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Kern F - - 2011
The epidermis is the outermost layer of the body and protects it from environmental insults. This crucial function is sustained by a continuous process of self-renewal involving the carefully balanced proliferation and differentiation of progenitor cells constantly replacing the mature cells at the surface of the epidermis. Genetic changes in ...
Halačka K - - 2010
A reduction of epidermal club cells and an increase of goblet cells were found in Carassius gibelio during spawning when compared to postspawning. A significantly lower proportion of club cells at spawning was found in diploid males and triploid females than in diploid females. It could be linked to male ...
Meckes David G DG Jr The Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, - - 2010
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is expressed in multiple human malignancies and has potent effects on cell growth. It has been detected in exosomes and shown to inhibit immune function. Exosomes are small secreted cellular vesicles that contain proteins, mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs). When produced by ...
López-Montero Noelia - - 2011
Arboviruses are serious pathogens for men but cause little damage to their arthropod vectors. We have studied how a mosquito cell line derived from one of the relevant vectors for arboviruses responds to Bunyamwera virus, a well-characterized arbovirus. Confocal, live cell microscopy and electron microscopy showed that Bunyamwera virus induces ...
Haller Claudia - - 2011
Nef, a HIV-1 pathogenesis factor, elevates virus replication in vivo and thus progression to AIDS by incompletely defined mechanisms. As one of its biological properties, Nef enhances the infectivity of cell-free HIV-1 particles in single round infections, however it fails to provide a significant and amplifying growth advantage for HIV-1 ...
Benitez-Alfonso Yoselin - - 2010
As channels that provide cell-to-cell connectivity, plasmodesmata are central to the local and systemic spread of viruses in plants. This review discusses the current state of knowledge of the structure and function of these channels and the ways in which viruses bring about functional changes that allow macromolecular trafficking to ...
Märsch S - - 2010
Clinical application of viral vectors is often hampered by the lack of selectivity of viral particles for the targeted tissue. This drawback decreases the efficiency of gene delivery and raises safety concerns. We successfully established a novel in vitro evolution protocol to engineer adeno-associated virus vectors with increased selectivity for ...
Hiscox Julian A - - 2010
Recent advances in proteomics have been combined with traditional methods for isolation of nucleoli from mammalian and plant cells. This approach has confirmed the growing body of data showing a wide role for the nucleolus in eukaryotic cell biology beyond ribosome generation into many areas of cell function from regulation ...
Stephanopoulos Nicholas - - 2010
Bacteriophage MS2 was used to construct a targeted, multivalent photodynamic therapy vehicle for the treatment of Jurkat leukemia T cells. The self-assembling spherical virus capsid was modified on the interior surface with up to 180 porphyrins capable of generating cytotoxic singlet oxygen upon illumination. The exterior of the capsid was ...
Ooms Laura S - - 2010
Mammalian reoviruses replicate in a broad range of hosts, cells, and tissues. These viruses display strain-dependent variation in tropism for different types of cells in vivo and ex vivo. Early steps in the reovirus life cycle, attachment, entry, and disassembly, have been identified as pivotal points of virus-cell interaction that ...
Svetlikova Darina - - 2010
Interferons lambda (IFN-λ) are the most recently defined members of the class III cytokine family. To investigate whether IFN-λ2 and IFN-λ3 displayed antiviral activity against influenza A virus (IAV), a number of cell lines induced with IFNs - as well as two established cell lines (A549-IFN-λ2 and A549-IFN-λ3) - were ...
Brune Wolfram - - 2011
The elimination of infected cells by programmed cell death (PCD) is one of the most ancestral defense mechanisms against infectious agents. This mechanism should be most effective against intracellular parasites, such as viruses, which depend on the host cell for their replication. However, even large and slowly replicating viruses like ...
Maeda Yosuke - - 2011
Little is known about whether human CD4 positive T cells, the principal natural target of HIV-1, have intrinsic factors, other than the receptor/coreceptor molecules, which modulate the entry efficiency of HIV-1. In the present study, we found that human T cell lines, HUT78 and PM1, were less permissive to VSV-G-mediated ...
