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Xie Dan-Li - - 2012
T-cell anergy is a state of T cells that is hyporesponsive to stimulation via the T-cell receptor and costimulatory molecules and is thought to be important for self-tolerance. How T-cell anergy is regulated is still poorly understood. We report here that tuberous sclerosis (TSC)1 is critical for T-cell anergy. Deficiency ...
Zhang Haihong - - 2012
INTRODUCTION: Side population (SP) cells may play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and the recurrence of cancer. Many kinds of cell lines and tissue have demonstrated presence of SP cells including different gastric cancer cell lines. However, is that true all SP cells contain cancer stem-like cells in gastric cancer ...
Radu T - - 2012
The behavior of yttria-alumina-silica spray-dried microspheres was investigated in vitro on a human keratinocyte cell line, first to exclude their cytotoxicity. The HaCaT cells were chosen due to their well-characterized phenotype and their phagocytic ability. Microscopic analysis and cell viability tests showed no negative effect of the microspheres on cells ...
Gilani Rabia A - - 2012
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are an effective therapy in treating estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Nonetheless, a significant percentage of patients either do not respond or become resistant to AIs. Decreased dependence on ER-signaling and increased dependence on growth factor receptor signaling pathways, particularly human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (EGFR2/HER2), have ...
Rosich Laia - - 2012
PURPOSE: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-lymphoid neoplasm with poor response to conventional chemotherapy and short survival. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR survival pathway is constitutively activated in MCL cells, thereby making the mTOR inhibition an attractive therapeutic strategy. The first clinical studies of everolimus (RAD001), an mTOR inhibitor, in ...
Mohan H M - - 2012
The gastrointestinal lumen is directly exposed to dietary contaminants, including patulin, a mycotoxin produced by moulds. Patulin is known to increase permeability across intestinal Caco-2 monolayers. This study aimed to determine the effect of patulin on permeability, ion transport and morphology in isolated rat colonic mucosae. Mucosal sheets were mounted ...
Yoo Seung Hee - - 2012
The Bcl-2 protein is known to exert not only anti-apoptotic but also anti-autophagic activities. Numerous studies have demonstrated that etoposide, which is one of the most widely used cancer chemotherapy agents, induces apoptotic cell death. However, the exact molecular mechanism leading to cell death by etoposide remains to be resolved. ...
Chell V - - 2013
Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) can act as driving oncoproteins in certain cancers, making them attractive drug targets. Here we have characterized tumour cell responses to two new inhibitors of FGFR1-3, AZ12908010 and the clinical candidate AZD4547, making comparisons with the well-characterized FGFR inhibitor PD173074. In a panel of 16 ...
Zeimet A G - - 2012
Because of its semi-solid character in dissemination and growth, advanced ovarian cancer with its hundreds of peritoneal tumor nodules and plaques appears to be an excellent in vivo model for studying the cancer stem cell hypothesis. The most important obstacle, however, is to adequately define and isolate these tumor-initiating cells ...
Ehrlichová Marie - - 2012
Resistance of tumours to taxanes causes chemotherapy failure in numerous patients. Resistance is partly due to the low tumour uptake of taxanes and their rapid metabolism. Structural modifications of taxanes can reduce their P-glycoprotein-related efflux or decrease metabolism and consequently increase taxane efficiency. This study compared cytotoxicity and effects of ...
Deniset-Besseau Ariane - - 2012
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Multidrug resistance (MDR) limits effectiveness in treating malignancy by modifying internalisation and/or externalisation of drugs through cancer cell membranes. In this study we describe an assay to monitor patients' responses to chemotherapy. METHODS: The assay is based on the fluorescent properties of doxorubicin alone as well as ...
Sekine Shinichi - - 2012
Prognosis for patients with gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is poor and the standard treatment for GBC has not yet been established. We established the human GBC cell line TYGBK-1, from a patient with papillary, tubular adenocarcinoma. The doubling time was 48 hours. This cell line has a missense mutation of p53 ...
