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Results 451 - 500 of 1553
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Belshan Michael - - 2006
The HIV-2 viral accessory protein Vpx is related to, but distinct from the Vpr protein of HIV-1. Vpx is packaged into virions and as a component of the viral preintegration complex (PIC) is required for efficient virus replication in non-dividing cells. We have previously reported that the minimal transferable region ...
Novak N - - 2005
Summary Herpes simplex virus (HSV) represents a smart pathogen, which displays both lytic and latent modes of interaction with its natural human host. In order to be optimally equipped for immune evasion and to reply to any attacks of the host during reactivation, HSV has developed a multitude of cleverly ...
Nesbeth Darren - - 2006
Nonviral, host-derived proteins on lentiviral vector surfaces can have a profound effect on the vector's biology as they can both promote infection and provide resistance to complement inactivation. We have exploited this to engineer a specific posttranslational modification of a "nonenvelope," virally associated protein. The bacterial biotin ligase (BirA) and ...
Greene Ivorlyne P - - 2005
Mosquito-borne alphaviruses, which replicate alternately and obligately in mosquitoes and vertebrates, appear to experience lower rates of evolution than do many RNA viruses that replicate solely in vertebrates. This genetic stability is hypothesized to result from the alternating host cycle, which constrains evolution by imposing compromise fitness solutions in each ...
Fang Shou Guo - - 2005
An interesting question posed by the current evidence that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus may be originated from an animal coronavirus is how such an animal coronavirus breaks the host species barrier and becomes zoonotic. In this report, we study the chronological order of genotypic changes in the spike protein ...
Markosyan Ruben M - - 2005
A method has been developed to follow fusion of individual pseudotyped virus expressing HIV-1 Env to cells by time-resolved fluorescence microscopy. Viral envelopes were labeled with a fluorescent lipid dye (DiD) and virus content was rendered visible by incorporating a Gag-GFP chimera. The Gag-GFP is naturally cleaved to the much ...
Kong Byung-Whi - - 2006
Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) is a respiratory viral pathogen that causes turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) or swollen head syndrome (SHS) in chickens. AMPV was first isolated in South Africa during the early 1970s and has subsequently spread worldwide during the 1980s to include Europe, Asia, and South America. In 1996, a genetically ...
Heffernan Jane M - - 2005
We describe a Monte Carlo simulation of the within-host dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). The simulation proceeds at the level of individual T-cells and virions in a small volume of plasma, thus capturing the inherent stochasticity in viral replication, mutation and T-cell infection. When cell lifetimes are distributed ...
Blanco Julià - - 2005
A flow cytometry-based assay was used to simultaneously quantify X4 and R5 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope-mediated cell-to-cell viral transfer, cell death, and cell-to-cell fusion. In this assay, different anti-HIV envelope drugs showed characteristic inhibitory profiles for each measured parameter, allowing for the rapid identification of the mode of action ...
Yoshizuka Naoto - - 2005
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr protein has important functions in advancing HIV pathogenesis via several effects on the host cell. Vpr mediates nuclear import of the preintegration complex, induces host cell apoptosis, and inhibits cell cycle progression at G(2), which increases HIV gene expression. Some of Vpr's ...
Jolly Clare - - 2005
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can spread directly between T cells by forming a supramolecular structure termed a virological synapse (VS). HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) are required for VS assembly, but their mode of recruitment is unclear. We investigated the distribution of GM1-rich lipid rafts in HIV-1-infected (effector) T ...
Cilliers Tonie T AIDS Virus Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Private Bag X4, Sandringham 2131, Johannesburg, South - - 2005
Two HIV-1 isolates (CM4 and CM9) able to use alternate HIV-1 coreceptors on transfected cell lines were tested for their sensitivity to inhibitors of HIV-1 entry on primary cells. CM4 was able to use CCR5 and Bob/GPR15 efficiently in transfected cells. The R5 isolate grew in Delta32/Delta32 CCR5 PBMC in ...