Heemskerk Bianca - - 2010
Retroviral transduction is the most commonly used strategy to obtain long-term expression of therapeutic genes. To efficiently transduce mammalian cells, a recombinant fibronectin molecule, RetroNectin, is generally used to juxtapose viral particles and cells, and thereby enhance viral uptake. Although this strategy has become widely adopted, in particular for the ...
Mishra Mamata - - 2010
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and viral proteins affect neuronal survival and neuron-glial cell interactions, which culminate in neurological disorders. HIV-1 infects regions of neurogenesis in human adult and pediatric brain. However, little is known about the effect of HIV-1 or viral proteins on the properties of human neural ...
Schelhaas Mario - - 2010
Viruses are intracellular parasites that rely upon the host cell machinery for their life cycle. Newly generated virus particles have to transmit their genomic information to uninfected cells/organisms. Viral entry is the process to gain access to viral replication sites within uninfected cells, a multistep course of events that starts ...
Rosa Borges Andrew A Military HIV Research Program, Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, MD 20850, - - 2010
Specific glycosphingolipids (GSL), found on the surface of target immune cells, are recognized as alternate cell surface receptors by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) external envelope glycoprotein. In this study, the globotriose and 3'-sialyllactose carbohydrate head groups found on two GSL were covalently attached to a dendrimer core ...
Xie Lining - - 2011
Cathepsin K (CTSK), a cysteine protease with strong collagenolytic properties, is involved in extracellular matrix turnover. In the previous studies, CTSK expression was detected in peritumoral fibroblasts (Fbs) around squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), but not in those surrounding benign epidermal tumors. However, the mechanism governing CTSK expression in epidermal tumors ...
Jolly Clare C MRC Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, Windeyer Building, London, United Kingdom. - - 2010
Direct cell-to-cell spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) between T cells at the virological synapse (VS) is an efficient mechanism of viral dissemination. Tetherin (BST-2/CD317) is an interferon-induced, antiretroviral restriction factor that inhibits nascent cell-free particle release. The HIV-1 Vpu protein antagonizes tetherin activity; however, whether tetherin also ...
Tsegaye Theodros Solomon - - 2010
Entry of enveloped viruses into host cells depends on the interactions of viral surface proteins with cell surface receptors. Many enveloped viruses maximize the efficiency of receptor engagement by first binding to attachment-promoting factors, which concentrate virions on target cells and thus increase the likelihood of subsequent receptor engagement. Cellular ...
Michalski Chad James - - 2010
The loss of CD4(+) T-cells in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals has been attributed not only to dysregulation of immune cell function but also direct and indirect killing mechanisms of both infected and bystander cells. This process proceeds through both necrotic and programmed cell death pathways. Several human immunodeficiency virus type ...
Blundred Rachel R The Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, - - 2010
Accurate DNA replication is essential to genome integrity and is controlled by five human RecQ helicases, of which at least three prevent cancer and ageing. Here, we have studied the role of RECQL5, which is the least characterised of the five human RecQ helicases. We demonstrate that overexpressed RECQL5 promotes ...
He D - - 2011
The activation of antiviral activity induced by recombinant swine interferon beta (rswIFNβ) against PRRSV was comparatively examined in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). A dose-response analysis showed, in MARC-145 cells, that isolate Mo25544 was highly sensitive to rswIFNβ while a vaccine strain and isolate PDV130-9301 were resistant to ...
Doi Naoya - - 2010
We have recently constructed a series of novel human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1s) that are tropic for a macaque cell line (mt; macaque cell-tropic) to generate and establish a primate experimental system for HIV-1/AIDS study. In order to determine biological properties of these viruses effectively, several other macaque cell lines with ...
Britt William J WJ University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama, - - 2010
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the largest and perhaps the most structurally complex member of the family of human herpesviruses. It is the prototypic virus of the beta-herpesvirus subfamily. As with other cytomegaloviruses, HCMV is exquisitely species specific and undergoes lytic replication only in cells of human origin. In addition, its ...
