factors. These blocks are profound in rodents but may be less abundant in certain Carnivora. Here, we enabled productive, spreading replication and passage of HIV-1 in feline cells. Feline fibroblasts, ...
Pizzato Massimo - - 2010
Optimal infectivity of HIV-1 virions requires synthesis of the HIV-1 regulatory protein Nef in some producer cells but not others. A survey of 18 lymphoid cell lines found that Nef was dispensable in three, each of which harbored gammaretroviruses. Nef-dependent cell lines were rendered Nef-independent by a cell-free supernatant from ...
Hernandez Raquel - - 2010
Mosquito cells (Aedes albopictus) are among the most common insect cells emerging as new sources of cell cultures to use in basic research and in the pharmaceutical industry. They adapt well to growth in suspension; can be used in bioreactors for the production of expressed proteins, virus, and virus-like particles; ...
Hernandez Raquel - - 2010
The BHK21 cell line was established in 1961 from the kidneys of 5 Syrian hamsters from litter number 21. Since this time, this cell line has been a laboratory standard for the growth of countless viruses and the study of many biological processes. The specific use for the growth of ...
Galluzzi L - - 2010
Viral strategies for the evasion of immunogenic cell death (Symposium). J Intern Med 2010; 267: 526-542. Driven by co-evolutionary forces, viruses have refined a wide arsenal of strategies to interfere with the host defences. On one hand, viruses can block/retard programmed cell death in infected cells, thereby suppressing one of ...
Jham Bruno C - - 2010
Tumor viruses can induce cell transformation by overcoming cellular defense mechanisms and promoting the ungoverned proliferation of infected cells. To this end, functionally related viral oncogenes have evolved in disparate viruses to over-ride key proliferative and survival intracellular pathways, thus assuring efficient viral replication and contributing to tumor formation. Indeed, ...
Vasiliver-Shamis Gaia G Program in Molecular Pathogenesis, Martin and Helen Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine, Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; - - 2010
The virological synapse (VS) is a tight adhesive junction between an HIV-infected cell and an uninfected target cell, across which virus can be efficiently transferred from cell to cell in the absence of cell-cell fusion. The VS has been postulated to resemble, in its morphology, the well-studied immunological synapse (IS). ...
Ryba Tyrone T Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306, - - 2010
To identify evolutionarily conserved features of replication timing and their relationship to epigenetic properties, we profiled replication timing genome-wide in four human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, hESC-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs), lymphoblastoid cells, and two human induced pluripotent stem cell lines (hiPSCs), and compared them with related mouse cell ...
Zhang Liang - - 2010
The discovery of a novel coronavirus (CoV) as the causative agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has highlighted the need for a better understanding of CoV replication. The replication of SARS-CoV is highly dependent on host cell factors. However, relatively little is known about the cellular proteome changes that ...
Mothes Walther - - 2010
Viral infections spread based on the ability of viruses to overcome multiple barriers and move from cell to cell, tissue to tissue, and person to person and even across species. While there are fundamental differences between these types of transmissions, it has emerged that the ability of viruses to utilize ...
McNerney Gregory P GP NSF Center for Biophotonics Science and Technology, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817, - - 2010
Cell-cell interactions through direct contact are very important for cellular communication and coordination - especially for immune cells. The human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) induces immune cell interactions between CD4(+) cells to shuttle between T cells via a virological synapse. A goal to understand the process of cell-cell transmission ...
Turowska A - - 2010
Viruses can reorganize the cytoskeleton and restructure the host cell transport machinery. During infection viruses use different cellular cues and signals to enlist the cytoskeleton for their mission. However, each virus specifically affects the cytoskeleton structure. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the cytoskeletal changes in homologous ...
Rayne Fabienne - - 2010
The Tat protein is required for efficient HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) transcription. Moreover, Tat is secreted by infected cells, and circulating Tat can affect several cell types, thereby contributing to HIV-1 pathogenesis. We monitored Tat secretion by transfected CD4+ T-cells. A Tat chimaera carrying an N-glycosylation site did ...
Porcellini Simona - - 2010
The long-term expression and the ability of a therapeutic gene to confer survival advantage to transduced cells are mandatory requirements for successful anti-HIV gene therapy. In this context, we developed lentiviral vectors (LVs) expressing the F12-viral infectivity factor (Vif) derivative Chim3. We recently showed that Chim3 inhibits HIV-1 replication in ...
