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Leung C - - 2012
Research and clinical applications, such as microinjection and polar body biopsy involve three-dimensional rotation of mammalian oocytes/embryos. In these cell manipulation tasks, the polar body of an embryo/oocyte must be made visible and properly oriented under optical microscopy. Cell rotation in conventional manual operation by skilled professionals is based on ...
Lloyd Melvyn - - 2012
The mouse lymphoma TK assay (MLA) is part of an in vitro battery of tests designed to predict risk assessment prior to in vivo testing. The test has the potential to detect mutagenic and clastogenic events at the thymidine kinase (tk) locus of L5178Y mouse lymphoma tk ( +/- ) ...
Matsuyama Makoto - - 2012
Recent accumulating data indicate links between planer cell polarity (PCP) and apicobasal (AB) polarity in epithelial cells. PCP regulatory genes have been shown to be involved in the establishment of AB polarity in addition to regulating PCP. We have shown that the gut tube of the mouse embryo is a ...
Cajal Marieke - - 2012
In the mouse embryo the anterior ectoderm undergoes extensive growth and morphogenesis to form the forebrain and cephalic non-neural ectoderm. We traced descendants of single ectoderm cells to study cell fate choice and cell behaviour at late gastrulation. In addition, we provide a comprehensive spatiotemporal atlas of anterior gene expression ...
Simon Christiane - - 2011
SOX10 is a well-conserved and widely expressed transcription factor involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of cell fate. As it is expressed in neural crest cells, their derivatives and the oligodendrocyte lineage, mutations of the protein contribute to a variety of diseases like neurocristopathies, peripheral ...
Williams Margot - - 2012
During gastrulation, an embryo acquires the three primordial germ layers that will give rise to all of the tissues in the body. In amniote embryos, this process occurs via an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of epiblast cells at the primitive streak. Although the primitive streak is vital to development, ...
Roy Srirupa S Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, - - 2012
Better preventive strategies are required to reduce ultraviolet (UV)-caused photodamage, the primary etiological factor for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Accordingly, here we examined the preventive efficacy of silibinin against UVB-induced photodamage using mouse epidermal JB6 cells and SKH1 hairless mouse epidermis. In JB6 cells, silibinin pretreatment protected against apoptosis and ...
Otsuki Junko - - 2011
BACKGROUNDGentle compression of mouse oocytes during meiosis-1 prevented the usual extrusion of a small polar body and resulted in the symmetrical division of the ooplasm into two cells of similar size within the zona pellucida. The purpose of our study was to determine whether such cells, equivalent to two small ...
Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno MaƂgorzata - - 2012
It is believed that there is symplastic isolation between the embryo (new sporophyte) and the endosperm (maternal-parental origin tissue, which nourishes the embryo) in angiosperms. However, in embryological literature there are rare examples in which plasmodesmata between the embryo suspensor and endosperm cells have been recorded (three species from Fabaceae). ...
Wang J - - 2011
Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are endowed with four unusual properties. They are exceedingly small, exhibiting an intracellular volume two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that of normal mammalian cells. Their rate of cell division, wherein cell doubling takes place in only 4-5 h, is more rapid than ...
Dittrich Ralf - - 2011
Background/Aim: Obtaining human embryonic stem cell lines has so far involved destroying the embryos. This has given rise to ethical concerns and is not permitted in most countries. This investigation tested whether removing multiple cells from blastocysts might allow continued embryonic development. A total of 40 blastocysts from a black ...
Grigorieva Irina V IV Academic Endocrine Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, University of Oxford, Headington, Oxford, United - - 2011
Parathyroid developmental anomalies, which result in hypoparathyroidism, are common and may occur in one in 4,000 live births. Parathyroids, in man, develop from the endodermal cells of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, whereas, in the mouse they develop solely from the endoderm of the third pharyngeal pouches. In addition, ...
Roode Mila M Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QR, - - 2012
Mouse embryos segregate three different lineages during preimplantation development: trophoblast, epiblast and hypoblast. These differentiation processes are associated with restricted expression of key transcription factors (Cdx2, Oct4, Nanog and Gata6). The mechanisms of segregation have been extensively studied in the mouse, but are not as well characterised in other species. ...
Tian J - - 2011
Cloned rabbits have been produced for many years by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The efficiency of cloning by SCNT, however, has remained extremely low. Most cloned embryos degenerate in utero, and the few that develop to term show a high incidence of post-natal death and abnormalities. The cell type ...
Huang Yongye - - 2011
Abstract Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inbibitor, has been shown to generate inducible pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts with a significant higher efficiency. Because successful cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) undergoes a full reprogramming process in which the epigenetic state of a differentiated ...
McCann Matthew R - - 2012
Back pain related to intervertebral disc degeneration is the most common musculoskeletal problem, with a lifetime prevalence of 82%. The lack of effective treatment for this widespread problem is directly related to our limited understanding of disc development, maintenance and degeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the ...
Tam Patrick - - 2011
This study illustrates how the combination of innovative genetic mouse models, embryological experimentation, and live-imaging techniques can resolve longstanding questions in endoderm formation during early mouse development. Kwon et al. showed that cells recruited from the epiblast during germ layer formation in the mouse embryo are not always incorporated into the ...
