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Wang Xing - - 2012
Chirality is one of the significant biochemical signatures of life. Nearly all biological polymers are homochiral as they usually show high preference towards one specific enantiomer. This phenomenon inspires us to design biomaterials with chiral units and study their interactions with cells and other biological entities. In this article, through ...
Sampson Christopher J - - 2012
The cellular branch of the Drosophila larval innate immune system consists of three immunosurveillance (haemocyte) cell types: plasmatocytes, crystal cells, and lamellocytes. In order to examine haemocyte cytoskeletal dynamics or migration, most researchers use embryos or in vitro cell culture systems, but very little is known about the behaviour of ...
Moes Michèle - - 2012
The majority of human cancer deaths are caused by metastasis. The metastatic dissemination is initiated by the breakdown of epithelial cell homeostasis. During this phenomenon, referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), cells change their genetic and trancriptomic program leading to phenotypic and functional alterations. The challenge of understanding ...
Kubie John L - - 2012
The crisp organization of the "firing bumps" of entorhinal grid cells and conjunctive cells leads to the notion that the entorhinal cortex may compute linear navigation routes. Specifically, we propose a process, termed "linear look-ahead," by which a stationary animal could compute a series of locations in the direction it ...
Wang Peng-Yuan - - 2011
Substrate stiffness is emerging as an effective tool for the regulation of cell behaviours such as locomotion, proliferation and differentiation. In order to explore the potential application of this biophysical tool, material platforms displaying lateral and continuously graded stiffness are advantageous since they allow the systematic exploration of adherent cell ...
Armstrong Carol L - - 2011
The Lurcher mutant mouse is characterized by its ataxic gait and loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells and their afferents, granule cells and olivary neurons, during the first weeks of postnatal development. For the 50 years since its discovery, the heterozygous Lurcher mutant has served as an important model system for studying ...
Halilovic Adna A Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, - - 2011
Heme oxygenase (HO) represents an intrinsic cytoprotective system based on its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties mediated via its products biliverdin/bilirubin and carbon monoxide (CO). We showed that deletion of HO-2 results in impaired corneal wound healing with associated chronic inflammatory complications. This study was undertaken to examine the role of ...
Benítez-Santana Tibiábin - - 2011
There is limited information on the specific effects of long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) on neuron development and functioning. Deficiency of those essential fatty acids impairs escape and avoidance behaviour in fish, where Mauthner cells (M-cells) play a particularly important role in initiating this response. Gilthead seabream larvae fed two different LCPUFA ...
Lee Chih-Hung - - 2011
Arsenic-induced Bowen's disease (As-BD), a cutaneous carcinoma in situ, is thought to arise from gene mutation and uncontrolled proliferation. However, how mitochondria regulate the arsenic-induced cell proliferation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify whether arsenic interfered with mitochondrial biogenesis and function, leading to aberrant cell proliferation ...
Jamieson Joseph D - - 2011
Thiabendazole (TBZ), an antihelminthic and antifungal agent, is associated with a host of adverse effects including nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and teratogenicity. Bioactivation of the primary metabolite of TBZ, 5-hydroxythiabendazole, has been proposed to yield a reactive intermediate. Here we show that this reactive intermediate can be catalyzed by myeloperoxidase (MPO), a ...
Taveirne Sylvie - - 2011
This study tested the hypothesis that Vγ3 TCR-bearing T cells are influenced by LCs. Vγ3 T cells and LCs are located in the epidermis of mice. Vγ3 T cells represent the main T cell population in the skin epithelium and play a crucial role in maintaining the skin integrity, whereas ...
Witherden Deborah A DA Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2011
γδ T cells lie at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity, sharing features with both arms of the immune system. The vast majority of γδ T cells reside in epithelial layers of tissues such as skin, gut, lung, tongue and reproductive tract where they provide a first line of ...
Zanette Caterina - - 2011
For their antibacterial activity, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are largely used in various commercially available products designed to come in direct contact with the skin. In this study we investigated the effects of Ag NPs on skin using the human-derived keratinocyte HaCaT cell line model. Ag NPs caused a concentration- ...