Hsieh Ming Je - - 2010
Viral particles are generally too large to diffuse freely within the crowded environment of the host cell cytoplasm. They depend on mammalian cell transport systems, in particular the microtubular molecular motor dynein, to deliver their nucleic acids to the vicinity of the nucleus. An understanding of how viruses interact with ...
Maree Francois F - - 2010
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infects host cells by adhering to the alpha(V) subgroup of the integrin family of cellular receptors in a Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) dependent manner. FMD viruses, propagated in non-host cell cultures are reported to acquire the ability to enter cells via alternative cell surface molecules. Sequencing analysis of ...
Felts Richard L - - 2010
The efficiency of HIV infection is greatly enhanced when the virus is delivered at conjugates between CD4+ T cells and virus-bearing antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages or dendritic cells via specialized structures known as virological synapses. Using ion abrasion SEM, electron tomography, and superresolution light microscopy, we have analyzed the ...
Ojosnegros Samuel - - 2010
A single and purified clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus diversified in cell culture into two subpopulations that were genetically distinct. The subpopulation with higher virulence was a minority and was suppressed by the dominant but less virulent one. These two populations follow the competitioncolonization dynamics described in ecology. Virulent viruses ...
Lentz Thomas B TB McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53706, - - 2010
Establishment of an infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) requires synthesis and maintenance of a covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) form of the viral genome in the nucleus of host cells. To facilitate the investigation of the synthesis of cccDNA, cell cultures were developed that express HBV to high levels. ...
Welsch Sonja - - 2010
Viruses are perfect opportunists that have evolved to modify numerous cellular processes in order to complete their replication cycle in the host cell. An article by Reggiori and coworkers in this issue of Cell Host & Microbe reveals how coronaviruses can divert a cellular quality control pathway that normally functions ...
Paupoo A A V - - 2010
Novel therapeutic approaches for endometriosis based on molecular strategies may prove to be useful. Conditionally replicative adenoviruses (CRAds) are designed to exploit key differences between target and normal cells. The wild-type adenovirus (Adwt) promoter can be replaced by tissue-specific promoters, allowing viral replication only in target cells. Viral infectivity can ...
Wu Zujian - - 2010
The protein(s) that support intercellular movement of Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) have not yet been identified. In this study, the role of three nonstructural proteins Pns6, Pns7 and Pns10 in cell-to-cell movement were determined with a movement-deficient Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) vector. The results showed that only the Pns6 ...
Kesisoglou Filippos - - 2010
Understanding virus-cell interaction is a key to the design of successful gene delivery vectors. In the present study we investigated Ad5 transduction of enterocytes and M-cells utilizing differentiated Caco-2 cells and cocultures of Caco-2 cells with lymphocytes. Transduction inhibition studies showed that CAR is the major receptor mediating apical and ...
Chen Rongjun - - 2010
Desthiobiotin-tagged lentiviral vectors have been metabolically produced by DBL producer cells in a 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid (7-DAPA) dependent manner for envelope independent, single-step affinity purification. 7-DAPA, which has little or no affinity for avidin/streptavidin, was synthesised and verified by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. By expressing the biotin acceptor, biotin ligase ...
Wang N - - 2010
A new marine fish cell line, TK, derived from turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) kidney, was established by the method of trypsin digestion and subcultured for more than 50 passages over a period of 300 days. The TK cells were maintained in Minimum Essential Medium Eagle (MEM) supplemented with HEPES, antibiotics, fetal ...
Quax Tessa E F - - 2010
Recently a unique mechanism of virion release was discovered in Archaea, different from lysis and egress systems of bacterial and eukaryotic viruses. It involves formation of pyramidal structures on the host cell surface that rupture the S-layer and by opening outwards, create apertures through which mature virions escape the cell. ...
