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Results 451 - 500 of 2245
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Shai Ela - - 2011
Cells of various types release small membrane vesicles called microparticles (MP) on their activation, as well as during the process of apoptosis. The properties and roles of MP generated in different contexts are diverse and are determined by their parent cell and the pathway of their generation, which affects their ...
Li Wentong - - 2011
In addition to several molecular and morphologic changes, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) cells also show variation in sensitivity to chemotherapeutics agents. The aim of this study was to investigate whether overexpression of Snail in MCF-7 cells is associated with facilitated acquisition of P-gp mediated multidrug resistance (MDR). The results demonstrated that ...
Jankowski Maciej - - 2011
Autotaxin (ATX) is an extracellular lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) released from normal cells and cancer cells. Activity of ATX is detected in various biological fluids. The lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is the main product of ATX. LPA acting through specific G protein-coupled receptors (LPA(1)-LPA(6)) affects immunological response, normal development, and malignant tumors' ...
Paszel Anna - - 2011
Multidrug resistance (MDR) in leukemia patients is a great incentive to the development of new drugs. In a search for potential multidrug resistance modulators we tested a group of oleanolic acid (OA) analogues modified at C-3, C-11, C-12 and C-28 using an experimental model consisting of three human acute lymphoblastic ...
González Monika - - 2011
Insect cell culture is becoming increasingly important for applications including recombinant protein production and cell-based screening with chemical or RNAi libraries. While stable mammalian cell lines expressing a protein of interest can be efficiently prepared using IRES-based vectors or viral-based approaches, options for stable insect cell lines are more limited. ...
Fabian Marc R - - 2011
Experiments with cell cultures have been useful in analyzing microRNA action. However, miRNA-mediated effects are often assayed many hours or days after miRNA target recognition. Consequently, this has made it difficult to analyze early events of miRNA-mediated repression. The development of cell-free systems that recapitulate miRNA action in vitro has ...
She Jun-Jun - - 2011
To ascertain whether side population (SP) cells in HXO-Rb44 retinoblastoma cell line have cancer stem cell-like property in vitro and in vivo. We analyzed and sorted SP from HXO-Rb44 retinoblastoma cell line by Hoechst 33342 staining on flow cytometry. SP and NSP cells were determined their ability of proliferation and ...
Theilacker Christian - - 2011
Deletion of the glycosyltransferase bgsA in Enterococcus faecalis leads to loss of diglucosyldiacylglycerol from the cell membrane and accumulation of its precursor monoglucosyldiacylglycerol, associated with impaired biofilm formation and reduced virulence in vivo. Here we analyzed the function of a putative glucosyltransferase EF2890 designated biofilm-associated glycolipid synthesis B (bgsB) immediately ...
Pham Theodore - - 2011
Macrophages can remove antigen from the surface of antibody-coated cells by a process termed trogocytosis. Using live cell microscopy and flow cytometry, we investigated the dynamics of trogocytosis by RAW264.7 macrophages of Ramos B cells opsonized with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab. Spontaneous and reversible formation of uropods was observed ...
Howe Erin N - - 2011
miR-200c and other members of the miR-200 family promote epithelial identity by directly targeting ZEB1 and ZEB2, which repress E-cadherin and other genes involved in polarity. Loss of miR-200c is often observed in carcinoma cells that have undergone epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Restoration of miR-200c to such cells leads ...
Bandeira-Melo Christianne - - 2011
Eicosanoids, arachidonic acid-derived signaling lipid mediators, are newly formed and nonstorable molecules that have important roles in physiological and pathological processes. EicosaCell is a microscopic assay that enables the intracellular detection and localization of eicosanoid lipid mediator-synthesizing compartments by means of a strategy to covalently cross-link and immobilize eicosanoids at ...
Chen Lei - - 2010
A targeted detection of gastric cancer cells is achieved by combining the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI)-based biosensing system and RGD-4C peptide coupled, chitosan covered superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (RGD-Fe(3)O(4)@chitosan). The micro-patterned GMI sensor for targeted detection is made of Co-based ribbon and fabricated by micro electromechanical system (MEMS) technology. Functionalized nanoparticles ...