Rago Gianluca - - 2011
Understanding the mechanism underlying the interactions between inorganic nanostructures and biological systems is crucial for several rapidly growing fields that rely on nano-bio interactions. In particular, the further development of cell-targeted drug delivery using metallic nanoparticles (NP) requires new tools for understanding the mechanisms triggered by the contact of NPs ...
Whitney Heather M - - 2011
The conical epidermal cells found on the petals of most Angiosperm species are so widespread that they have been used as markers of petal identity, but their function has only been analysed in recent years. This review brings together diverse data on the role of these cells in pollination biology. ...
Gerlach Jörg C - - 2011
Background: There is a therapeutic gap for patients with deep partial thickness wounds (Grade IIb) of moderate size that were initially not treated with split- or mesh grafting to avoid overgrafting, but developed delayed wound healing around two weeks after injury - at which time grafting is typically not indicated ...
Dillon Michael B - - 2011
This review examines whether exfoliated, virus-infected animal skin cells could be an important source of infectious foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) aerosols. Infectious material rafting on skin cell aerosols is an established means of transmitting other diseases. The evidence for a similar mechanism for FMDV is: (i) FMDV is ...
Bao Huiqiong - - 2011
Cell blocks can be prepared from residual ThinPrep material, and immunohistochemical staining can be used. The objectives of the current study were (1) to investigate the role of cell block preparation in identifying significant preneoplastic cervical lesions; and (2) to assess the diagnostic value of p16(INK4A) and Ki-67 immunostaining on ...
Chen Jennifer Y - - 2011
Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) have often shown two distinct binding affinities for epidermal growth factor. It is the high-affinity EGFR that is predominantly responsible for mediating the cell signaling that plays an indispensable role in cell growth, proliferation, motility, and differentiation. We applied the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation ...
Wei Anji - - 2011
PURPOSE:: To investigate the age-related changes in human palpebral conjunctiva and meibomian glands by in vivo confocal microscopy. METHODS:: Forty-nine healthy volunteers (20 men and 29 women; mean age, 43.4 ± 22.7 years; range, 9-85 years) were recruited from the community. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to observe and ...
Croyle Mandy J - - 2011
Skin and hair follicle morphogenesis and homeostasis require the integration of multiple signaling pathways, including Hedgehog (Hh) and Wingless (Wnt), and oriented cell divisions, all of which have been associated with primary cilia. Although studies have shown that disrupting dermal cilia causes follicular arrest and attenuated Hh signaling, little is ...
He Min-Di - - 2011
Mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to be a part of the mechanism underlying nickel-induced neurotoxicity. L-carnitine (LC), a quaternary ammonium compound biosynthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine in all mammalian species, manifests its neuroprotective effects by improving mitochondrial energetics and function. The purpose of this study was to investigate ...
Garcia N - - 2011
One of the main functions of the skin is to protect the organism against environmental threats, such as thermal stress. Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) facilitates water and glycerol transport across cell membranes and therefore regulates osmotic balance in different situations of stress. This mechanism seems to be particularly important for the resistance ...
Cruz-Bravo R K - - 2011
  The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a fermented nondigestible fraction (FNDF) of cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Negro 8025 on human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell survival. Negro 8025 was chosen for in vitro fermentation based on comparison of chemical composition with 2 other ...
Pandey Arushi - - 2011
Objective: To assess the distribution pattern of Langerhans cells in oral lichen planus using adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) histochemistry and to correlate this with the duration of symptoms. Method and Materials: Included were fresh unfixed tissues from previously untreated cases that were clinically and histologically diagnosed as oral lichen planus (n ...
Gerlach Jörg C JC Department of Surgery, McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15203, USA. - - 2011
There is a therapeutic gap for patients with deep partial thickness wounds (Grade IIb) of moderate size that were initially not treated with split- or mesh grafting to avoid overgrafting, but developed delayed wound healing around two weeks after injury--at which time grafting is typically not indicated anymore. Delayed wound ...
