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Williams Scott E - - 2011
Stem and progenitor cells use asymmetric cell divisions to balance proliferation and differentiation. Evidence from invertebrates shows that this process is regulated by proteins asymmetrically distributed at the cell cortex during mitosis: Par3-Par6-aPKC, which confer polarity, and Gα(i)-LGN/AGS3-NuMA-dynein/dynactin, which govern spindle positioning. Here we focus on developing mouse skin, where ...
Jin Jane Y - - 2011
Deregulation of the activator protein 1 (AP1) family gene regulators has been implicated in a wide range of diseases, including cancer. In this study we report that c-Jun was activated in human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and coexpression of c-Jun with oncogenic Ras was sufficient to transform primary human epidermal ...
Foley Susan - - 2011
Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare idiopathic disorder with protean clinical presentations. Primary unifocal single-system disease of the vulva is even less common. We report a 62-year-old female patient presenting with an 18-month history of pruritus and burning of the vulva. Clinical examination of the vulva showed a tender nodule ...
Baroni Adone - - 2011
Human keratinocytes synthesize and secrete non-neuronal acetylcholine, which acts as a local cell signaling molecule, regulating functions like proliferation, cell adhesion, motility, desmosomal cell contact, and glandular activity. The keratinocyte acetylcholine axis is composed of the enzymes mediating acetylcholine synthesis (acetyltransferase) and degradation (acetylcholinesterase), and two classes of acetylcholine receptors. ...
Sevimli-Gür Canan - - 2011
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Astragalus roots are used for their wound healing properties in Southeast Anatolia-Turkey. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the wound healing effects of the four chief saponins of Astragalus species [Cycloastragenol (CA), astragaloside IV (AG), cyclocephaloside I (CCI) and cyclocanthoside E (CCE)]. MATERIAL ...
Kubo Hiroyoshi - - 2011
A mutation in the ANTHOCYANINLESS2 (ANL2) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana causes the formation of several extra cells called intervening cells (IV cells) between the cortical and epidermal layers of the primary root. The origin and character of IV cells were examined. Microscopic observation of serial sections of the root tissue ...
Romero-Cerecero Ofelia - - 2011
The species AGERATINA PICHINCHENSIS (Asteraceae) has been used for a long time in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of different skin conditions and injuries. In this study, the healing capacity of the plant extracts obtained was evaluated and, in order to understand the mechanism of healing, we also analyzed ...
Laplante Caroline - - 2011
During Drosophila melanogaster dorsal closure, lateral sheets of embryonic epidermis assemble an actomyosin cable at their leading edge and migrate dorsally over the amnioserosa, converging at the dorsal midline. We show that disappearance of the homophilic cell adhesion molecule Echinoid (Ed) from the amnioserosa just before dorsal closure eliminates homophilic ...
Cota Carlo - - 2011
A 58-year-old white woman with stasis dermatitis developed a solitary, slowly growing keratotic nodule of the dorsum of the foot. The excision biopsy specimen of this lesion showed a biphasic pattern of eccrine syringofibroadenoma and clear cell acanthoma. Such a previously unreported association is neither necessarily by chance nor necessarily ...
Formey Aurélie - - 2011
Cells with irregular shapes, numerous long thin filaments, and morphological similarities to the gastrointestinal interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) have been observed in the wall of some blood vessels. These ICC-like cells (ICC-LCs) do not correspond to the other cell types present in the arterial wall: smooth muscle cells (SMCs), ...
Hibino Michiko - - 2011
Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin, in which activation of keratinocytes and crosstalk between keratinocytes and T cells or dendritic cells are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris. Cyclosporin (Cy) A, an immunomodulator, has been used for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris, ...
Cao Lin - - 2011
Endogenous electrical fields (EFs) at corneal and skin wounds send a powerful signal that directs cell migration during wound healing. This signal therefore may serve as a fundamental regulator directing cell polarization and migration. Very little is known of the intracellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate EF-induced cell polarization and ...