Chen Yi-Heng - - 2005
We have recently demonstrated the assembly of hepatitis delta virus-like particles (HDV VLP) by co-transducing hepatoma cells using two recombinant baculoviruses, one encoding hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and one encoding large delta antigen (L-HDAg). In this study, we further demonstrated the assembly and secretion of VLP in other mammalian ...
Vaillancourt Mei Ting - - 2005
Cultured primary human cells have been widely used to assess the selectivity of oncolytic viruses as potential anticancer agents. As culture conditions can potentially have a significant impact on virus replication and ultimately cell killing, we evaluated the effects of dl309, a wild-type adenovirus, and dl01 / 07, a conditionally ...
Sauer John-Demian JD Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 903 S. 4th St., Hamilton, MT 59840, - - 2005
Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii are phylogenetically related intracellular bacteria that cause aerosol-transmitted lung infections. In host cells both pathogens proliferate in vacuoles whose biogenesis displays some common features. To test the functional similarity of their respective intracellular niches, African green monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cells, A/J mouse bone marrow-derived ...
Hollier Mark J - - 2005
In addition to the major ectodomain, the gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein of HIV-1 is now known to have a minor ectodomain that is part of the long C-terminal tail. Both ectodomains are highly antigenic, carry neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes, and are involved in virus-mediated fusion activity. However, data have so far ...
Ahn Jeonghyun - - 2005
We examined the ability of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to disrupt infection by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3). The incorporation of siRNAs dramatically decreased cell death in permissive HeLa cells in parallel with a reduction in viral replication. Three of four siRNAs had potent anti-CVB3 activity. The present study thus demonstrates that ...
Rose Kristine M - - 2005
APOBEC3G and 3F (A3G and A3F) cytidine deaminases incorporate into retroviral cores where they lethally hypermutate nascent DNA reverse transcripts. As substantiated here, the viral infectivity factor (Vif) encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) binds A3G and A3F and induces their degradation, thereby precluding their incorporation into viral progeny. ...
Day Craig W - - 2005
Ribavirin has been reported to cause error-prone replication and viral extinction in RNA viruses. The antiviral activity of ribavirin against West Nile virus (WNV) was evaluated in various cell lines to select a model in which mutagenic effects could be studied. The antiviral activity was greatest in HeLa cells as ...
Yu Zhenkun Z Head and Neck Service and Hepatobiliary Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, - - 2005
Although a variety of malignant tumors are susceptible to therapy with oncolytic herpes simplex viruses, the determinants of tumor sensitivity to these viruses are poorly understood. Nectin-1 is a cell surface adhesion molecule that is a component of intercellular adherens junctions and also functions as a herpes viral receptor. Because ...
McCance Dennis J - - 2005
Human papillomaviruses cause cancer of the stratified epithelium, and the incidence of infection with these viruses in the genital tract is high. The alterations in the biology of normal epithelial cells that lead to malignancy are a consequence of the activity of certain viral proteins, whose function is to create ...
Fang Jianhua - - 2005
Productive infection by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) in the central nervous system (CNS) involves mainly macrophages and microglial cells. A frequency of less than 10% of human astrocytes is estimated to be infectable with HIV-1. Nonetheless, this relatively low percentage of infected astrocytes, but associated with a large ...
Hartl I - - 2005
Viruses conditionally replicating in cancer cells form an attractive novel class of antitumoral agents. To engineer such viruses infectivity can be coupled with proteolytic activity of the target cell by modifying the envelope (Env) protein of murine leukaemia virus (MLV) with blocking domains that prevent cell entry unless they are ...
Gigout Laure - - 2005
Over the past decade, AAV-based vectors have emerged as promising candidates for gene therapeutic applications. Despite the broad tropism of the first eight serotypes identified, certain cell types are refractory to transduction with AAV-based vectors. Furthermore, for certain applications the targeting of specific cell types is desirable. To improve on ...
Mahot Ségolène - - 2005
A number of viral proteins have the property to penetrate into the cells when present in the extra-cellular compartment. Here, we report that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transcriptional activator EB1/Zta, which is responsible for the activation of the EBV lytic replication, binds to lymphoid cells surface, is efficiently translocated and ...