Qian Xiaomin - - 2012
Down-regulation of microRNA-21 (miR-21) can induce cell apoptosis and reverse drug resistance in cancer treatments. In this study, we explored the most effective schedule of the miR-21 inhibitor (miR-21i) and temozolomide (TMZ) combined treatment in human glioma cells. Three tumor cell lines, U251 phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) mutant, LN229 ...
Jiang Xue-Jie - - 2012
In this study, we investigated the synergistic effects of panobinostat and bortezomib on adriamycin-resistant HL60/ADR cells and refractory acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) primary cells. Combination of both agents had synergistic cytotoxicity on these cells, and increased the sensitivity of HL60/ADR cells to adriamycin. Panobinostat plus bortezomib was shown to modulate ...
Quesnelle Kelly M - - 2012
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is widely expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) and can activate many growth and survival pathways within tumor cells. Despite ubiquitous EGFR expression, therapies targeting the receptor are only modestly effective in the treatment of HNSCC. A consistent mechanism of resistance ...
Close Pierre - - 2012
The Elongator complex is composed of 6 subunits (Elp1-Elp6) and promotes RNAPII transcript elongation through histone acetylation in the nucleus as well as tRNA modification in the cytoplasm. This acetyltransferase complex directly or indirectly regulates numerous biological processes ranging from exocytosis and resistance to heat shock in yeast to cell ...
Hoy Anna M AM Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, Ashworth Laboratories, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, - - 2012
miRNAs (microRNAs) are a class of small RNA that regulate gene expression by binding to mRNAs and modulating the precise amount of proteins that get expressed in a cell at a given time. This form of gene regulation plays an important role in developmental systems and is critical for the ...
Yumoto Ryoko - - 2012
The mechanism of cancer cell death induced by KP018, an ethanol extract of Thai Plant Ellipeiopsis cherrevensis, was examined in paclitaxel-resistant HepG2 (PR-HepG2) and colon-26 cells using flow cytometry. In PR-HepG2 cells, KP018 induced necrosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Necrosis of PR-HepG2 cells induced by KP018 as well as by ...
Nishimura Yukio - - 2012
Gefitinib is known to suppress the activation of EGFR signaling, which is required for cell survival and proliferation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. We previously demonstrated that the gefitinib-sensitive NSCLC cell line PC9 shows efficient ligand-induced endocytosis of phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR). In contrast, the gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cell ...
Hansen Anne - - 2012
The health threat caused by multiresistant bacteria has continuously increased and recently peaked with pathogens resistant to all current drugs. This has triggered intense research efforts to develop novel compounds to overcome the resistance mechanisms. Thus, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been intensively studied, especially the family of proline-rich AMPs (PrAMPs) ...
Xavier Cristina P R - - 2012
Colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) with P53 mutations have been shown to be resistant to chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), the most widely used chemotherapeutic drug for CRC treatment. Autophagy is emerging as a promising therapeutic target for drug-resistant tumors. In the present study, we tested the effects of ursolic acid (UA), a ...
Liu Li - - 2012
Imatinib resistance remains the big hurdle for CML therapy. Previous study reveals that c-myc is important for bcr-abl CML cell proliferation, while its role in imatinib resistance is largely unknown. In this study, we first found that c-myc expression is upregulated in imatinib resistant K562R cells, which in turn enhances ...
Wang Guanyu - - 2012
Radiotherapy (RT) is a major modality of cancer treatment. However, tumors often acquire radioresistance, which causes RT to fail. The exact mechanisms by which tumor cells subjected to fractionated irradiation (FIR) develop an adaptive radioresistance are largely unknown. Using the radioresistant KYSE-150R esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) model, which was ...
Montaldi Ana P - - 2012
Chemoresistance represents a major obstacle to successful treatment for malignant glioma with temozolomide. N (7)-methyl-G and N (3)-methyl-A adducts comprise more than 80 % of DNA lesions induced by temozolomide and are processed by the base excision repair, suggesting that the cellular resistance could be caused, in part, by this efficient ...
