Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 2245
< 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 >
Skoge Monica - - 2010
Cells respond to a variety of secreted molecules by modifying their physiology, growth patterns, and behavior. Motile bacteria and eukaryotic cells can sense extracellular chemoattractants and chemorepellents and alter their movement. In this way fibroblasts and leukocytes can find their way to sites of injury and cancer cells can home ...
Todorović Viktor - - 2010
We previously showed that the cell-cell junction protein plakoglobin (PG) not only suppresses motility of keratinocytes in contact with each other, but also, unexpectedly, of single cells. Here we show that PG deficiency results in extracellular matrix (ECM)-dependent disruption of mature focal adhesions and cortical actin organization. Plating PG⁻/⁻ cells ...
Torisawa Yu-Suke - - 2010
Chemokine CXCL12 promotes CXCR4-dependent chemotaxis of cancer cells to characteristic organs and tissues, leading to metastatic disease. This study was designed to investigate how cells expressing CXCR7 regulate chemotaxis of a separate population of CXCR4 cells under physiologic conditions in which cells are exposed to gradients of CXCL12. We recapitulated ...
Yui Yoshihiro - - 2010
The outcomes of osteosarcoma patients still remain poor because of intractable pulmonary metastasis. We previously established a highly metastatic osteosarcoma cell line, LM8 from Dunn mouse osteosarcoma by in vivo selection. We herein aimed to clarify the characteristic biological features related with high metastatic potential and new target molecules to ...
Getty Amanda L - - 2011
Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL) is a pediatric lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of autofluorescent storage material and neurodegeneration, which result from mutations in CLN3. The function of CLN3, a lysosomal membrane protein, is currently unknown. We report that CLN3 interacts with cytoskeleton-associated nonmuscle myosin-IIB. Both CLN3 and myosin-IIB ...
Tsareva Svetlana A - - 2011
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is persistently activated in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cells in the tumor context, but inactive in cultivated CRC cell lines. We approached mechanisms leading to STAT3 activation in CRC by mimicking "tumor-like" growth conditions and forcing cell-cell contacts of HT-29 CRC cells in ...
Bolourani Parvin - - 2010
During the aggregation of Dictyostelium cells, signaling through RasG is more important in regulating cyclic AMP (cAMP) chemotaxis, whereas signaling through RasC is more important in regulating the cAMP relay. However, RasC is capable of substituting for RasG for chemotaxis, since rasG⁻ cells are only partially deficient in chemotaxis, whereas ...
Adams Homer C HC - - 2010
ABSTRACT: T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis-inducing protein (Tiam1) is a Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac)-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor that was isolated based on its ability to induce a metastatic phenotype. In polarized migrating keratinocytes, Tiam1 is found at the leading edge where it cooperates with the Protease-activated receptor ...
Meriin Anatoli B - - 2010
Upon permanent stresses and in various diseases, small protein aggregates may accumulate in cells and cause toxicity. A recently discovered protective system transports these aggregates to the centrosome location via microtubules, to form a large agglomerate of aggregates called the aggresomes. Here, we describe a newly developed method for isolating ...
Kimura Kei - - 2010
We have previously reported that benzohydroxamic acid (BHAM), a potent inhibitor of cyanide (CN)-resistant respiration mediated by alternative oxidase (AOX), induces formation of unique cell masses (i.e., stalk-like cells with a large vacuole and thick cell wall) in starved Dictyostelium cells. Unexpectedly, however, aox-null cells prepared by homologous recombination exhibited ...
Coulton Arthur T - - 2010
Tropomyosin (Tm) is a conserved dimeric coiled-coil protein, which forms polymers that curl around actin filaments in order to regulate actomyosin function. Acetylation of the Tm N-terminal methionine strengthens end-to-end bonds, which enhances actin binding as well as the ability of Tm to regulate myosin motor activity in both muscle ...
Vanherberghen Bruno - - 2010
We demonstrate a microplate platform for parallelized manipulation of particles or cells by frequency-modulated ultrasound. The device, consisting of a silicon-glass microchip and a single ultrasonic transducer, enables aggregation, positioning and high-resolution microscopy of cells distributed in an array of 100 microwells centered on the microchip. We characterize the system ...