Jackson Ben - - 2011
RhoA is a small guanosine-5'-triphosphatase (GTPase) suggested to be essential for cytokinesis, stress fiber formation, and epithelial cell-cell contacts. In skin, loss of RhoA was suggested to underlie pemphigus skin blistering. To analyze RhoA function in vivo, we generated mice with a keratinocyte-restricted deletion of the RhoA gene. Despite a ...
Ranzato Elia - - 2011
AIM OF THE STUDY: The wound healing properties of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) liquid wax (JLW) were studied in vitro on HaCaT keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts, which are involved in wounded skin repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: JLW cytotoxicity was evaluated by the crystal violet staining and the neutral red uptake ...
Shih Wei-Jen - - 2011
Langerhans cell histiocytosis is characterized by abnormal accumulations of large mononuclear cells forming granulomas in various organs mainly in the lung, bone, or skin. Adult pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is rare and almost always associated with cigarette smoking; combination with lung and bone simultaneous involvement is even rare. We present ...
Friedlander-Shani Lilach - - 2011
In normal development cell fusion is essential for organ formation and sexual reproduction. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has become an excellent system to study the mechanisms and developmental functions of cell-to-cell fusion. In this review we focus on the heterochronic regulation of cell fusion. Heterochronic genes control the timing of ...
Brustmann Hermann - - 2011
The histone γ-H2AX is a marker of activated DNA damage and is overexpressed in different cancers and their precursor lesions, indicating a role in oncogenic transformation. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in many kinds of epithelial neoplasms. This study aimed to determine whether immunohistochemical expression of γ-H2AX is ...
Ding Hsiou-Yu - - 2011
The inhibitory effect of a water extract from Pemphis acidula on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells was investigated. The results showed that the P. acidula extract (PAE) inhibited melanogenesis in 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthin (IBMX)-stimulated B16 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 33.5 μg/ml. In addition, PAE also ...
Truzzi Francesca - - 2011
Neurotrophins (NT) belong to a family of structurally and functionally related proteins that, depending on the tissue context and the receptors involved, promote either neuronal cell survival and differentiation or cell death. NT, and in particular NGF, were first identified as neurotrophic factors supporting the synthesis and development of sensory ...
Clausznitzer Diana - - 2011
The chemotaxis pathway in the bacterium Escherichia coli allows cells to detect changes in external ligand concentration (e.g. nutrients). The pathway regulates the flagellated rotary motors and hence the cells' swimming behaviour, steering them towards more favourable environments. While the molecular components are well characterised, the motor behaviour measured by ...
Freeman M A - - 2011
Epidermal pseudotumours from Hippoglossoides dubius and Acanthogobius flavimanus in Japan and gill lesions in Limanda limanda from the UK have been shown to be caused by phylogenetically related protozoan parasites, known collectively as X-cells. However, the phylogenetic position of the X-cell group is not well supported within any of the ...
Segrelles Carmen - - 2011
Skin diseases are a major health problem. Some of the most severe conditions involve genetic disorders, including cancer. Several of these human diseases have been modelled in genetically modified mice, thus becoming a highly valuable preclinical tool for the treatment of these pathologies. However, development of three-dimensional models of skin ...
Logsdon Lauren K - - 2011
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) can be internalized by epithelial cells, including keratinocytes from human skin or pharyngeal epithelium. Internalization of GAS by epithelial cells has been postulated both to play a role in host defense and to provide a sanctuary site for GAS survival. The cholesterol-binding cytolysin streptolysin O (SLO) ...
Zhang Chunhua - - 2011
The leaf epidermis is an important architectural control element that influences the growth properties of underlying tissues and the overall form of the organ. In dicots, interdigitated pavement cells are the building blocks of the tissue, and their morphogenesis includes the assembly of specialized cell walls that surround the apical, ...
Hamant Olivier - - 2011
In developmental biology, the accumulation of qualitative phenotypic descriptions has fueled the need for testable parsimonious hypotheses, giving a fresh impetus to quantitative strategies. As an illustration, thanks to the precise quantification of cell growth and microtubule behavior in a study published in BMC Plant Biology, Zhang and collaborators have ...