Quezada Claudia - - 2012
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells are characterised by their extreme chemoresistance. The activity of multiple-drug resistance (MDR) transporters that extrude antitumour drugs from cells plays the most important role in this phenomenon. To date, the mechanism controlling the expression and activity of MDR transporters is poorly understood. Activity of the enzyme ...
de Farias Caroline Brunetto - - 2012
The clinical success of targeted treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) is often limited by resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB have recently emerged as anticancer targets, and we have previously shown increased BDNF levels in CRC tumor samples. ...
de Llobet Lara I - - 2012
INTRODUCTION: Radiation resistance is a major cause of death in cancer patients. Cancer cells react during radiotherapy by re-programming specific cell functions that may confer resistance to radiation. The understanding of this complex process is hindered due to the lack of appropriate study models. We describe an experimental development of ...
Harada Daijiro - - 2012
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as gefitinib and erlotinib, are effective for non-small cell lung cancer with activating EGFR mutations. However, even in patients with an initial dramatic response to such a drug, acquired resistance develops after 6-12 months. A secondary mutation of T790M in EGFR ...
Kim Dal-Ho - - 2012
In the current study, we fabricated polymer (poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C(61) butyric-acid methyl-ester (PCBM) blend) photovoltaic (PV) cells embedded with p-type single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with tangled hair morphology. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) rapidly increased with SWCNT concentration of up to 6.83% coverage, and then decreased and saturated ...
Wang Meng - - 2012
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells with somatic mutations in epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are initially susceptible to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI); however, eventually resistance to TKI is developed in these cells, which leads to the failure of treatment. The most common mechanism of this acquired drug resistance is development ...
Siminas S - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) is a rare and usually unexpected cause of primary amenorrhoea that results from receptor resistance to androgens, producing a female phenotype in genetically male patients. CASE: A 16-year-old girl was diagnosed with CAIS after investigations for primary amenorrhoea. Her left inguinal gonad and the ...
Liu Nenghui - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to establish tumor tissue specific delivery of let-7i miRNA to reverse paclitaxel-induced chemoresistance. A chimera that combines MUC1 aptamer and let-7i miRNA was tested in OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. Results demonstrated that the chimera can specifically be delivered into OVCAR-3 cells and the released ...
Tsubaki Masanobu - - 2012
Multidrug resistance represents a major obstacle for the chemotherapy of a wide variety of human tumors. To investigate the underlying mechanisms associated with resistance to anti-cancer drugs, we established anti-cancer drug-resistant multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines RPMI8226/ADM, RPMI8226/VCR, RPMI8226/DEX, and RPMI8226/L-PAM, the 50% inhibitory concentration values of which were 77-, ...
Zhao Shan - - 2012
Despite recent advancements in therapeutic drugs, multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease. Therefore, a more effective treatment is urgently required. In this study, we show that isobavachalcone (IBC), a natural chalcone compound, induces apoptosis- and autophagy-related cell death in myeloma cells. The inhibition of autophagy by knocking down beclin-1 or ...
Patrauchan Marianna A - - 2012
Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, a catabolically diverse soil actinomycete, is highly resistant to long-term nutrient starvation. After 2 years of carbon starvation, 10% of the bacterial culture remained viable. To study the molecular basis of such resistance, we monitored the abundance of about 1,600 cytosolic proteins during a 2-week period of ...
Zhang Man M Department of Clinical Laboratory, Beijing Shi Ji Tan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of - - 2013
c-Abl is a proto-oncogene that is essential for mouse development and tissue homeostasis. Misregulation of c-Abl, as seen in the constitutively active BCR-ABL, is the leading cause of human chronic myeloid leukemia. However, how the Abl proteins execute their functions still remains largely unknown. Here, we report an important role ...
Zhang Xinxin - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate the dual-functional liposome (LPG) with synthetic polymeric nano-biomaterial (Gal-P123) that targets cancer cells and reverses multidrug resistance (MDR) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The mitoxantrone (MX) loaded LPG (MX-LPG) was about 100 nm in diameter, spherically shaped, and had an encapsulation ...
Qiu Yang - - 2012
Esophageal cancer (EC) is the most common esophageal malignancy and has a dismal prognosis. Developing novel strategies to reverse the resistance to chemotherapeutics in EC is currently of intense interest. The wide-type p53 induced gene 1 (WIG-1) is a p53-regulated transcription factor. The effect of WIG-1 on the regulation of ...