Bindon Keren A - - 2011
Proanthocyanidins were isolated from the skins of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes at different stages of grape development in order to study the effect of proanthocyanidin modification on the interaction with grape cell wall material. After veraison, the degree of proanthocyanidin polymerization increased, and thereafter was variable between 24 and 33 subunits ...
Weir Lynda L Centre for Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Division of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Dentistry, & Nursing, Ninewells Hospital, University of Dundee, - - 2011
The water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) assay is frequently used to assess cell proliferation. However, our study showed that in normal and cancerous keratinocytes, this assay is more responsive to changes in oxygenation than to rates of cell growth. Stimulation of keratinocyte proliferation by low Ca(2+) and suppression of proliferation by ...
Luxenburg Chen C Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of Mammalian Cell Biology and Development, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, - - 2011
During development, a polarized epidermal sheet undergoes stratification and differentiation to produce the skin barrier. Through mechanisms that are poorly understood, the process involves actin dynamics, spindle reorientation and Notch signalling. To elucidate how epidermal embryogenesis is governed, we conditionally targeted serum response factor (Srf), a transcription factor that is ...
Yamamoto T - - 2011
The distribution of mucous cells was examined in the skin on the ocular and blind sides of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Observations were performed on both body sides at the following regions: cheek, lower jaw (blind side), gill cover (ocular side), dorsal side, lateral line, belly and caudal peduncle. The ...
D'Alessandro Mariella - - 2011
Skin fragility disorders caused by keratin mutations are incurable, and a better understanding of their etiology is needed to find new ways to improve and treat these conditions. The best-studied skin fragility disorder is epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS), an autosomal dominant condition caused by mutations in keratin 5 (K5) or ...
Williams Scott E SE Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of Mammalian Cell Biology and Development, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, - - 2011
Stem and progenitor cells use asymmetric cell divisions to balance proliferation and differentiation. Evidence from invertebrates shows that this process is regulated by proteins asymmetrically distributed at the cell cortex during mitosis: Par3-Par6-aPKC, which confer polarity, and Gα(i)-LGN/AGS3-NuMA-dynein/dynactin, which govern spindle positioning. Here we focus on developing mouse skin, where ...
Jin Jane Y JY Department of Dermatology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710-0001, - - 2011
Deregulation of the activator protein 1 (AP1) family gene regulators has been implicated in a wide range of diseases, including cancer. In this study we report that c-Jun was activated in human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and coexpression of c-Jun with oncogenic Ras was sufficient to transform primary human epidermal ...
Foley Susan - - 2011
Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare idiopathic disorder with protean clinical presentations. Primary unifocal single-system disease of the vulva is even less common. We report a 62-year-old female patient presenting with an 18-month history of pruritus and burning of the vulva. Clinical examination of the vulva showed a tender nodule ...
Baroni Adone - - 2011
Human keratinocytes synthesize and secrete non-neuronal acetylcholine, which acts as a local cell signaling molecule, regulating functions like proliferation, cell adhesion, motility, desmosomal cell contact, and glandular activity. The keratinocyte acetylcholine axis is composed of the enzymes mediating acetylcholine synthesis (acetyltransferase) and degradation (acetylcholinesterase), and two classes of acetylcholine receptors. ...
Sevimli-Gür Canan - - 2011
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Astragalus roots are used for their wound healing properties in Southeast Anatolia-Turkey. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the wound healing effects of the four chief saponins of Astragalus species [Cycloastragenol (CA), astragaloside IV (AG), cyclocephaloside I (CCI) and cyclocanthoside E (CCE)]. MATERIAL ...
Kubo Hiroyoshi - - 2011
A mutation in the ANTHOCYANINLESS2 (ANL2) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana causes the formation of several extra cells called intervening cells (IV cells) between the cortical and epidermal layers of the primary root. The origin and character of IV cells were examined. Microscopic observation of serial sections of the root tissue ...