Bandyopadhyay Balaji - - 2011
TGFβ binding to the TGFβ receptor (TβR) activates R-Smad-dependent pathways, such as Smad2/3, and R-Smad-independent pathways, such as ERK1/2. The mechanism of the TGFβ-TβRII-TβRI-Smad2/3 pathway is established; however, it is not known how TGFβ activates ERK1/2. We show here that although TGFβ equally activated Smad2/3 in all cells, it selectively ...
Voss Andreas - - 2011
S100A8/A9 promotes NADPH oxidase in HaCaT keratinocytes and subsequently increases NFκB activation, which plays important roles in the balance between epidermal growth and differentiation. S100A8/A9-positive HaCaT cells present with a significantly reduced rate of cell division and greater expression of two keratinocyte differentiation markers, involucrin and filaggrin, than control cells. ...
Menger Bjoern - - 2010
OBJECTIVE:: The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is a well-characterized example for intrinsic regeneration. As lipoxygenase signaling is of crucial importance to scarless mammalian wound healing, we postulated that lipoxygenases might be expressed during amphibian regeneration and they might also influence human cells under appropriate conditions. In this study we identified ...
Prignano Francesca - - 2010
The role of dendritic cells in vitiligo is still unclear. Few studies have provided contradictory results about their quantitative variation and no data exist concerning their immunophenotypical distribution in diseased skin. The purpose of our study was to analyze the presence, the distribution, the immunophenotypical markers and the effects of ...
Jiang Rong - - 2011
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) ranks among the top 8 causes of cancer death worldwide, with only a 60% 5-year survival rate, highlighting the need for discovery of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets. We have previously reported that expression of a panel of serine proteinase kallikreins (KLK 5, 7, 8, ...
Chipinda Itai - - 2011
Consumer and medical products can contain leachable chemical allergens which can cause skin sensitization. Recent efforts have been directed at the development of non-animal based tests such as in vitro cell activation assays for the identification of skin sensitizers. Prohapten identification by in vitro assays is still problematic due to ...
Schönrath Katharina - - 2010
VILIP-1 (visinin-like protein 1) is downregulated in various human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In a mouse skin SCC model VILIP-1 expression is reduced in aggressive tumor cells, accompanied by reduced cAMP levels. Overexpression of VILIP-1 in aggressive SCC cells led to enhanced cAMP production, in turn causing a reduction in ...
Schönrath Katharina - - 2011
VILIP-1 (visinin-like protein 1) is downregulated in various human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In a mouse skin SCC model VILIP-1 expression is reduced in aggressive tumor cells, accompanied by reduced cAMP levels. Overexpression of VILIP-1 in aggressive SCC cells led to enhanced cAMP production, in turn causing a reduction in ...
Tseng Yung-Che - - 2011
The hexose supply and subsequent metabolism are crucial for the operations of the iono- and osmoregulatory mechanisms in fish, but how hexose is transported and supplied to cells of the ionoregulatory epithelia is unknown. Three zebrafish glucose transporters (zGLUTs), zGLUT1a, -13.1, and -6, were previously found to respectively be expressed ...
Lee Yi-Chun - - 2011
Similar to mammalian proximal tubular cells, H(+)-ATPase rich (HR) cells in zebrafish skin and gills are also responsible for Na(+) uptake and acid secretion functions. However, the basolateral transport pathways in HR cells are still unclear. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis if there are specific slc4 members ...
Scheele Jürgen - - 2010
Auron-Misheil-Therapy (AMT) is currently under development as an anticancer treatment. The aim of the present study was the identification of possible effects and properties of AMT with regard to human skin. The study consisted of three experimental phases. Phase 1 assessed the effects of AMT on the viability of 2-D ...
Poulson Nicholas D - - 2010
Progenitor cells must balance self-amplification and production of differentiated progeny during development and homeostasis. In the epidermis, progenitors divide symmetrically to increase surface area and asymmetrically to promote stratification. In this study, we show that individual epidermal cells can undergo both types of division, and therefore, the balance is provided ...