Dewannieux Marie - - 2011
The IAPE (Intracisternal A-type Particles elements with an Envelope) family of murine endogenous retroelements is present at more than 200 copies in the mouse genome. We had previously identified a single copy that proved to be fully functional, i.e. which can generate viral particles budding out of the cell and ...
Hamill Kevin J KJ Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, - - 2012
Mouse keratinocytes migrate significantly slower than their human counterparts in vitro on uncoated surfaces. We tested the hypothesis that this is a consequence of differences in the extracellular matrix (ECM) that cells deposit. In support of this, human keratinocyte motility was markedly reduced when plated onto the ECM of mouse ...
Kathirvel Poonkodi - - 2011
This study examines the chemical composition and in vitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GC-MS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl ...
Schatten Heide - - 2011
Comment on: Sun SC, et al. Cell Cycle 2011; 10:1853-60.
Acloque Hervé H Instituto de Neurociencias, CSIC-UMH, San Juan de Alicante 03550, - - 2011
In developing amniote embryos, the first epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs at gastrulation, when a subset of epiblast cells moves to the primitive streak and undergoes EMT to internalize and generate the mesoderm and the endoderm. We show that in the chick embryo this decision to internalize is mediated by reciprocal ...
Takahashi Satoshi - - 2011
To identify therapeutic molecular targets for glioma, we performed modified serological identification of antigens by recombinant complementary DNA (cDNA) expression cloning using sera from a mouse glioma model. Two clones, kinesin family member 23 (Kif23) and structural maintenance of chromosomes 4 (Smc4), were identified as antigens through immunological reaction with sera from ...
Leeb Martin M Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QR, - - 2011
Most animals are diploid, but haploid-only and male-haploid (such as honeybee and ant) species have been described. The diploid genomes of complex organisms limit genetic approaches in biomedical model species such as mice. To overcome this problem, experimental induction of haploidy has been used in fish. Haploid development in zebrafish ...
Almouzni Geneviève - - 2011
Defined as a chromatin structure that remains condensed throughout the cell cycle heterochromatin is generally transcriptionally silent and is characterized by a specific molecular signature. Constitutive heterochromatin at the pericentromere is a conserved feature throughout evolution, which impacts genome stability. Here, we will summarize recent advances in our understanding of ...
Kim Woosuk - - 2011
Frataxin plays important roles in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and in the differentiation of neurons during early development. In this study, we observed the effects of frataxin on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus. For this, we constructed an expression vector, PEP-1, that was fused ...
Liu X Johné - - 2011
Comment on: Zhang CH, et al. Cell Cycle 2011; 10:1861-70.
Leibo S P - - 2011
To describe several fundamental variables that influence ultimate survival of oocytes and embryos when they are cryopreserved. The literature describing fundamental and applied aspects of cryobiological variables that determine the responses of oocytes and embryos has been reviewed. When oocytes and embryos are to be cryopreserved, they are suspended in ...
Denissova Natalia G NG Department of Genetics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, 145 Bevier Rd, NJ 08854, United - - 2011
Maintenance of genomic integrity in embryonic cells is pivotal to proper embryogenesis, organogenesis and to the continuity of species. Cultured mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), a model for early embryonic cells, differ from cultured somatic cells in their capacity to remodel chromatin, in their repertoire of DNA repair enzymes, and ...
Kohaya Natsuki - - 2011
Unfertilized oocytes are one of the most desired germ cell stages for cryopreservation because these cryopreserved oocytes can be used for assisted reproductive technologies, including in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. However, in general, the fertility and developmental ability of cryopreserved oocytes are still low. The aim of ...
Jiao Jian - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to investigate the role of the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway in the regulation of ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in mouse nasal and tracheal epithelial cells. METHODS: We studied the effects of the NO donor l-arginine (L-Arg) and specific inhibitors of the NO signaling pathway on ...
Song Ning - - 2011
Histone modification has been implicated in the regulation of mammalian spermatogenesis. However, the association of differently modified histone H3 with a specific stage of germ cells during spermatogenesis is not fully understood. In this study, we examined the localization of variously modified histone H3 in paraffin-embedded sections of adult mouse ...
Tian Ying - - 2011
Trichlorfon is a widely used broad-spectrum agricultural insecticide. Few studies have evaluated the effects of trichlorfon on developing fetuses, especially at early stages of development after low-level maternal exposures. In this study, we evaluated the direct effects of trichlorfon on preimplantation mouse embryos after 30days of maternal exposure (2, 10 ...
De Bem Tiago H C - - 2011
Abstract Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has had an enormous impact on our understanding of biology and remains a unique tool for multiplying valuable laboratory and domestic animals. However, the complexity of the procedure and its poor efficiency are factors that limit a wider application of SCNT. In this context, ...
Hosoi Yusuke - - 2011
Fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) promotes isolation of trophoblast stem (TS) cells from mouse blastocysts and maintenance of TS cells in an undifferentiated state in vitro. To date, commercially available, bacterially expressed human FGF4 (RhFGF4) has been used generally for this purpose. In this study, HismFGF4, a 6x histidine-tagged mouse ...
