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Brustmann Hermann - - 2011
The histone γ-H2AX is a marker of activated DNA damage and is overexpressed in different cancers and their precursor lesions, indicating a role in oncogenic transformation. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in many kinds of epithelial neoplasms. This study aimed to determine whether immunohistochemical expression of γ-H2AX is ...
Ding Hsiou-Yu - - 2011
The inhibitory effect of a water extract from Pemphis acidula on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells was investigated. The results showed that the P. acidula extract (PAE) inhibited melanogenesis in 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthin (IBMX)-stimulated B16 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 33.5 μg/ml. In addition, PAE also ...
Clausznitzer Diana - - 2011
The chemotaxis pathway in the bacterium Escherichia coli allows cells to detect changes in external ligand concentration (e.g. nutrients). The pathway regulates the flagellated rotary motors and hence the cells' swimming behaviour, steering them towards more favourable environments. While the molecular components are well characterised, the motor behaviour measured by ...
Freeman M A - - 2011
Epidermal pseudotumours from Hippoglossoides dubius and Acanthogobius flavimanus in Japan and gill lesions in Limanda limanda from the UK have been shown to be caused by phylogenetically related protozoan parasites, known collectively as X-cells. However, the phylogenetic position of the X-cell group is not well supported within any of the ...
Segrelles Carmen - - 2011
Skin diseases are a major health problem. Some of the most severe conditions involve genetic disorders, including cancer. Several of these human diseases have been modelled in genetically modified mice, thus becoming a highly valuable preclinical tool for the treatment of these pathologies. However, development of three-dimensional models of skin ...
Logsdon Lauren K - - 2011
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) can be internalized by epithelial cells, including keratinocytes from human skin or pharyngeal epithelium. Internalization of GAS by epithelial cells has been postulated both to play a role in host defense and to provide a sanctuary site for GAS survival. The cholesterol-binding cytolysin streptolysin O (SLO) ...
Zhang Chunhua - - 2011
The leaf epidermis is an important architectural control element that influences the growth properties of underlying tissues and the overall form of the organ. In dicots, interdigitated pavement cells are the building blocks of the tissue, and their morphogenesis includes the assembly of specialized cell walls that surround the apical, ...
Hamant Olivier - - 2011
In developmental biology, the accumulation of qualitative phenotypic descriptions has fueled the need for testable parsimonious hypotheses, giving a fresh impetus to quantitative strategies. As an illustration, thanks to the precise quantification of cell growth and microtubule behavior in a study published in BMC Plant Biology, Zhang and collaborators have ...
Bandyopadhyay Balaji B The Department of Dermatology and the USC-Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90033, - - 2011
TGFβ binding to the TGFβ receptor (TβR) activates R-Smad-dependent pathways, such as Smad2/3, and R-Smad-independent pathways, such as ERK1/2. The mechanism of the TGFβ-TβRII-TβRI-Smad2/3 pathway is established; however, it is not known how TGFβ activates ERK1/2. We show here that although TGFβ equally activated Smad2/3 in all cells, it selectively ...
Truzzi Francesca F Institute of Dermatology; School of Biosciences and Biotechnologies; University of Modena and Reggio Emilia; Modena, - - 2011
Neurotrophins (NT) belong to a family of structurally and functionally related proteins that, depending on the tissue context and the receptors involved, promote either neuronal cell survival and differentiation or cell death. NT, and in particular NGF, were first identified as neurotrophic factors supporting the synthesis and development of sensory ...
Voss Andreas - - 2011
S100A8/A9 promotes NADPH oxidase in HaCaT keratinocytes and subsequently increases NFκB activation, which plays important roles in the balance between epidermal growth and differentiation. S100A8/A9-positive HaCaT cells present with a significantly reduced rate of cell division and greater expression of two keratinocyte differentiation markers, involucrin and filaggrin, than control cells. ...
Menger Bjoern - - 2010
OBJECTIVE:: The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is a well-characterized example for intrinsic regeneration. As lipoxygenase signaling is of crucial importance to scarless mammalian wound healing, we postulated that lipoxygenases might be expressed during amphibian regeneration and they might also influence human cells under appropriate conditions. In this study we identified ...
