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Results 201 - 250 of 1648
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Janjic Jelena M JM Department of Biological Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. - - 2009
In this article we review the chemistry and nanoemulsion formulation of perfluorocarbons used for in vivo(19)F MRI cell tracking. In this application, cells of interest are labeled in culture using a perfluorocarbon nanoemulsion. Labeled cells are introduced into a subject and tracked using (19)F MRI or NMR spectroscopy. In the ...
Srinivas Mangala M Department of Tumor Immunology, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Science, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, - - 2009
Noninvasive methods to image the trafficking of phenotypically defined immune cells are paramount as we attempt to understand adaptive immunity. A (19)F MRI-based methodology for tracking and quantifying cells of a defined phenotype is presented. These methods were applied to a murine inflammation model using antigen-specific T cells. The T ...
Ho Vincent H B - - 2009
A previously developed cell labelling methodology has been evaluated to assess its potential to precisely control the degree of magnetic labelling. The two-step method provides a quick way of labelling cells by first biotinylating the cell membrane proteins and then binding streptavidin paramagnetic particles onto the biotinylated proteins. Characterisation studies ...
Lucas Nikola N - - 2009
Steroid-mediated cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival can be triggered by learning, experience, and brain injury. In the uninjured canary song system, testosterone induces cell proliferation that is blocked by an antibody to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, little is known with regard to the effects of neurotrophic factors on injury-induced ...
Mutai H - - 2009
Spiral ligament fibrocytes (SLFs) in the mammalian cochlear lateral wall participate in K(+) recycling; they are classified into five subtypes based on their morphology, distribution, and function. Regeneration of SLFs is a potential therapeutic strategy for correcting several types of hearing loss, prompting us to investigate how SLF subtypes are ...
Jayatissa M N - - 2009
Depressive disorders have been proposed to be caused by stress-induced down-regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis. Nevertheless, several reports have recently pointed out that, in rodent models of depression, suppression of generation of new hippocampal neurons is not by itself sufficient to induce the development of depression-related symptoms. In the present study, ...
Glauche Ingmar - - 2009
The kinetics of label uptake and dilution in dividing stem cells, e.g., using Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) as a labeling substance, are a common way to assess the cellular turnover of all hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in vivo. The assumption that HSCs form a homogeneous population of cells which regularly undergo cell ...
Henning Tobias D TD Department of Radiology, UCSF Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628, - - 2009
For in vivo applications of magnetically labeled stem cells, biological effects of the labeling procedure have to be precluded. This study evaluates the effect of different ferucarbotran cell labeling protocols on chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) as well as their implications for MR imaging. hMSC were labeled ...
Adams Derek C - - 2009
Long-term pulse chase experiments previously identified a sizable population of BrdU-retaining cells within the renal papilla. The origin of these cells has been unclear, and in this work we test the hypothesis that they become quiescent early during the course of kidney development and organ growth. Indeed, we find that ...
Ferris Adam M - - 2009
A better understanding of improved microwave technology has increased the benefits and versatility of the technique as it applies to all aspects of immunohistochemistry. The role of continuous magnetron power output (wattage) combined with precise control of sample heating demonstrated their significance to complex labeling protocols. Here, we present results ...
Diermeier-Daucher Simone - - 2009
Using the nucleoside analogue EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) for thymidine substitution instead of BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) in cell proliferation assays has recently been proposed. However, the effect of EdU on cell viability, DNA synthesis, and cell cycle progression and consequently its usability for dynamic cell proliferation analysis in vitro has not been explored. ...
Tang Yu Ping YP Department of Psychology and Zoology, Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, - - 2009
Mechanisms regulating masculinization of the zebra finch song system are unclear; both estradiol and sex-specific genes may be important. This study was designed to investigate relationships between estrogen and ribosomal proteins (RPL17 and RPL37; sex-linked genes) that exhibit greater expression in song control nuclei in juvenile males than females. Four ...