Lequeux C - - 2011
Background: The aim was to test the influence of dedifferentiated Crithmum maritimum cells (dCMC), totipotent vegetal stem cells, on epidermal regeneration in perfect homeostasis using a skin equivalent (SE) model. Materials and Methods: SE are prepared by seeding fibroblasts on a collagen-glycosaminoglycan-chitosan dermal substrate (DS) epidermalized by keratinocytes 3 weeks ...
Kern F - - 2011
The epidermis is the outermost layer of the body and protects it from environmental insults. This crucial function is sustained by a continuous process of self-renewal involving the carefully balanced proliferation and differentiation of progenitor cells constantly replacing the mature cells at the surface of the epidermis. Genetic changes in ...
Halačka K - - 2010
A reduction of epidermal club cells and an increase of goblet cells were found in Carassius gibelio during spawning when compared to postspawning. A significantly lower proportion of club cells at spawning was found in diploid males and triploid females than in diploid females. It could be linked to male ...
Meckes David G DG - - 2010
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is expressed in multiple human malignancies and has potent effects on cell growth. It has been detected in exosomes and shown to inhibit immune function. Exosomes are small secreted cellular vesicles that contain proteins, mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs). When produced by ...
López-Montero Noelia - - 2011
Arboviruses are serious pathogens for men but cause little damage to their arthropod vectors. We have studied how a mosquito cell line derived from one of the relevant vectors for arboviruses responds to Bunyamwera virus, a well-characterized arbovirus. Confocal, live cell microscopy and electron microscopy showed that Bunyamwera virus induces ...
Haller Claudia - - 2011
Nef, a HIV-1 pathogenesis factor, elevates virus replication in vivo and thus progression to AIDS by incompletely defined mechanisms. As one of its biological properties, Nef enhances the infectivity of cell-free HIV-1 particles in single round infections, however it fails to provide a significant and amplifying growth advantage for HIV-1 ...
Benitez-Alfonso Yoselin - - 2010
As channels that provide cell-to-cell connectivity, plasmodesmata are central to the local and systemic spread of viruses in plants. This review discusses the current state of knowledge of the structure and function of these channels and the ways in which viruses bring about functional changes that allow macromolecular trafficking to ...
Märsch S - - 2010
Clinical application of viral vectors is often hampered by the lack of selectivity of viral particles for the targeted tissue. This drawback decreases the efficiency of gene delivery and raises safety concerns. We successfully established a novel in vitro evolution protocol to engineer adeno-associated virus vectors with increased selectivity for ...
Hiscox Julian A - - 2010
Recent advances in proteomics have been combined with traditional methods for isolation of nucleoli from mammalian and plant cells. This approach has confirmed the growing body of data showing a wide role for the nucleolus in eukaryotic cell biology beyond ribosome generation into many areas of cell function from regulation ...
Stephanopoulos Nicholas - - 2010
Bacteriophage MS2 was used to construct a targeted, multivalent photodynamic therapy vehicle for the treatment of Jurkat leukemia T cells. The self-assembling spherical virus capsid was modified on the interior surface with up to 180 porphyrins capable of generating cytotoxic singlet oxygen upon illumination. The exterior of the capsid was ...
Ooms Laura S - - 2010
Mammalian reoviruses replicate in a broad range of hosts, cells, and tissues. These viruses display strain-dependent variation in tropism for different types of cells in vivo and ex vivo. Early steps in the reovirus life cycle, attachment, entry, and disassembly, have been identified as pivotal points of virus-cell interaction that ...
Svetlikova Darina - - 2010
Interferons lambda (IFN-λ) are the most recently defined members of the class III cytokine family. To investigate whether IFN-λ2 and IFN-λ3 displayed antiviral activity against influenza A virus (IAV), a number of cell lines induced with IFNs - as well as two established cell lines (A549-IFN-λ2 and A549-IFN-λ3) - were ...
Brune Wolfram - - 2011
The elimination of infected cells by programmed cell death (PCD) is one of the most ancestral defense mechanisms against infectious agents. This mechanism should be most effective against intracellular parasites, such as viruses, which depend on the host cell for their replication. However, even large and slowly replicating viruses like ...
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