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Results 251 - 300 of 1207
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Goto Yuji - - 2011
This study was conducted to improve the developmental ability of nuclear transfer (NT) embryos by using blastomeres from in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos with high quality as donor cells. The IVF embryos selected at the 2-cell stage at 24-h postinsemination (hpi) and again at the ≥8-cell stage at 48 hpi ...
Faustino Francine - - 2010
SummaryBrycon gouldingi is an endemic species from Tocantins-Araguaia basin, used as a food source by riverine communities and relevant to aquaculture. Information about the initial morphology of B. gouldingi, a recently described species, is absent. In the present study, we analysed the fertilization and the embryonic development of this species ...
Wang Huihui - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) results in supraphysiologic levels of maternal serum estradiol (E(2)) during the luteal phase, thus promoting oocyte production at unknown risk to the subsequently developing embryo. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been identified as a model system to assess the impact of COH on early ...
Jeong Sangho - - 2010
Arabidopsis embryos follow a predictable sequence of cell divisions, facilitating a genetic analysis of their early development. Both asymmetric divisions and cell-to-cell communication are probably involved in generating specific gene expression domains along the main axis within the first few division cycles. The function of these domains is not always ...
Harvey Alexandra - - 2010
Mitochondrial function is dependent upon regulation of biogenesis and dynamics. A number of studies have documented the importance of these organelles in both preimplantation embryos and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), however it remains unclear how mitochondria respond to their immediate microenvironment through modulation of morphology and movement, or whether perturbations ...
Udayashankar R - - 2011
Abnormal human embryo implantation leads to poor foetal development and miscarriage, or pre-eclampsia. Ethical and practical considerations concerning implantation limit its investigation, and it is often difficult to extrapolate findings in laboratory animals when implantation processes show diverse species differences. Therefore, it is important to develop new in vitro models ...
Tiscornia Gustavo - - 2010
Since their discovery in the early 1990s, microRNAs (miRs) have gone from initially being considered an oddity to being recognized as a level of gene expression regulation that is integral to the normal function of cells and organisms. They are implicated in many if not all biological processes in animals, ...
Zhou Joseph X - - 2011
Cell-type reprogramming, the artificial induction of a switch of cell lineage and developmental stage, holds great promise for regenerative medicine. However, how does the metazoan body itself 'program' the various cell lineages in the first place? Knowledge of how multipotent cells make cell-fate decisions and commit to a particular lineage ...
Jeon Yoon - - 2011
TopBP1 plays important roles in chromosome replication, DNA damage response, and other cellular regulatory functions in vertebrates. Although the roles of TopBP1 have been studied mostly in cancer cell lines, its physiological function remains unclear in mice and untransformed cells. We generated conditional knock-out mice in which exons 5 and ...
Boniewska-Bernacka Ewa - - 2010
Three kinds of living cells, human embryonic kidney cells, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Escherichia coli, were tested for their sensitivity to chlorotriphenyltin and chlorotriphenyllead. The tin compound proved definitely more toxic than the lead derivative, particularly in the case of the human embryonic kidney cells devoid of any protective cell wall. ...
Artus Jérôme - - 2011
Cells of the primitive endoderm (PrE) and the pluripotent epiblast (EPI), the two lineages specified within the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse blastocyst stage embryo, are segregated into adjacent tissue layers by the end of the preimplantation period. The PrE layer which emerges as a polarized epithelium adjacent ...
Carnell Michael J - - 2011
The actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells provides cell structure and organisation, and allows cells to generate forces against membranes. As such it is a central component of a variety of cellular structures involved in cell motility, cytokinesis and vesicle trafficking. In multicellular organisms these processes contribute towards embryonic development and ...
Su Weijun - - 2010
Human embryonic stem (hES) cells have a potential use for the repair and regeneration of injured tissues. However, teratoma formation can be a major obstacle for hES mediated cell therapy. Therefore, tracking the fate and function of transplanted hES cells with noninvasive imaging could be valuable for a better understanding ...
Brevini Tiziana A L - - 2010
Human parthenogenetic embryos have been recently proposed as an alternative, less controversial source of embryonic stem cells. However many aspects related to the biology of parthenogenetic cell lines are not fully understood and still need to be elucidated. These cells have great potentials; they possess most of the main features ...
Lam Tin-Lun - - 2011
Melanoma has been shown to require arginine for growth, thus providing a potential Achilles' heel for therapeutic exploitation. Our investigations show that arginine depletion, using a recombinant form of human arginase I (rhArg), efficiently inhibits the growth of mammalian melanoma cell lines in vitro. These cell lines are consistently deficient ...
Shiratsuki Shogo - - 2010
The objective was to determine the effects of trichostatin A (TSA), a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor, on eight-cell bovine embryos. That treatment increased histone acetylation was confirmed by immunostaining with anti-AcH4K5 and AcH4K8 antibodies. Embryos treated with TSA (100 nM) for various intervals (4, 8, and 12 h) developed to ...