Nonaka Takashi - - 2010
The deposition of amyloid-like filaments in the brain is the central event in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Here we report cellular models of intracytoplasmic inclusions of α-synuclein, generated by introducing nucleation seeds into SH-SY5Y cells with a transfection reagent. Upon introduction of preformed seeds into cells overexpressing α-synuclein, abundant, ...
Vogel Sabine - - 2010
Cells are responding to hypoxia via prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) enzymes, which are responsible for oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α subunit. To gain further insight into PHD function, we generated knockdown cell models for the PHD2 isoform, which is the main isoform regulating HIF-1α hydroxylation and thus stability in ...
Yu Hui - - 2011
In this paper, impedance measurement of electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structure with high spatial resolution was proposed to monitor cell adhesion. The light addressing ability of this work overcomes the geometrical restrict of cell culture on conventional impedance detection devices such as interdigitated electrode (IDE) and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). Instead ...
Green J E F - - 2010
Liver cell aggregates may be grown in vitro by co-culturing hepatocytes with stellate cells. This method results in more rapid aggregation than hepatocyte-only culture, and appears to enhance cell viability and the expression of markers of liver-specific functions. We consider the early stages of aggregate formation, and develop a new ...
Phillips Jonathan E - - 2010
AprA and CfaD are secreted proteins that function as autocrine signals to inhibit cell proliferation in Dictyostelium discoideum. Cells lacking AprA or CfaD proliferate rapidly, and adding AprA or CfaD to cells slows proliferation. Cells lacking the ROCO kinase QkgA proliferate rapidly, with a doubling time 83% of that of ...
Seki Takahiro - - 2010
Several missense mutations in the protein kinase Cγ (γPKC) gene have been found to cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease. We previously demonstrated that the mutant γPKC found in SCA14 is susceptible to aggregation, which induces apoptotic cell death. The disaccharide trehalose has been reported ...
Li Xinhua - - 2010
Semaphorins and plexins are implicated in the progression of various types of cancer, although the molecular basis has not been fully elucidated. Here, we report the expression of plexin-B3 in glioma cells, which upon stimulation by its ligand Sema5A results in significant inhibition of cell migration and invasion. A search ...
Li Qi - - 2010
Rab is a large subfamily of small GTPases which play an important role in multiple processes relating to cellular transportation and modulation of the cytoskeleton. Novel gene Rab-like 3 (Rabl3), which we originally reported as a new member belonging to this subfamily, may participate in other processes in human cancer ...
Zheng Hong - - 2010
The use of highly specific and highly sensitive quantum dots immunofluorescent label is a promising approach for biomedical imaging in cancer cells. Human melanoma cell adhesion molecule CD146, overexpressed on the surface of melanoma cells, is an important target for melanoma diagnostics. We synthesized PEG-COOH capped highly fluorescent CdSe/ZnS QDs ...
Blanchard Guy B - - 2010
Fluctuations in the shape of amnioserosa (AS) cells during Drosophila dorsal closure (DC) provide an ideal system with which to understand contractile epithelia, both in terms of the cellular mechanisms and how tissue behaviour emerges from the activity of individual cells. Using quantitative image analysis we show that apical shape ...
Choi Chang-Hoon - - 2010
Increased intracellular pH is an evolutionarily conserved signal necessary for directed cell migration. We reported previously that in Dictyostelium cells lacking H(+) efflux by a Na(+)-H(+) exchanger (NHE; Ddnhe1(-)), chemotaxis is impaired and the assembly of filamentous actin (F-actin) is attenuated. We now describe a modifier screen that reveals the ...
Tekin Halil H Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 02139, - - 2010
Generating cell aggregates is beneficial for various applications ranging from biotechnology to regenerative therapies. Previously, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) microwells have been demonstrated as a potentially useful method for generating controlled-size cell aggregates. In addition to controlling cell aggregate size and homogeneity, the ability to confine cell aggregates on glass adhesive ...