Prignano Francesca - - 2010
The role of dendritic cells in vitiligo is still unclear. Few studies have provided contradictory results about their quantitative variation and no data exist concerning their immunophenotypical distribution in diseased skin. The purpose of our study was to analyze the presence, the distribution, the immunophenotypical markers and the effects of ...
Jiang Rong - - 2011
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) ranks among the top 8 causes of cancer death worldwide, with only a 60% 5-year survival rate, highlighting the need for discovery of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets. We have previously reported that expression of a panel of serine proteinase kallikreins (KLK 5, 7, 8, ...
Chipinda Itai - - 2011
Consumer and medical products can contain leachable chemical allergens which can cause skin sensitization. Recent efforts have been directed at the development of non-animal based tests such as in vitro cell activation assays for the identification of skin sensitizers. Prohapten identification by in vitro assays is still problematic due to ...
Schönrath Katharina - - 2010
VILIP-1 (visinin-like protein 1) is downregulated in various human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In a mouse skin SCC model VILIP-1 expression is reduced in aggressive tumor cells, accompanied by reduced cAMP levels. Overexpression of VILIP-1 in aggressive SCC cells led to enhanced cAMP production, in turn causing a reduction in ...
Schönrath Katharina - - 2011
VILIP-1 (visinin-like protein 1) is downregulated in various human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In a mouse skin SCC model VILIP-1 expression is reduced in aggressive tumor cells, accompanied by reduced cAMP levels. Overexpression of VILIP-1 in aggressive SCC cells led to enhanced cAMP production, in turn causing a reduction in ...
Tseng Yung-Che - - 2011
The hexose supply and subsequent metabolism are crucial for the operations of the iono- and osmoregulatory mechanisms in fish, but how hexose is transported and supplied to cells of the ionoregulatory epithelia is unknown. Three zebrafish glucose transporters (zGLUTs), zGLUT1a, -13.1, and -6, were previously found to respectively be expressed ...
Lee Yi-Chun - - 2011
Similar to mammalian proximal tubular cells, H(+)-ATPase rich (HR) cells in zebrafish skin and gills are also responsible for Na(+) uptake and acid secretion functions. However, the basolateral transport pathways in HR cells are still unclear. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis if there are specific slc4 members ...
Scheele Jürgen - - 2010
Auron-Misheil-Therapy (AMT) is currently under development as an anticancer treatment. The aim of the present study was the identification of possible effects and properties of AMT with regard to human skin. The study consisted of three experimental phases. Phase 1 assessed the effects of AMT on the viability of 2-D ...
Poulson Nicholas D - - 2010
Progenitor cells must balance self-amplification and production of differentiated progeny during development and homeostasis. In the epidermis, progenitors divide symmetrically to increase surface area and asymmetrically to promote stratification. In this study, we show that individual epidermal cells can undergo both types of division, and therefore, the balance is provided ...
Lequeux C - - 2011
Background: The aim was to test the influence of dedifferentiated Crithmum maritimum cells (dCMC), totipotent vegetal stem cells, on epidermal regeneration in perfect homeostasis using a skin equivalent (SE) model. Materials and Methods: SE are prepared by seeding fibroblasts on a collagen-glycosaminoglycan-chitosan dermal substrate (DS) epidermalized by keratinocytes 3 weeks ...
Kern F - - 2011
The epidermis is the outermost layer of the body and protects it from environmental insults. This crucial function is sustained by a continuous process of self-renewal involving the carefully balanced proliferation and differentiation of progenitor cells constantly replacing the mature cells at the surface of the epidermis. Genetic changes in ...
Halačka K - - 2010
A reduction of epidermal club cells and an increase of goblet cells were found in Carassius gibelio during spawning when compared to postspawning. A significantly lower proportion of club cells at spawning was found in diploid males and triploid females than in diploid females. It could be linked to male ...
Meckes David G DG Jr The Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, - - 2010
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is expressed in multiple human malignancies and has potent effects on cell growth. It has been detected in exosomes and shown to inhibit immune function. Exosomes are small secreted cellular vesicles that contain proteins, mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs). When produced by ...