Wang Liming - - 2010
We have observed that Au nanorods (NRs) have distinct effects on cell viability via killing cancer cells while posing negligible impact on normal cells and mesenchymal stem cells. Obvious differences in cellular uptake, intracellular trafficking, and susceptibility of lysosome to Au NRs by different types of cells resulted in selective ...
O'Reilly Mary K - - 2011
CD22 is a member of the sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec) family that is known to be a regulator of B cell signaling. Its B cell-specific expression makes it an attractive target for immunotoxin-mediated B cell depletion therapy for the treatment of B cell lymphomas and autoimmune diseases. Although CD22 ...
Jeong Young Sun - - 2011
With the objective of returning cells to their undifferentiated state through alteration of epigenetic states, small molecules have been used that specifically inhibit proteins involved in sustaining the epigenetic system. However, this chemical-based approach can cause chaotic epigenomic states due to random actions of the inhibitors. We investigated whether JHDM3A/JMJD2A, ...
Albertazzi Lorenzo - - 2010
Synthesis and targeted delivery of dendrimer-based fluorescent biosensors in living HeLa cells are reported. Following electroporation dendrimers are shown to display specific subcellular localization depending on their size and surface charge and this property is preserved when they are functionalized with sensing moieties. We analyze the case of double dendrimer ...
Batchelor Andrew M - - 2010
Nitric oxide (NO) functions as a diffusible transmitter in most tissues of the body and exerts its effects by binding to receptors harboring a guanylyl cyclase transduction domain, resulting in cGMP accumulation in target cells. Despite its widespread importance, very little is known about how this signaling pathway operates at ...
Ghosal Sandip - - 2010
The maximum force that a crawling cell can exert on a substrate is a quantity of interest in cell biomechanics. One way of quantifying this force is to allow the cell to crawl against a measurable and adjustable restraining force until the cell is no longer able to move in ...
Avci-Adali Meltem - - 2010
Aptamers represent auspicious ligands for recognition of target molecules on the surface of a specific cell population, such as stem or cancer cells. These ligands are able to capture and enrich desired cells from a cell mixture, and can be used for identification of new biomarkers, development of cell-specific therapeutics, ...
Mayer Günter - - 2010
Aptamers that target a specific cell subpopulation within composite mixtures represent invaluable tools in biomedical research and in the development of cell-specific therapeutics. Here we describe a detailed protocol for a modular and generally applicable scheme to select aptamers that target the subpopulations of cells in which you are interested. ...
Song Yao - - 2010
[PSI(+)] phenotype can be transiently induced when Magnesium chloride (MgCl(2)) was the selective pressure in SUP35 repeat-expansion mutant [psi(-)] yeast strains. We further investigated [PSI(+)] phenotype change under different MgCl(2) conditions with native Sup35p and quantified the Sup35p status changes with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and semi-denaturing detergent-agarose gel ...
Xu Gaixia - - 2010
In this paper, we report the synthesis of FGF-2 peptide labeled luminescent nanocrystals as optical probes for targeted imaging of live neuroblastoma cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy technique was used to confirm the receptor-mediated uptake of the bioconjugates into the live neuroblastoma cells and study the dynamic profile of the ...
Yang Mi Young - - 2011
Tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) is an integrin-like cell surface protein upregulated on tumor blood vessels and a potential vascular target for cancer therapy. Here, we found that the ability of an anti-TEM8 antibody, clone SB5, to recognize the extracellular domain of TEM8 on the cell surface depends on other ...
Markoutsa Eleni - - 2011
The targeting potential of OX-26-decorated immunoliposomes was investigated, using the human brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 as a model of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Immuno-nanoliposomes were prepared by the biotin/streptavidin ligation strategy, and their uptake by hCMEC/D3 cells and permeability through cell monolayers was studied. In order to elucidate the ...
Friedland W - - 2011
Track structure studies using PARTRAC have been performed with the aim to investigate the possibility of revealing information on initiating targets and mechanisms of bystander effects mediated by signals released into the culture medium. Dependences on radiation dose have been assessed for alternative signal emission scenarios, defined by required energy ...