Gruver J Scott - - 2010
Cell motility is a fundamental process with relevance to embryonic development, immune response, and metastasis. Cells move either spontaneously, in a nondirected fashion, or in response to chemotactic signals, in a directed fashion. Even though they are often studied separately, both forms of motility share many complex processes at the ...
Shina Maria C - - 2011
Dictyostelium discoideum harbors a short (CRN12) and a long coronin (CRN7) composed of one and two beta-propellers, respectively. They are primarily present in the cell cortex and cells lacking CRN12 (corA⁻) or CRN7 (corB⁻) have defects in actin driven processes. We compared the characteristics of a mutant cell line (corA⁻/corB⁻) ...
Mostafa Randa-M - - 2010
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are important players in the symphony of gut motility. They have a very significant physiological role orchestrating the normal peristaltic activity of the digestive system. They are the pacemaker cells in gastrointestinal (GI) muscles. Absence, reduction in number or altered integrity of the ICC network ...
Swiston Albert J - - 2010
Cellular "backpacks" are a new type of anisotropic, nanoscale thickness microparticle that may be attached to the surface of living cells creating a "bio-hybrid" material. Previous work has shown that these backpacks do not impair cell viability or native functions such as migration in a B and T cell line, ...
Shu Shi - - 2010
We showed previously that phosphorylation of Tyr(53), or its mutation to Ala, inhibits actin polymerization in vitro with formation of aggregates of short filaments, and that expression of Y53A-actin in Dictyostelium blocks differentiation and development at the mound stage (Liu, X., Shu, S., Hong, M. S., Levine, R. L., and ...
Feasley Christa L - - 2010
Genetic analysis has implicated the cell surface glycoprotein gp130 in cell interactions of the social amoeba Dictyostelium, and information about the utilization of the 18 N-glycosylation sequons present in gp130 is needed to identify critical molecular determinants of its activity. Various glycomics strategies, including mass spectrometry of native and derivatized ...
Skorkina M J - - 2010
We used a new nanotechnological approach for evaluation of functional activity of adrenoceptors during treatment of cell surfaces with various drugs. Local elasticity maps by nanoindentation points were constructed, which show the targets for drugs on transporter cells under natural conditions. The applied approach allowed identification of structural transformations in ...
Ishikawa-Ankerhold Hellen C - - 2010
Coronin and actin-interacting protein 1 (Aip1) are actin-binding proteins that by different mechanisms inhibit actin polymerization or enhance the disassembly of actin filaments. Cells of Dictyostelium discoideum lacking both proteins are retarded in growth and early development and often fail to proceed to fruiting body formation. Coronin/Aip1-null cells show numerous ...
Barizuddin Syed - - 2010
Here we describe a method to fabricate a multi-channel high-throughput microchip device for measurement of quantal transmitter release from individual cells. Instead of bringing carbon-fiber electrodes to cells, the device uses a surface chemistry approach to bring cells to an array of electrochemical microelectrodes. The microelectrodes are small and "cytophilic" ...
Zhang Yuejie - - 2010
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) exhibit therapeutic potential in neuronal diseases. Previously, we reported that a sulfated polysaccharide (HS) from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus increased the proliferation of NSPCs. Since the formation of neurospheres is related with NSPCs proliferation, we investigated the mechanism leading to neurosphere formation with and without ...
Kawasaki Toshihiro - - 2010
The self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is essential for the continuous production of sperm throughout life in male vertebrates. The development of a functional assay to analyze these properties in isolated SSCs remains necessary. In our current study, we have developed a transplantation method for testicular cell ...
Piggot Patrick - - 2010
Growing populations of Bacillus subtilis exhibit bistability: motile cells co-exist with long chains of sessile cells. An epigenetic switch has been characterized that controls the transition between the two cell types.
Barry Nicholas P - - 2010
Animal cells migrating over a substratum crawl in amoeboid fashion; how the force against the substratum is achieved remains uncertain. We find that amoebae and neutrophils, cells traditionally used to study cell migration on a solid surface, move toward a chemotactic source while suspended in solution. They can swim and ...