Lim Han Jeong - - 2011
Minichromosome maintenance 10 (MCM10) is a conserved, abundant nuclear protein, which plays a key role in the initiation of eukaryotic chromosomal DNA replication and elongation. To elucidate the physiological importance of MCM10 in vivo, we generated conventional knockout mice. No MCM10-null embryos were recovered after E8.5, and the mutation was ...
Nakaguchi Azusa Takahashi - - 2011
Invasive stage embryos of the parasitic wasp Copidosoma floridanum transmigrate through the epithelium of phylogenetically distant host embryos in a manner that is similar to mammalian leukocyte infiltration. Host embryonic cells appear to recognize the invading wasp embryo by components on the cell surface. We developed an in vitro wasp ...
Takaoka Katsuyoshi - - 2011
Anterior-posterior polarity of the mouse embryo has been thought to be established when distal visceral endoderm (DVE) at embryonic day (E) 5.5 migrates toward the future anterior side to form anterior visceral endoderm (AVE). Lefty1, a marker of DVE and AVE, is asymmetrically expressed in implanting mouse embryos. We now ...
Hayashi-Takanaka Yoko - - 2011
Histone modifications play an important role in epigenetic gene regulation and genome integrity. It remains largely unknown, however, how these modifications dynamically change in individual cells. By using fluorescently labeled specific antigen binding fragments (Fabs), we have developed a general method to monitor the distribution and global level of endogenous ...
Jahan Nusrat - - 2011
By using a rhinosvirus/poliovirus type 1 chimera, PV1(RIPO), with the cognate internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2), we set out to shed light on the mechanism by which this variant expresses its attenuated phenotype in poliovirus-sensitive, CD155 transgenic (tg) mice and cynomolgus monkeys. Here we ...
Chiong Edmund - - 2011
PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (RAD001) on human bladder cancer (BC) cells in vitro and in vivo.EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The effect of RAD001 on the growth of UM-UC-3, UM-UC-6, UM-UC-9, and UM-UC-14 BC cells were assessed by crystal violet and [3H]Thymidine incorporation assays . Flow cytometry ...
Xie Qun - - 2011
Studies have shown that expression of snake venom cystatin (sv-cystatin) in mouse melanoma cells and human gastric carcinoma cells can inhibit their invasion and metastasis. To advance research into the biological features and pharmaceutical applications of sv-cystatin, we investigated the expression of recombinant sv-cystatin in an optimized Pichia pastoris system. ...
Kumar Janardan - - 2011
The increased intraocular pressure (IOP) has been considered to be an increased resistance of the aqueous humor outflow through the inner wall of Schlemm's canal (SC) and/or the juxtacanalicular tissue (JCT). The Rho GTPase-regulated actomyosin organization appears to be an important mechanistic determinant of aqueous humor outflow facility. Therefore, in ...
Yu Zhong - - 2011
The function of the essential inner membrane protein (IMP) YidC in Escherichia coli has been studied for a limited number of model IMPs and primarily using targeted approaches. These studies suggested that YidC acts at the level of insertion, folding, and quality control of IMPs, both in the context of ...
Arroba Ana I - - 2011
To characterize the effect of IGF-I in the rd10 mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa at the cellular level, focusing on the role of microglia in the neurodegenerative process. Both organotypic retinal explants and intravitreal injections were used to assess the effect of IGF-I on photoreceptor cell death in the Pde6b(rd10) ...
Phiel Christopher J - - 2011
Replying to T. Jaworski et al. 480, doi:10.1038/nature10615 (2011)GSK-3 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease through regulation of tau phosphorylation, cellular responses to amyloid-β and processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to amyloid-β. We previously reported that inhibition of GSK-3 reduces the accumulation of Aβ(40) and Aβ(42) ...
Evans Martin - - 2011
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells isolated from an early embryo and grown as a cell line in tissue culture. Their discovery came from the conjunction of studies in human pathology, mouse genetics, early mouse embryo development, cell surface immunology and tissue culture. ES cells provided a crucial tool ...
Wang Zhongde - - 2011
This chapter describes a detailed protocol for deriving mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines from blastocysts that are produced either by fertilization or by somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT or cloning). Rather than function as a scientific communication with the experts in this field, this protocol is written with researchers ...
Arthur Larry Matthew - - 2011
The MRL (Murphy Roths Large) mouse has provided a unique model of adult mammalian regeneration as multiple tissues show this important phenotype. Furthermore, the healing employs a blastema-like structure similar to that seen in amphibian regenerating tissue. Cells from the MRL mouse display DNA damage, cell cycle G2/M arrest, and ...
Hosokawa Yoichiroh - - 2011
Introduction of biomolecules into cells in living animals is one of the most important techniques in molecular and developmental biology research, and has potentially broad biomedical implications. Here we report that biomolecules can be introduced into single cells in living vertebrate embryos by photoporation using a femtosecond laser amplifier with ...
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