Xu Chun-Xiu - - 2011
A chip-based microfluidic system for high-throughput single-cell analysis is described. The system was integrated with continuous introduction of individual cells, rapid dynamic lysis, capillary electrophoretic (CE) separation and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. A cross microfluidic chip with one sheath-flow channel located on each side of the sampling channel was ...
Soenen Stefaan J H - - 2011
The in vitro labeling of cultured cells with nanomaterials is a frequent practice but the efficiency, specificity and cytotoxicity of labeling specific cell types using targeted nanoparticles has only rarely been investigated. In the present work, functionalized anionic lipid-coated iron oxide cores (magnetoliposomes (MLs)) bearing galactose moieties were used for ...
Gunn Jonathan - - 2011
Nanoparticle-based cancer diagnostics and therapeutics can be significantly enhanced by selective tissue localization, but the strategy can be complicated by the requirement of a targeting ligand conjugated on nanoparticles, that is specific to only one or a limited few types of neoplastic cells, necessitating the development of multiple nanoparticle systems ...
Lee Eun-Sang - - 2011
The alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) is an effective drug used for the treatment of malignant gliomas. However, tumor relapse combined with the development of drug resistance remains a significant problem. To clarify the mechanism of the resistance of glioma cells to TMZ chemotherapy, TMZ-resistant glioma cell lines (TR cells) were ...
Mackay Douglas R - - 2010
Correct assembly of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which directly and indirectly control nuclear environment and architecture, is vital to genomic regulation. We previously found that nucleoporin 153 (Nup 153) is required for timely progression through late mitosis. In this study, we report that disruption of Nup 153 function by either ...
Keene Athena M - - 2011
Abstract Nanoparticles (NP) often interfere with the mechanism and interpretation of high throughput in vitro toxicity assays. This interference may occur at any time during the assay and spans most NP systems. This study reports on a specific type of gold NP assay interference, where unmodified gold NPs were able ...
Wang Ying - - 2010
To enhance site-specific intracellular delivery against folate receptor, heparin-PEG-folate (H-PEG-F) containing succinylated-heparin conjugated with folate via PEG 1000/3000 spacers has been prepared. Due to covalent strategy, H-PEG-F displays amphiphilic property, which is capable of entrapping a hydrophobic agent, like taxol, to form heparin-PEG-folate-taxol nanoparticles (H-PEG-F-T NPs) in aqueous solution. Hydrophobic ...
Chen Baodong - - 2011
Medulloblastoma is one of the common malignant brain tumors in children or young adults and its overall disease-free 5-year survival rate is approximately 50% due to tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. This study aimed to determine whether one of Rho GTPases, Rac1 can affect the morphology, motility, and invasion of ...
Bradley Elizabeth W - - 2010
Although genetic evidence has demonstrated a role for Wnt5b during cartilage and limb development, little is known about the mechanisms underlying Wnt5b-regulated chondrocyte differentiation. We observed that Wnt5b inhibited chondrocyte hypertrophy and expression of type X collagen. In addition, Wnt5b regulated the overall size of chondrogenic cultures, suggesting that Wnt5b ...
Lau Ting Ting - - 2011
In engineered regenerative medicine, various types of scaffolds have been customized to pursue the optimal environment for different types of therapeutic cells. In liver therapeutic research, hepatocytes require attachment to solid anchors for survival and proliferation before they could grow into cellular aggregates with enhanced functionalities. Among the various biomaterials ...
Lau Ting Ting - - 2010
In engineered regenerative medicine, various types of scaffolds have been customized to pursue the optimal environment for different types of therapeutic cells. In liver therapeutic research, hepatocytes require attachment to solid anchors for survival and proliferation before they could grow into cellular aggregates with enhanced functionalities. Among the various biomaterials ...
Wang Qiujun - - 2011
Isoflurane is known to increase β-amyloid aggregation and neuronal damage. We hypothesized that isoflurane will have similar effects on the polyglutamine huntingtin protein and will cause alterations in intracellular calcium homeostasis. We tested this hypothesis in striatal cells from the expanded glutamine huntingtin knock-in mouse (STHdh(Q111/Q111)) and wild type (STHdh(Q7/Q7)) ...