Tsao Kuo-Chien - - 2010
The susceptibility of five cell lines, RD, MRC-5, MK-2, Hep-2 and A549, for various serotypes of human enteroviruses was evaluated. RD cells were susceptible to most serotypes of enteroviruses, especially for human enterovirus A. Consequently, a high prevalence of human enterovirus A in Taiwan may reflect the relative importance of ...
Coswig Lia Treptow - - 2010
Primary isolation of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is carried out using tracheal organ culture (TOC) or chicken embryonated eggs with subsequent adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) or Vero cultures. This study was conducted to evaluate six different cell lines and two avian culture systems for the propagation of aMPV subtypes ...
Li Yi-Jung - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The effect of cyclosporine A (CsA) on polyomavirus BK virus (BKV) replication remains unclear. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of CsA on BKV replication in human uroepithelial cells. METHODS: After infection of a human renal proximal tubular cell line, HK-2 with BKV, ...
Levin Aviad - - 2010
Expression of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev protein is essential for completion of the viral life cycle. Rev mediates nuclear export of partially spliced and unspliced viral transcripts and therefore bears a nuclear localization signal (NLS) as well as a nuclear export signal (NES), which allow its ...
Gali Youssef - - 2010
Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is the predominant mode of infection worldwide. However, the early steps of transepithelial infection still need to be clarified. Using epithelial cells, originating from the female genital tract, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells as subepithelial target cells, an in vitro dual-chamber model of ...
Senac Julien S - - 2010
Oncolytic virotherapy makes use of the natural ability of viruses to infect and kill cancer cells. Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) has been approved for use in humans as a therapy for solid cancers. In this study, we have tested whether Ad5 and low-seroprevalence adenoviruses can be used as oncolytics for ...
Gilham David E - - 2010
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 fails to successfully infect mouse T cells as a result of several blocks in the viral replication cycle. We investigated whether this also impacted on the use of HIV-1 derived lentiviral vectors for stable gene transfer into mouse T cells. METHODS: Freshly isolated primary mouse T cells were ...
Lewis Jennifer D - - 2010
Synaptotagmins are calcium sensors that regulate synaptic vesicle exo/endocytosis. Thought to be exclusive to animals, they have recently been characterized in plants. We show that Arabidopsis synaptotagmin SYTA regulates endosome recycling and movement protein (MP)-mediated trafficking of plant virus genomes through plasmodesmata. SYTA localizes to endosomes in plant cells and ...
Martin Nicola N Department of Pathology, The University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3R, United - - 2010
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can disseminate between CD4(+) T cells via diffusion-limited cell-free viral spread or by directed cell-cell transfer using virally induced structures termed virological synapses. Although T-cell virological synapses have been well characterized, it is unclear whether this mode of viral spread is susceptible to inhibition ...
Gearhart Tricia L - - 2010
Worldwide, there are over 350 million people who are chronically infected with the human hepatitis B virus (HBV); chronic HBV infections are associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The results of various studies suggest that the HBV X protein (HBx) has a role in the development of HBV-associated ...
Chaipan Chawaree - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Platelets are associated with HIV in the blood of infected individuals and might modulate viral dissemination, particularly if the virus is directly transmitted into the bloodstream. The C-type lectin DC-SIGN and the novel HIV attachment factor CLEC-2 are expressed by platelets and facilitate HIV transmission from platelets to T-cells. ...
Tsai Billy - - 2010
Polyomaviruses (Pys) are nonenveloped DNA tumor viruses that include the murine polyomavirus (mPy), simian virus 40 (SV40), and the human BK, JC, KI, WU, and Merkel Cell viruses. To cause infection, Pys must enter host cells and navigate through various intracellular compartments, where they undergo sequential conformational changes enabling them ...
Cano-Monreal Gina L - - 2010
Alphaviruses replicate in vertebrate and arthropod cells and utilize a cellular enzyme called furin to process the PE2 glycoprotein precursor during virus replication in both cell types. Furin cleaves PE2 at a site immediately following a highly conserved four residue cleavage signal. Prior studies demonstrated that the amino acid immediately ...