Jung Se Hee - - 2009
Cerebral ischemia induces cortical function reorganization and neocortical neurogenesis in the cerebral hemisphere. However, whether the cerebellum undergoes corresponding dynamic change after cerebral injury has not been determined. We investigated the characteristics of cell proliferation and synaptogenesis in the cerebellum after focal cerebral ischemia. After induction of focal cerebral ischemia ...
Helfer Jennifer L JL Psychology Department, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, - - 2009
The long-term effects of binge-like postnatal alcohol exposure on cell proliferation and differentiation in the adolescent rat neocortex were examined. Unlike the hippocampal dentate gyrus, where proliferation of progenitors results primarily in addition of granule cells in adulthood, the vast majority of newly generated cells in the intact mature rodent ...
Wohl Stefanie G - - 2009
In the naïve adult rodent eye cell proliferation does not occur. The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate if quiescent putative progenitor-like cells within the adult mouse eye can be activated by optic nerve (ON) injury. For a comprehensive analysis, three areas were assessed: the ON, the ...
Wong Lily L - - 2009
Extrinsic cues and intrinsic competence act in concert for cell fate determination in the developing vertebrate retina. However, what controls competence and how precise is the control are largely unknown. We studied the regulation of competence by examining the order in which individual retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) generate daughters. Experiments ...
Reddy Alavala Matta - - 2009
Magnetic resonance imaging of cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) could be a valuable tool for tracking transplanted cells in living organisms. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSC) were labeled with a novel polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)-coated SPIO. Prussian blue staining and electron microscopy revealed that almost all of ...
Ribot Emeline Julie - - 2009
Therapies involving cells as vehicles need to visualize in situ the trafficking of the cells concerned. This cellular imaging can be driven by cell contrast agent-based nanoparticle internalization and non-invasive MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) detection. Here, microglial cells, that would transport a suicide gene to a glioma, were incubated for ...
Fujigaki Yoshihide - - 2009
BACKGROUND: We examined whether dedifferentiation is necessary for cell division of proximal tubule (PT) cells after acute PT injury. METHODS: Rats were injected with a low (0.2 mg/kg) or high (4 mg/kg) dose of uranyl acetate (UA) to induce acute PT injury. Proliferating PT cells were labelled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) ...
Kolko M - - 2009
Calcium-independent phospholipase A2, group VIA (iPLA2-VIA) is involved in cell proliferation. This study aimed to evaluate the role of iPLA2-VIA in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell proliferation and in retinal diseases involving RPE proliferation. A human RPE cell line (ARPE-19) was used to explore this role in vitro. Proliferating ARPE-19 ...
Lewis Geoffrey P - - 2009
PURPOSE: To test the effect of Palomid 529, an inhibitor of the Akt/mTOR pathway, on Müller cell proliferation, subretinal glial scar formation, and photoreceptor survival after experimental retinal detachment (RD). METHODS: Palomid 529 (600 microg) in balanced salt solution or balanced salt solution alone was injected intravitreally immediately after RD ...
Li Calzi Sergio - - 2009
Precise localization of exogenously delivered stem cells is critical to our understanding of their reparative response. Our current inability to determine the exact location of small numbers of cells may hinder optimal development of these cells for clinical use. We describe a method using magnetic resonance imaging to track and ...
Fei Ji-Feng - - 2009
We have investigated whether the precursor cells that give rise to the neurons of the neocortex during mouse embryonic development segregate sister chromatids nonrandomly upon mitosis, as would be predicted by the immortal strand hypothesis. Using various protocols of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling and chase, we were unable to detect BrdU ...
Warren Michelle M Clemson University, Biological Sciences, Clemson, South Carolina 29634, - - 2009
Cell proliferation studies are an important experimental tool. The most commonly used thymidine analogues, tritiated thymidine and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) label cells during S-phase. Both methods have significant drawbacks: low sensitivity in the case of tritiated thymidine and a denaturation step during BrdU detection that destroys most cellular epitopes, requiring careful ...