Gocek Elżbieta E Department of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, Tamka 2, 50-137 Wroclaw, - - 2012
Some leukemic cell lines can be driven to differentiate to monocyte-like cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25D) and to granulocyte-like cells by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Acute myloid leukemias (AMLs) are heterogeneous blood malignancies characterized by a block at various stages of hematopoietic differentiation and there are more than 200 known ...
Fukuda Tomokazu - - 2012
The pig is an important animal for both agricultural and medical purposes. However, the number of pig-derived cell lines is relatively limited when compared with mouse- and human-derived lines. We established in this study a retroviral conditional expression system for the Simian vacuolating virus 40 large T fragment (SV40T) which ...
Mondal D - - 2012
This paper reports the design and fabrication of electrode microtraps for single cell trapping and impedance measurement. In this work, the microtrap electrodes of parallel and elliptical geometry have been fabricated by electroplating of gold electrodes of optimum thickness. This has enabled the formation of electrode traps without requiring any ...
Kang Rong - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to determine whether autophagy was involved in cisplatin (CDDP) resistance and to investigate the role of the autophagy in the regulation of chemosensitivity to CDDP in laryngeal cancer Hep-2 cells. METHODS: A WST-1 assay was performed to determine cell viability and cell proliferation. ...
Helbig Stephanie - - 2012
Colicin M (Cma) is a protein toxin produced by Escherichia coli that kills sensitive E. coli cells by inhibiting murein biosynthesis in the periplasm. Recombinant plasmids carrying cbrA (formerly yidS) strongly increased resistance of cells to Cma, whereas deletion of cbrA increased Cma sensitivity. Transcription of cbrA is positively controlled ...
Kandala Prabodh K - - 2012
Anoikis is a cell death that occurs due to detachment of a cell from the extracellular matrix (ECM). Resistance to anoikis is a primary feature of a cell that undergoes metastasis. In this study for the first time, we demonstrated the potential role of Gli1 in anoikis resistance. Treatment of ...
Kim Kunhong - - 2012
Previously, we reported that high PKCK2 activity could protect cancer cells from death receptor-mediated apoptosis through phosphorylation of procaspase-2. Because anoikis is another form of apoptosis, we asked whether PKCK2 could similarly confer resistance to anoikis on cancer cells. Human esophageal squamous cancer cell lines with high PKCK2 activity (HCE4 ...
Sun Stella - - 2012
Temozolomide (TMZ) is standard chemotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Intratumoral hypoxia is common in GBM and may be associated with the development of TMZ resistance. Oxygen therapy has previously been reported to potentiate the effect of chemotherapy in cancer. In this study, we investigated whether hyperoxia can enhance the TMZ-induced ...
Bonet Caroline - - 2012
Metastatic melanoma is a deadly skin cancer and is resistant to almost all existing treatment. Vemurafenib, which targets the BRAFV600E mutation, is one of the drugs that improves patient outcome, but the patients next develop secondary resistance and a return to cancer. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are needed to treat ...
Eid Safaa Yehia - - 2012
Proteins of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily, mainly P-glycoprotein (P-gp; MDR1), play an important role in the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells and thus in the potential failure of chemotherapy. A selection of carotenoids (β-carotene, crocin, retinoic acid, canthaxanthin, and fucoxanthin) was investigated whether they are substrates of ...
Duan Xiaohong - - 2012
The precursors of odontoclast and the molecular mechanism by which odontoclasts resorb dentine remain unclear. MDPC-23 cells were derived from dental papilla cells and possessed odontoblast characteristics such as expressing dentine sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) and dentine matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1 (Dmp1). Here we induced MDPC-23 cells to have odontoclast-like functions with ...
Lin Chang-Shen CS Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. - - 2012
Because Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM)-deficient cells are hypersensitive to ionizing irradiation and DNA-damaging agents, ATM kinase inhibition is thought to enhance radiochemotherapy efficacy. In this study, we investigated the roles of autophagy and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in modulating cytotoxicity induced by suppression of ATM kinase in head and neck ...
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