Romero-Cerecero Ofelia - - 2011
The species AGERATINA PICHINCHENSIS (Asteraceae) has been used for a long time in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of different skin conditions and injuries. In this study, the healing capacity of the plant extracts obtained was evaluated and, in order to understand the mechanism of healing, we also analyzed ...
Laplante Caroline - - 2011
During Drosophila melanogaster dorsal closure, lateral sheets of embryonic epidermis assemble an actomyosin cable at their leading edge and migrate dorsally over the amnioserosa, converging at the dorsal midline. We show that disappearance of the homophilic cell adhesion molecule Echinoid (Ed) from the amnioserosa just before dorsal closure eliminates homophilic ...
Cota Carlo - - 2011
A 58-year-old white woman with stasis dermatitis developed a solitary, slowly growing keratotic nodule of the dorsum of the foot. The excision biopsy specimen of this lesion showed a biphasic pattern of eccrine syringofibroadenoma and clear cell acanthoma. Such a previously unreported association is neither necessarily by chance nor necessarily ...
Formey Aurélie - - 2011
Cells with irregular shapes, numerous long thin filaments, and morphological similarities to the gastrointestinal interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) have been observed in the wall of some blood vessels. These ICC-like cells (ICC-LCs) do not correspond to the other cell types present in the arterial wall: smooth muscle cells (SMCs), ...
Hibino Michiko - - 2011
Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin, in which activation of keratinocytes and crosstalk between keratinocytes and T cells or dendritic cells are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris. Cyclosporin (Cy) A, an immunomodulator, has been used for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris, ...
Jackson Ben - - 2011
RhoA is a small guanosine-5'-triphosphatase (GTPase) suggested to be essential for cytokinesis, stress fiber formation, and epithelial cell-cell contacts. In skin, loss of RhoA was suggested to underlie pemphigus skin blistering. To analyze RhoA function in vivo, we generated mice with a keratinocyte-restricted deletion of the RhoA gene. Despite a ...
Cao Lin L Department of Dermatology, University of California, Davis, CA 95618, - - 2011
Endogenous electrical fields (EFs) at corneal and skin wounds send a powerful signal that directs cell migration during wound healing. This signal therefore may serve as a fundamental regulator directing cell polarization and migration. Very little is known of the intracellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate EF-induced cell polarization and ...
Ranzato Elia - - 2011
AIM OF THE STUDY: The wound healing properties of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) liquid wax (JLW) were studied in vitro on HaCaT keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts, which are involved in wounded skin repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: JLW cytotoxicity was evaluated by the crystal violet staining and the neutral red uptake ...
Shih Wei-Jen - - 2011
Langerhans cell histiocytosis is characterized by abnormal accumulations of large mononuclear cells forming granulomas in various organs mainly in the lung, bone, or skin. Adult pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is rare and almost always associated with cigarette smoking; combination with lung and bone simultaneous involvement is even rare. We present ...
Friedlander-Shani Lilach - - 2011
In normal development cell fusion is essential for organ formation and sexual reproduction. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has become an excellent system to study the mechanisms and developmental functions of cell-to-cell fusion. In this review we focus on the heterochronic regulation of cell fusion. Heterochronic genes control the timing of ...
Brustmann Hermann - - 2011
The histone γ-H2AX is a marker of activated DNA damage and is overexpressed in different cancers and their precursor lesions, indicating a role in oncogenic transformation. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in many kinds of epithelial neoplasms. This study aimed to determine whether immunohistochemical expression of γ-H2AX is ...
Ding Hsiou-Yu - - 2011
The inhibitory effect of a water extract from Pemphis acidula on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells was investigated. The results showed that the P. acidula extract (PAE) inhibited melanogenesis in 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthin (IBMX)-stimulated B16 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 33.5 μg/ml. In addition, PAE also ...
Clausznitzer Diana - - 2011
The chemotaxis pathway in the bacterium Escherichia coli allows cells to detect changes in external ligand concentration (e.g. nutrients). The pathway regulates the flagellated rotary motors and hence the cells' swimming behaviour, steering them towards more favourable environments. While the molecular components are well characterised, the motor behaviour measured by ...
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