Nakano Masato - - 2009
The sympathetic preganglionic cell pool in Xenopus laevis can be divided into four parts, i.e., the intercalated nucleus (IC) and the intermediolateral nucleus (IML) located respectively at the medial and the lateral borders of the lateral field, the lateral funiculus, and the ventral field within the thoracolumbar spinal segments. We ...
Baligand C - - 2009
1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) imaging is regularly proposed to non-invasively monitor cell therapy protocols. Prior to transplantation, cells must be loaded with an NMR contrast agent (CA). Most studies performed so far make use of superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs), mainly for favorable detection sensitivity. However, in the case of ...
Simorangkir D R - - 2009
Companion studies using an experimental non-human primate paradigm known as a testicular clamp indicated that the behavior of undifferentiated type A spermatogonia did not conform fully to earlier classical models. This issue was therefore re-examined in normal monkeys. Adult male rhesus monkeys (n = 4) received an i.v. bolus of ...
Fleenor Bradley S - - 2009
Adventitial fibroblasts have previously been proposed to be a major constituent of the neointima following coronary balloon angioplasty. The present study utilized the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse-chase technique to track adventitial fibroblast migration early after balloon injury in swine. BrdU (30 mg/kg), a marker of proliferating cells, was given intravenously 1 ...
Budde Matthew D - - 2009
Transplantation of stem cells or immune cells has shown promise for the treatment of several diseases. Monitoring magnetically labeled cells with MRI has furthered our understanding of cellular migration and the pathophysiology of diseases in experimental models. These studies should pave the way for guiding clinical trials using cell-based therapies. ...
Greenway, L. L.
The life cycle of Alexandrium catenella (a Paralytic Shellfish Poison-producing dinoflagellate) facilitates bloom initiation, bloom decline, and species dispersal. Little is known of their gametes because they are indistinguishable from vegetative cells by morphology or ploidy. In this thesis study, (+) and (-) mating A catenella cultures (NEPCC #743 and ...
Aso Yoshinori - - 2009
The mushroom body is required for a variety of behaviors of Drosophila melanogaster. Different types of intrinsic and extrinsic mushroom body neurons might underlie its functional diversity. There have been many GAL4 driver lines identified that prominently label the mushroom body intrinsic neurons, which are known as "Kenyon cells." Under ...
Pawelczyk Edyta - - 2009
Intracellular labels such as dextran coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION), bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) or green fluorescent protein (GFP) are frequently used to study the fate of transplanted cells by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging or fluorescent microscopy. Bystander uptake of labeled cells by resident tissue macrophages (TM) can confound the ...
Pichard Virginie - - 2009
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: When hepatocyte proliferation is impaired, liver regeneration proceeds from the division of non parenchymal hepatocyte progenitors. Oval cells and Small Hepatocyte-like Progenitor Cells (SHPCs) represent the two most studied examples of such epithelial cells with putative stem cell capacity. In the present study we wished to compare ...
Mai Xiao-Li - - 2009
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven to be effective in tracking the distribution of transplanted stem cells to target organs by way of labeling cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO). However, the effect of SPIO upon labeled cells is still unclear on a cellular level. With this study, the ...
Ray Kathryn - - 2009
Factors affecting larval growth and nutrition have consequences on adult fecundity. Since the mosquito larval midgut is the primary organ of digestion and nutrient absorption, factors that affect the growth and development of the midgut may have potential consequences on the reproductive potential of the adult. To gain a better ...
Egger Bernhard - - 2009
Macrostomum lignano is a small free-living flatworm capable of regenerating all body parts posterior of the pharynx and anterior to the brain. We quantified the cellular composition of the caudal-most body region, the tail plate, and investigated regeneration of the tail plate in vivo and in semithin sections labeled with ...
Macallan Derek C DC Centre for Infection, Cellular and Molecular Medicine, St George's, University of London, London, UK. - - 2009
Cell proliferation may be measured in vivo by quantifying DNA synthesis with isotopically labeled deoxyribonucleotide precursors. Deuterium-labeled glucose is one such precursor which, because it achieves high levels of enrichment for a short period, is well suited to the study of rapidly dividing cells, in contrast to the longer term ...