Lan Nguyen Thi - - 2005
To know growth profiles of canine distemper virus (CDV) on Vero cells stably expressing canine signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (Vero-DogSLAMtag; Vero-DST cells), the propagation of three strains of CDV was tested in Vero-DST cells in comparison with parental Vero cells. Strain MD77 could grow well in both cell lines, but ...
Tempaku Akira - - 2005
Infection of human cell with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) was suppressed by cellular genetic factor(s) at reverse transcription step. Although same amount of virus adsorbed on both cells, small amount of HIV-1 (IIIB strain) infected HeLa (MAGI/CCR5) cell, while large amount of HIV-1 infected HOS (GHOST/CXCR4) cell. Regulation of ...
Harris Julie R JR Department of Microbiology, Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons, 701 W. 168th St., New York, NY 10032, - - 2005
Many steps of viral replication are dependent on the interaction of viral proteins with host cell components. To identify rhinovirus proteins involved in such interactions, human rhinovirus 39 (HRV39), a virus unable to replicate in mouse cells, was adapted to efficient growth in mouse cells producing the viral receptor ICAM-1 ...
Sloane Andrew J - - 2005
CXCR4, the chemotactic cell receptor for SDF-1alpha, is essential for immune trafficking and HIV infection. CXCR4 is remarkably heterogeneous and the purpose of this study was to better identify the isoforms expressed by cells and compare their structure and function. We found that cells express either a predominant isoform or ...
Patnayak Devi P - - 2005
The isolation of avian pneumovirus (APV) (avian metapneumovirus) is usually performed in embryonated chicken eggs or chicken embryo fibroblast cell cultures followed by adaptation in continuous cell lines such as Vero cells. This study was conducted to find a suitable cell line that could be used to propagate vaccine strains ...
Coskun Ayse Kubra - - 2005
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first human retrovirus identified and causes both adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy, among other disorders. In vitro, HTLV-1 has an extremely broad host cell tropism in that it is capable of infecting most mammalian cell types, although at ...
Janoo Anwar - - 2005
HIV-1, the etiologic agent of human AIDS, causes cell death in host and non-host cells via HIV-1 Vpr, one of its auxiliary gene product. HIV-1 Vpr can also cause cell cycle arrest in several cell types. The cellular processes that link HIV-1 Vpr to the cell death machinery are not ...
Feigelstock Dino A - - 2005
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been adapted to grow efficiently in primate and some nonprimate cell lines but not in cells of murine origin. To understand the inability of the virus to grow in mouse cells, we studied the replication of HAV in immortalized and nontransformed MMH-D3 mouse liver cells, ...
Tremblay Douglas - - 2005
The Red clover necrotic mosaic virus movement protein (MP) is essential for cell-to-cell movement. Eight previously characterized alanine-scanning mutants of the MP were fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and expressed from viral infectious transcripts. Inoculated plants were assayed for movement and intracellular accumulation of MP by confocal laser-scanning ...
Borkow G - - 2005
The multistep nature of HIV-1 entry provides multisite targeting at the entrance door of HIV-1 to cells. Blocking HIV-1 entry to its host cells has clear advantages over blocking subsequent stages in the life cycle of the virus. Indeed, potent cooperative and synergistic inhibition of HIV-1 proliferation has been observed ...
Cooper Arik - - 2005
Delivery of oligonucleotides (ON) into cells is a technical challenge. In this study, we utilized the capsid of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) to meet this goal. A single and short open reading frame of the virus programs efficient capsid production in bacteria. We show that these capsids can encapsulate ...
Yamaguchi Ryoji - - 2005
Canine distemper virus (CDV) growth and the morphological characterization were examined in a cell line established from a canine malignant histiocytosis (CCT cell line). The susceptibility of the CCT cells to 3 CDV strains, FXNO, YSA-TC and MD-77 was shown by detection of the antigen in the indirect fluorescent assay. ...