Makridakis Manousos - - 2010
Secreted proteins play a key role in cell signaling, communication, and migration. We recently described the development of an aggressive variant (T24M) of the bladder cancer cell line T24. Using this cell line model, the objective of our work was the identification of secreted proteins involved in the acquisition of ...
Kuzdzal-Fick Jennie J - - 2010
Greater size and strength are common attributes of contest winners. Even in social insects with high cooperation, the right to reproduce falls to the well-fed queens rather than to poorly fed workers. In Dictyostelium discoideum, formerly solitary amoebae aggregate when faced with starvation, and some cells die to form a ...
Jbireal Jbireal M Ali - - 2010
Several myosin isotypes are discussed to be involved in the migration of various cells ranging from tumor cells to leukocytes. We investigated the involvement of myosins II and VI in the lymphoid leukemia cells lines Jurkat, NB4, Dohh-2, and Molt-4 by a three-dimensional, collagen-based migration assay. Down-regulation of myosin VI ...
Wilson Cyrus A - - 2010
Crawling locomotion of eukaryotic cells is achieved by a process dependent on the actin cytoskeleton: protrusion of the leading edge requires assembly of a network of actin filaments, which must be disassembled at the cell rear for sustained motility. Although ADF/cofilin proteins have been shown to contribute to actin disassembly, ...
Malladi Anish - - 2010
Fruit size regulation was studied in the apple cultivar 'Gala' and a large fruit size spontaneous mutant of 'Gala', 'Grand Gala' (GG). GG fruits were 15% larger in diameter and 38% heavier than 'Gala' fruits, largely due to an increase in size of the fruit cortex. The mutation in GG ...
Niba Emma Tabe Eko - - 2010
RodZ (YfgA) is a membrane protein well conserved among bacterial species and important in the determination of cell shape and motility, although the molecular mechanism involved is not well established. We have characterized a DeltarodZ mutant and show that defective peptidoglycan synthesis might be the primary effect of the deletion. ...
Fuller Danny - - 2010
Chemotaxis, the chemically guided movement of cells, plays an important role in several biological processes including cancer, wound healing, and embryogenesis. Chemotacting cells are able to sense shallow chemical gradients where the concentration of chemoattractant differs by only a few percent from one side of the cell to the other, ...
Olshina Maya A - - 2010
Huntington disease is caused by expanded polyglutamine sequences in huntingtin, which procures its aggregation into intracellular inclusion bodies (IBs). Aggregate intermediates, such as soluble oligomers, are predicted to be toxic to cells, yet because of a lack of quantitative methods, the kinetics of aggregation in cells remains poorly understood. We ...
Pinzón-Arango Paola A - - 2010
The surface of dormant Bacillus anthracis spores consists of a multilayer of protein coats and a thick peptidoglycan layer that allow the cells to resist chemical and environmental insults. During germination, the spore coat is degraded, making the spore susceptible to chemical inactivation by antisporal agents as well as to ...
Fooksman David R - - 2010
Like T cell activation, B cell activation is driven by aggregation of B cell receptors (BCRs) into microclusters. New work suggests that the early dynamics of BCR mobility and microcluster formation "translate" BCR affinity for antigen into B cell responsiveness.
Patryn Jacek - - 2010
MglA, a 22-kDa protein related to monomeric GTPases, is required for the normal operation of the A (Adventurous) and S (Social) motility and for multicellular development of Myxococcus xanthus. To determine how MglA controls A- and S-motility, MglA was assayed biochemically and its cellular location was determined. His-tagged MglA hydrolyzed ...
Fatehi Hasnaa - - 2010
We use a generic agent-based model to investigate cellular aggregation in response to cell-cell interactions. Cells secrete soluble chemokines that are detected by other cells which carry specific receptors for this chemokine. In a process termed 'chemotaxis' the direction of motility of cells is determined by the concentration gradient of ...
Gregor Thomas - - 2010
In the social amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum, periodic synthesis and release of extracellular cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) guide cell aggregation and commitment to form fruiting bodies. It is unclear whether these oscillations are an intrinsic property of individual cells or if they exist only as a population-level phenomenon. Here, we showed ...
< 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 >