Zeng Lanying L Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, - - 2010
When the process of cell-fate determination is examined at single-cell resolution, it is often observed that individual cells undergo different fates even when subject to identical conditions. This "noisy" phenotype is usually attributed to the inherent stochasticity of chemical reactions in the cell. Here we demonstrate how the observed single-cell ...
Stern Melissa A - - 2010
Nonprimate animal models of HIV-1 infection are prevented by missing cellular cofactors and by antiviral actions of species-specific host defense factors. These blocks are profound in rodents but may be less abundant in certain Carnivora. Here, we enabled productive, spreading replication and passage of HIV-1 in feline cells. Feline fibroblasts, ...
Pizzato Massimo - - 2010
Optimal infectivity of HIV-1 virions requires synthesis of the HIV-1 regulatory protein Nef in some producer cells but not others. A survey of 18 lymphoid cell lines found that Nef was dispensable in three, each of which harbored gammaretroviruses. Nef-dependent cell lines were rendered Nef-independent by a cell-free supernatant from ...
Hernandez Raquel - - 2010
Mosquito cells (Aedes albopictus) are among the most common insect cells emerging as new sources of cell cultures to use in basic research and in the pharmaceutical industry. They adapt well to growth in suspension; can be used in bioreactors for the production of expressed proteins, virus, and virus-like particles; ...
Hernandez Raquel - - 2010
The BHK21 cell line was established in 1961 from the kidneys of 5 Syrian hamsters from litter number 21. Since this time, this cell line has been a laboratory standard for the growth of countless viruses and the study of many biological processes. The specific use for the growth of ...
Galluzzi L - - 2010
Viral strategies for the evasion of immunogenic cell death (Symposium). J Intern Med 2010; 267: 526-542. Driven by co-evolutionary forces, viruses have refined a wide arsenal of strategies to interfere with the host defences. On one hand, viruses can block/retard programmed cell death in infected cells, thereby suppressing one of ...
Jham Bruno C - - 2010
Tumor viruses can induce cell transformation by overcoming cellular defense mechanisms and promoting the ungoverned proliferation of infected cells. To this end, functionally related viral oncogenes have evolved in disparate viruses to over-ride key proliferative and survival intracellular pathways, thus assuring efficient viral replication and contributing to tumor formation. Indeed, ...
Vasiliver-Shamis Gaia G Program in Molecular Pathogenesis, Martin and Helen Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine, Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; - - 2010
The virological synapse (VS) is a tight adhesive junction between an HIV-infected cell and an uninfected target cell, across which virus can be efficiently transferred from cell to cell in the absence of cell-cell fusion. The VS has been postulated to resemble, in its morphology, the well-studied immunological synapse (IS). ...
Ryba Tyrone T Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306, - - 2010
To identify evolutionarily conserved features of replication timing and their relationship to epigenetic properties, we profiled replication timing genome-wide in four human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, hESC-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs), lymphoblastoid cells, and two human induced pluripotent stem cell lines (hiPSCs), and compared them with related mouse cell ...
Zhang Liang - - 2010
The discovery of a novel coronavirus (CoV) as the causative agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has highlighted the need for a better understanding of CoV replication. The replication of SARS-CoV is highly dependent on host cell factors. However, relatively little is known about the cellular proteome changes that ...
Mothes Walther - - 2010
Viral infections spread based on the ability of viruses to overcome multiple barriers and move from cell to cell, tissue to tissue, and person to person and even across species. While there are fundamental differences between these types of transmissions, it has emerged that the ability of viruses to utilize ...
McNerney Gregory P GP NSF Center for Biophotonics Science and Technology, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817, - - 2010
Cell-cell interactions through direct contact are very important for cellular communication and coordination - especially for immune cells. The human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) induces immune cell interactions between CD4(+) cells to shuttle between T cells via a virological synapse. A goal to understand the process of cell-cell transmission ...
Turowska A - - 2010
Viruses can reorganize the cytoskeleton and restructure the host cell transport machinery. During infection viruses use different cellular cues and signals to enlist the cytoskeleton for their mission. However, each virus specifically affects the cytoskeleton structure. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the cytoskeletal changes in homologous ...
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