López-Montero Noelia - - 2011
Arboviruses are serious pathogens for men but cause little damage to their arthropod vectors. We have studied how a mosquito cell line derived from one of the relevant vectors for arboviruses responds to Bunyamwera virus, a well-characterized arbovirus. Confocal, live cell microscopy and electron microscopy showed that Bunyamwera virus induces ...
Haller Claudia - - 2011
Nef, a HIV-1 pathogenesis factor, elevates virus replication in vivo and thus progression to AIDS by incompletely defined mechanisms. As one of its biological properties, Nef enhances the infectivity of cell-free HIV-1 particles in single round infections, however it fails to provide a significant and amplifying growth advantage for HIV-1 ...
Benitez-Alfonso Yoselin - - 2010
As channels that provide cell-to-cell connectivity, plasmodesmata are central to the local and systemic spread of viruses in plants. This review discusses the current state of knowledge of the structure and function of these channels and the ways in which viruses bring about functional changes that allow macromolecular trafficking to ...
Märsch S - - 2010
Clinical application of viral vectors is often hampered by the lack of selectivity of viral particles for the targeted tissue. This drawback decreases the efficiency of gene delivery and raises safety concerns. We successfully established a novel in vitro evolution protocol to engineer adeno-associated virus vectors with increased selectivity for ...
Hiscox Julian A - - 2010
Recent advances in proteomics have been combined with traditional methods for isolation of nucleoli from mammalian and plant cells. This approach has confirmed the growing body of data showing a wide role for the nucleolus in eukaryotic cell biology beyond ribosome generation into many areas of cell function from regulation ...
Stephanopoulos Nicholas - - 2010
Bacteriophage MS2 was used to construct a targeted, multivalent photodynamic therapy vehicle for the treatment of Jurkat leukemia T cells. The self-assembling spherical virus capsid was modified on the interior surface with up to 180 porphyrins capable of generating cytotoxic singlet oxygen upon illumination. The exterior of the capsid was ...
Ooms Laura S - - 2010
Mammalian reoviruses replicate in a broad range of hosts, cells, and tissues. These viruses display strain-dependent variation in tropism for different types of cells in vivo and ex vivo. Early steps in the reovirus life cycle, attachment, entry, and disassembly, have been identified as pivotal points of virus-cell interaction that ...
Svetlikova Darina - - 2010
Interferons lambda (IFN-λ) are the most recently defined members of the class III cytokine family. To investigate whether IFN-λ2 and IFN-λ3 displayed antiviral activity against influenza A virus (IAV), a number of cell lines induced with IFNs - as well as two established cell lines (A549-IFN-λ2 and A549-IFN-λ3) - were ...
Brune Wolfram - - 2011
The elimination of infected cells by programmed cell death (PCD) is one of the most ancestral defense mechanisms against infectious agents. This mechanism should be most effective against intracellular parasites, such as viruses, which depend on the host cell for their replication. However, even large and slowly replicating viruses like ...
Maeda Yosuke - - 2011
Little is known about whether human CD4 positive T cells, the principal natural target of HIV-1, have intrinsic factors, other than the receptor/coreceptor molecules, which modulate the entry efficiency of HIV-1. In the present study, we found that human T cell lines, HUT78 and PM1, were less permissive to VSV-G-mediated ...
Heemskerk Bianca - - 2010
Retroviral transduction is the most commonly used strategy to obtain long-term expression of therapeutic genes. To efficiently transduce mammalian cells, a recombinant fibronectin molecule, RetroNectin, is generally used to juxtapose viral particles and cells, and thereby enhance viral uptake. Although this strategy has become widely adopted, in particular for the ...
Mishra Mamata - - 2010
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and viral proteins affect neuronal survival and neuron-glial cell interactions, which culminate in neurological disorders. HIV-1 infects regions of neurogenesis in human adult and pediatric brain. However, little is known about the effect of HIV-1 or viral proteins on the properties of human neural ...