Kim Young Beom - - 2009
The objective of this study was to investigate a method to generate positive contrast, selective to superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) labeled cells, using the susceptibility-weighted echo-time encoding technique (SWEET). SPIO-labeled human epidermal carcinoma (KB) cells were placed in a gel phantom. Positive contrast from the labeled cells was created by ...
Balu Darrick T DT Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2009
The generation of new neurons occurs throughout adulthood in discrete brain regions, and may be regulated by neuropsychiatric diseases and therapeutic drug treatments. Most current methods that study this process measure the labeling of newborn cells by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) using immunohistochemical methods followed by the microscopic counting of BrdU positive ...
He Jun - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Acute and chronic ethanol exposure has been found to decrease hippocampal neurogenesis, reduce dendritic differentiation of new neurons, and increase cell death. Interestingly, abstinence from such treatment increases hippocampal neurogenesis and microglial genesis across several brain regions. The goal of the current investigation was to study cellular alterations on ...
Focke Almut - - 2008
Fetal human neural precursor cells (NPCs) are unique with respect to their capacity to proliferate and to preserve their potential to differentiate into neurons and glia. Human mesencephalic neural precursor cells (hmNPCs) provide a source for dopaminergic neurons. Preclinical and clinical research will benefit from reliable in vivo tracking of ...
Steiner Gerald - - 2008
The discrimination of cell types is a crucial task in cell biology. Available techniques, based on an irreversible treatment of the cells, do not allow a sensitive label-free characterization under in situ conditions. Infrared spectroscopic imaging is a new and useful tool for studying individual cells. It has established itself ...
Delo Dawn M - - 2008
Human stem cells from various sources have potential therapeutic applications. The clinical implementation of these therapies introduces the need for methods of noninvasive tracking of cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for in vivo detection and tracking of superparamagnetic ...
Liu Wei - - 2009
Labeling cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, paramagnetic contrast agent (gadolinium) or perfluorocarbons allows for the possibility of tracking single or clusters of labeled cells within target tissues following either direct implantation or intravenous injection. This review summarizes the practical issues regarding detection and quantification of magnetically labeled cells ...
Sauerzweig Steven - - 2009
Bromodeoxyuridine incorporates into DNA during mitosis. A long-term stability of the incorporated BrdU is important for the recovery of BrdU-labeled cells. For testing the stability of BrdU incorporation into DNA we pulse-labeled mesenchymal stem cells with BrdU and observed these cells in vitro over 4 weeks. During this time the ...
Chehrehasa Fatemah - - 2009
Labelling and identifying proliferating cells is central to understanding neurogenesis and neural lineages in vivo and in vitro. We present here a novel thymidine analogue, ethynyl deoxyuridine (EdU) for labelling dividing cells, detected with a fluorescent azide which forms a covalent bond via the "click" chemistry reaction (the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar ...
Ito N - - 2008
A decrease in orexin-A (OX-A) levels has been reported to be associated with depression. It is also well known that stress and depression can disrupt neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus; however, it is unclear how OX-A is involved in depression and/or neurogenesis. In the present study, we ...
Park Hyun-Ju - - 2008
Neurogenesis persists in the adult mammalian brain and can be a target for modulation for therapeutic purposes. This study investigated the effect of a Polygala tenuifolia root extract on the proliferation of a stem cell population in the rat hippocampus. The root extract of P. tenuifolia (2 mg/kg/day, 14 times ...
Eisenhoffer George T GT Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, - - 2008
In adult planarians, the replacement of cells lost to physiological turnover or injury is sustained by the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells known as neoblasts. Neoblast lineage relationships and the molecular changes that take place during differentiation into the appropriate cell types are poorly understood. Here we report the ...
Arguello A A AA Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-9070, - - 2008
Opiates, such as morphine, decrease neurogenesis in the adult hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ), raising the possibility that decreased neurogenesis contributes to opiate-induced cognitive deficits. However, there is an incomplete understanding of how alterations in cell cycle progression and progenitor maturation contribute to this decrease. The present study examined how morphine ...
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