Mizukoshi Koji - - 2010
We examined the effects of ISP-I (myriocin, thermozymocidin)-a potent inhibitor of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) which is involved in the ceramide synthetic pathway-on skin barrier function in post-UVB-irradiated hairless mouse skin. Disruption of the skin barrier function after UVB irradiation as represented by the increase in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was ...
Lahkim Bennani-Belhaj Kenza - - 2010
Bloom's syndrome (BS) displays one of the strongest known correlations between chromosomal instability and a high risk of cancer at an early age. BS cells combine a reduced average fork velocity with constitutive endogenous replication stress. However, the response of BS cells to replication stress induced by hydroxyurea (HU), which ...
Patterson Bruce K - - 2010
The field of virology is undergoing a revolution as diagnostic tests and new therapies are allowing clinicians to treat, monitor, and predict outcomes of viral diseases. The majority of these techniques, however, destroy the factory of viral production and the information inherent in the reservoir - the cell. In this ...
Stirnnagel Kristin - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The foamy virus (FV) replication cycle displays several unique features, which set them apart from orthoretroviruses. First, like other B/D type orthoretroviruses, FV capsids preassemble at the centrosome, but more similar to hepadnaviruses, FV budding is strictly dependent on cognate viral glycoprotein coexpression. Second, the unusually broad host range ...
Ghigo Eric - - 2010
Viruses must enter host cells to deliver their genetic material and accessory proteins. Endocytosis offers to viruses the opportunity to enter host cells. However, endocytosis is a complex phenomenon that includes different mechanisms, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolin-mediated endocytosis, macropinocytosis, and phagocytosis. Here, I describe the ways used by different viruses to ...
Krieg T - - 2010
The skin is a complex organ composed by two essential components, the epidermis and the dermis. It is developed to protect the organism against all external damage e.g. infectious agents, uv and contains a number of different specialized cell types with distinct functions. The skin is also built up by ...
Arvin Ann M - - 2010
The two VZV glycoproteins, gE and gI, are encoded by genes that are designated open reading frames, ORF67 and ORF68, located in the short unique region of the VZV genome. These proteins have homologs in the other alphaherpesviruses. Like their homologues, VZV gE and gI exhibit prominent co-localization in infected ...
Emerson Vanessa - - 2010
Mutant HIV (HIV-Env-Tr712) lacking the cytoplasmic tail of the viral glycoprotein (Env-CT) exhibits a cell-type specific replication phenotype such that replicative spread occurs in some T-cell lines (referred to as permissive cells) but fails to do so in most T-cell lines or in PBMCs (referred to as non-permissive cells). We ...
Horvath Caroline A J - - 2010
As the primary etiological agents of cervical cancer, human papillomaviruses (HPVs) must deliver their genetic material into the nucleus of the target cell. The viral capsid has evolved to fulfil various roles that are critical to establish viral infection. The particle interacts with the cell surface via interaction of the ...
Zanet Jennifer - - 2010
How human self-renewal tissues co-ordinate proliferation with differentiation is unclear. Human epidermis undergoes continuous cell growth and differentiation and is permanently exposed to mutagenic hazard. Keratinocytes are thought to arrest cell growth and cell cycle prior to terminal differentiation. However, a growing body of evidence does not satisfy this model. ...
Song Y J YJ Department of Life Science, Kyungwon University, Seongnam-Si, Kyeonggi-Dp, 461-701, Korea. - - 2010
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or its immediate-early IE86 protein alone induces cell cycle in quiescent primary human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs), but blocks its progression at the G1/S interphase and inhibits cellular DNA synthesis by a mechanism that is not clearly understood. It is assumed that, in this phenomenon, the binding of ...
Baker Matthew M National Center for Macromolecular Imaging, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, - - 2010
Infecting nearly every child by age five, rotaviruses are the major causative agents of severe gastroenteritis in young children. While much is known about the structure of these nonenveloped viruses and their components, the exact mechanism of viral cell entry is still poorly understood. A consensus opinion that appears to ...
Casartelli Nicoletta N Institut Pasteur, Virus and Immunity Unit, URA CNRS 3015, Paris, - - 2010
The IFN-inducible antiviral protein tetherin (or BST-2/CD317/HM1.24) impairs release of mature HIV-1 particles from infected cells. HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes the effect of tetherin. The fate of virions trapped at the cell surface remains poorly understood. Here, we asked whether tetherin impairs HIV cell-to-cell transmission, a major means of viral spread. ...
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