Schelhaas Mario - - 2010
Viruses are intracellular parasites that rely upon the host cell machinery for their life cycle. Newly generated virus particles have to transmit their genomic information to uninfected cells/organisms. Viral entry is the process to gain access to viral replication sites within uninfected cells, a multistep course of events that starts ...
Rosa Borges Andrew A Military HIV Research Program, Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, MD 20850, - - 2010
Specific glycosphingolipids (GSL), found on the surface of target immune cells, are recognized as alternate cell surface receptors by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) external envelope glycoprotein. In this study, the globotriose and 3'-sialyllactose carbohydrate head groups found on two GSL were covalently attached to a dendrimer core ...
Xie Lining - - 2011
Cathepsin K (CTSK), a cysteine protease with strong collagenolytic properties, is involved in extracellular matrix turnover. In the previous studies, CTSK expression was detected in peritumoral fibroblasts (Fbs) around squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), but not in those surrounding benign epidermal tumors. However, the mechanism governing CTSK expression in epidermal tumors ...
Jolly Clare C MRC Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, Windeyer Building, London, United Kingdom. - - 2010
Direct cell-to-cell spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) between T cells at the virological synapse (VS) is an efficient mechanism of viral dissemination. Tetherin (BST-2/CD317) is an interferon-induced, antiretroviral restriction factor that inhibits nascent cell-free particle release. The HIV-1 Vpu protein antagonizes tetherin activity; however, whether tetherin also ...
Tsegaye Theodros Solomon - - 2010
Entry of enveloped viruses into host cells depends on the interactions of viral surface proteins with cell surface receptors. Many enveloped viruses maximize the efficiency of receptor engagement by first binding to attachment-promoting factors, which concentrate virions on target cells and thus increase the likelihood of subsequent receptor engagement. Cellular ...
Michalski Chad James - - 2010
The loss of CD4(+) T-cells in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals has been attributed not only to dysregulation of immune cell function but also direct and indirect killing mechanisms of both infected and bystander cells. This process proceeds through both necrotic and programmed cell death pathways. Several human immunodeficiency virus type ...
Blundred Rachel R The Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, - - 2010
Accurate DNA replication is essential to genome integrity and is controlled by five human RecQ helicases, of which at least three prevent cancer and ageing. Here, we have studied the role of RECQL5, which is the least characterised of the five human RecQ helicases. We demonstrate that overexpressed RECQL5 promotes ...
He D - - 2011
The activation of antiviral activity induced by recombinant swine interferon beta (rswIFNβ) against PRRSV was comparatively examined in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). A dose-response analysis showed, in MARC-145 cells, that isolate Mo25544 was highly sensitive to rswIFNβ while a vaccine strain and isolate PDV130-9301 were resistant to ...
Doi Naoya - - 2010
We have recently constructed a series of novel human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1s) that are tropic for a macaque cell line (mt; macaque cell-tropic) to generate and establish a primate experimental system for HIV-1/AIDS study. In order to determine biological properties of these viruses effectively, several other macaque cell lines with ...
Britt William J WJ University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama, - - 2010
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the largest and perhaps the most structurally complex member of the family of human herpesviruses. It is the prototypic virus of the beta-herpesvirus subfamily. As with other cytomegaloviruses, HCMV is exquisitely species specific and undergoes lytic replication only in cells of human origin. In addition, its ...
Hsieh Ming Je - - 2010
Viral particles are generally too large to diffuse freely within the crowded environment of the host cell cytoplasm. They depend on mammalian cell transport systems, in particular the microtubular molecular motor dynein, to deliver their nucleic acids to the vicinity of the nucleus. An understanding of how viruses interact with ...
Maree Francois F - - 2010
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infects host cells by adhering to the alpha(V) subgroup of the integrin family of cellular receptors in a Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) dependent manner. FMD viruses, propagated in non-host cell cultures are reported to acquire the ability to enter cells via alternative cell surface molecules. Sequencing analysis of ...
Felts Richard L - - 2010
The efficiency of HIV infection is greatly enhanced when the virus is delivered at conjugates between CD4+ T cells and virus-bearing antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages or dendritic cells via specialized structures known as virological synapses. Using ion abrasion SEM, electron tomography, and superresolution light microscopy, we have analyzed the ...
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