Tan Qian - - 2011
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems of free-living bacteria have recently demonstrated that these toxins inhibit cell growth by targeting essential functions of cellular metabolism. Here we show that YeeV toxin inhibits cell division, leads to a change in morphology and lysis of Escherichia coli cells. YeeV interacts with two essential cytoskeleton proteins, ...
Malagoli Davide - - 2010
Cell motility, cell migration and phagocytosis are distinct, though frequently sequential, processes. They are fundamental for the maintenance of homoeostasis in single cells as well as in pluricellular organisms. Like vertebrates, invertebrate immune functions are strictly dependent on cell motility, chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Several comparative immunobiology experiments have tested the ...
Wang Liming - - 2010
The invasive phenotype of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a hallmark of malignant process, yet the molecular mechanisms that dictate this locally invasive behavior remain poorly understood. Over-expression of PIAS3 effectively changes cell shape and inhibits GBM cell migration. We focused on the molecular target(s) of PIAS3 stimulated sumoylation, which play ...
Polański Radosław - - 2010
Recent studies connect MDM2 with increased cell motility, invasion and/or metastasis proposing an MDM2-mediated ubiquitylation-dependent mechanism. Interestingly, in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) p53/MDM2 co-expression is associated with reduced survival which is independently linked with metastasis. We therefore investigated whether expression of p53 and/or MDM2 promotes aggressive cell phenotypes. Our data ...
Niinaka Yasufumi - - 2010
Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) is a multifunctional enzyme that functions in glucose metabolism as a glycolytic enzyme catalyzing an interconversion between glucose and fructose inside the cell, while it acts as cytokine outside the cell, with properties that include autocrine motility factor (AMF)-regulating tumor cell motility. Overexpression of AMF/PGI induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal ...
Kovarik Michelle L - - 2010
Motile bacteria bias the random walk of their motion in response to chemical gradients by the process termed chemotaxis, which allows cells to accumulate in favorable environments and disperse from less favorable ones. In this work, we describe a simple microchannel-nanopore device that establishes a stable chemical gradient for chemotaxis ...
Ikeda Ryuji - - 2011
Erlotinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is an effective therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, resistance to erlotinib reduces its efficacy. To investigate the basis of erlotinib resistance, we isolated erlotinib-resistant human NSCLC A549 cells, termed A549/ER cells. The A549/ER cells were found to ...
Ray Sibnath - - 2011
Dictyostelium discoideum cells normally exist as individual amoebae, but will enter a period of multicellular development upon starvation. The initial stages of development involve the aggregation of individual cells, using cAMP as a chemoattractant. Chemotaxis is initiated when cAMP binds to its receptor, cAR1, and activates the associated G protein, ...
Pang Te-Ling - - 2010
Through analysis of a chemotaxis mutant obtained from a genetic screen in Dictyostelium discoideum, we have identified a new gene involved in regulating cell migration and have named it costars (cosA). The 82 amino acid Costars protein sequence appears highly conserved among diverse species, and significantly resembles the C-terminal region ...
Dallon J C - - 2011
Recent experimental work involving Dictyostelium discoideum seems to contradict several theoretical models. Experiments suggest that localization of the release of the chemoattractant cyclic adenosine monophosphate to the uropod of the cell is important for stream formation during aggregation. Yet several mathematical models are able to reproduce streaming as the cells ...
Xiong Yuan - - 2010
Chemotaxis refers to the ability of cells to sense the direction of external chemical gradients and respond by migrating towards the source. A thorough understanding of the chemotactic response of amoebae and neutrophils requires careful quantification of the cell shape changes observed during cell movement. The stochastic nature of this ...
Springer Amy L - - 2011
The Trypanosoma brucei flagellum controls motility and is crucial for cell polarity and division. Unique features of trypanosome motility suggest that flagellar beat regulation in this organism is unusual and worthy of study. The flagellar axoneme, required for motility, has a structure that is highly conserved among eukaryotes. Of the ...
Chibalina Margarita V MV Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0XY, - - 2010
The polarized trafficking of membrane proteins into the leading edge of the cell is an integral requirement for cell migration. Myosin VI and its interacting protein optineurin have previously been shown to operate in anterograde trafficking pathways, especially for the polarized delivery of cargo to the basolateral domain in epithelial ...
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