Mustafa Farah - - 2005
The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) long terminal repeat (LTR), compared with some primate lentiviral LTRs, is quite a strong basal promoter. However, it seems to be highly species-specific in function and generally not very efficient in cells of non-feline origin. This study systematically explored the function of the FIV LTR ...
Topliff Christina L - - 2005
We determined the in vitro and in vivo translational efficiency mediated by the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) from eight BVDV2 field isolates varying in virulence using a bicistronic reporter vector in rabbit reticulocyte lysates (RRL), and in primate and bovine cell lines. Using a T7-promoter system, the high virulence ...
Deffrasnes Céline - - 2005
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is associated with acute respiratory tract disease especially in young children. Using a quantitative real-time TaqMan PCR, we analyzed the replication kinetics of hMPV in different cell lines. Our results indicate that hMPV replicates slightly more efficiently in LLC-MK2 than in Vero cells and poorly in HEp-2 ...
Yeung Man Lung - - 2005
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs of 18-25 nucleotides (nt) in length that play important roles in regulating a variety of biological processes. Recent studies suggest that cellular miRNAs may serve to control the replication of viruses in cells. If such is the case, viruses might be expected to evolve the ...
Emmett Stevan R - - 2005
A number of different viruses interact with the cell cycle in order to subvert host-cell function and increase the efficiency of virus replication; examples can be found from DNA, retro, and RNA viruses. The majority of studies have been conducted on DNA and retroviruses whose primary site of replication is ...
Shackelford Julia - - 2005
The ability of viruses to co-opt cell signalling pathways has, over millions of years of co-evolution, come to pervade nearly every facet of cellular functions. Recognition of the extent to which the ubiquitin-proteasome system can be directed or subverted by viruses is relatively recent. Viral products interact with, and adjust, ...
De Bolle L - - 2005
Although HHV-6A and -6B are known to replicate preferably in human T-lymphocytes, in vitro infection of several other cell types has been described. Also, the finding that both variants use the ubiquitous molecule CD46 as a membrane receptor fully supports the possibility of a broad cellular tropism. However, productive infection, ...
Mavoungou Donatien - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Immunor (IM28), an analog of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) by inhibiting reverse transcriptase. We assessed the ability of IM28 to inhibit the cell-cell fusion mediated by HIV envelope glycoprotein in an in vitro system. For this purpose, we co-cultured TF228.1.16, a T-cell line expressing stably ...
Hyde Robyn M - - 2005
Previous work has shown that novel amphipalhic oligo and polyribonucleotides are potent inhibitors of HIV. It was hypothesized that the mechanism(s) of action for these compounds might be inhibition of retroviral reverse transcriptase (RT) and/or viral uptake by cells. A fluorescent oligonucleotide analog was prepared, and confocal microscopy studies were ...
Grill Jacques - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the conditionally replicating adenovirus (Ad) Ad.d24 for oncolysis of benign and malignant meningiomas. METHODS: Primary meningioma cells and organotypic spheroids were cultured from tumor biopsies of 12 consecutive unselected patients. Four different Ads were constructed and tested on meningioma cells and spheroids: a replication-deficient ...
Byrum Jennifer - - 2005
Lentivirus vector systems have been developed for the safe delivery of foreign genes to target tissues. However, the use of these systems for delivering specific proteins to target cells has been largely unexplored. To test this concept, the lentivirus expression plasmid pLenti was utilized to overexpress in producer cells a ...
Van Hoeven Neal S NS Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109-1024, - - 2005
Enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV) and jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) are closely related retroviruses that cause epithelial cancers of the respiratory tract in sheep and goats. Both viruses use the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface protein hyaluronidase 2 (Hyal2) as a receptor for cell entry, and entry is mediated by the ...
McCoubrie Joanne E - - 2004
HIV integrates into the host cell genome where it persists for the life of the cell. One approach to reducing viral burden is to selectively eliminate cells containing integrated provirus early following infection. We have used the HIV LTR promoter to selectively express transgenes in human cells positive for the ...
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