Pellett Sabine - - 2011
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the most poisonous protein toxins known, represent a serious bioterrorism threat but are also used as a unique and important bio-pharmaceutical to treat an increasing myriad of neurological disorders. The only currently accepted detection method by the United States Food and Drug Administration for biological activity of ...
Panula Sarita - - 2011
Historically, our understanding of molecular genetic aspects of human germ cell development has been limited, at least in part due to inaccessibility of early stages of human development to experimentation. However, the derivation of pluripotent stem cells may provide the necessary human genetic system to study germ cell development. In ...
Strauss Tamara J - - 2011
Oogenesis and primordial follicle formation are tightly linked processes, requiring organized and precisely timed communication between somatic and germ cells. Deviations in ovarian cell cross talk, or aberrant gene expression within one of the cell populations, can lead to follicle loss or dysfunction, resulting in infertility. Expression of GATA-like protein-1 ...
Val-Bernal José Fernando - - 2010
The prevalence of different types of clear cells and of the mite Demodex in the nipple-areola complex of adult autopsies of both sexes not suffering from breast cancer was studied in a total of 140 nipples. The epidermis of the nipple-areola complex shows squamous cells and 3 types of clear ...
Pascual G - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Destruction of the limbal epithelium barrier is the most important mechanism of pterygium formation (conjunctiva proliferation, encroaching onto the cornea). It is thought to arise from activated and proliferating limbal epithelial stem cells. The objective of this study is to evaluate the presence of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells (stem cells) ...
Porteus Matthew - - 2010
Homologous recombination is the most precise way to manipulate the genome. It has been used extensively in bacteria, yeast, murine embryonic stem cells, and a few other specialized cell lines, but it has not been available in other systems such as mammalian somatic cells. However, the creation of a gene-specific ...
Lokman Muhammad - - 2010
The idea that a sperm or egg might be formed outside of a gonad is perhaps as bizarre today as human assisted conception and test-tube babies were 30-40 years ago and has received a similar amount of media copy. Here, we review briefly the derivation of mammalian germ cells and ...
Gasperowicz Malgorzata - - 2011
Development of the mouse embryo to the blastocyst stage occurs over 3 to 4 days following fertilization of the oocyte. During this time, several molecular and morphological events take place that result in the formation of three distinct cell lineages: the trophectoderm, the epiblast, and the primitive endoderm. Many studies ...
Daniels Brian R - - 2010
Embryonic and adult fibroblasts can be returned to pluripotency by the expression of reprogramming genes. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that these human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells and human embryonic stem (hES) cells are behaviorally, karyotypically, and morphologically similar. Here we sought to determine whether the physical properties of ...
Walston Timothy - - 2010
The Caenorhabditis elegans embryo is particularly amenable to microscopy and embryological studies because of its short developmental time, transparent shell, and nonpigmented cells. Within the embryo, contacts between cells often establish the polarization of neighboring cells. Blastomere isolation and recombination experiments have led to a wealth of understanding of the ...
Mikesh Leann M LM Department of Pathology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, - - 2010
The epithelial to mesenchymal transition is a developmental process allowing epithelial cells to dedifferentiate into cells displaying mesenchymal phenotypes. The pathological role of epithelial to mesenchymal transition has been implicated in invasion and metastasis for numerous carcinomas, yet limited data exist addressing whether mesenchymal transition (MT) occurs in malignant melanoma ...
Cook Matthew S MS Department of Cell Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, - - 2011
Human germ cell tumors show a strong sensitivity to genetic background similar to Dnd1(Ter/Ter) mutant mice, where testicular teratomas arise only on the 129/SvJ genetic background. The introduction of the Bax mutation onto mixed background Dnd1(Ter/Ter) mutants, where teratomas do not typically develop, resulted in a high incidence of teratomas. ...
Kang Seok Jin - - 2011
Interspecific hybrids provide insights into fundamental genetic principles, and may prove useful for biotechnological applications and as tools for the conservation of endangered species. In the present study, interspecies hybrids were generated between the Korean ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) and the White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). We determined whether ...
Smith Elliot J - - 2011
We report a method for the precise capturing of embryonic fibroblast mouse cells into rolled-up microtube resonators. The microtubes contain a nanometer-sized gap in their wall which defines a new type of optofluidic sensor, i.e., a flexible split-wall microtube resonator sensor, employed as a label-free fully integrative detection tool for ...
Munkley Jennifer - - 2011
Cyclin E supports pre-replication complex (pre-RC) assembly, while cyclin A-associated kinase activates DNA synthesis. We show that cyclin E, but not A, is mounted upon the nuclear matrix in sub-nuclear foci in differentiated vertebrate cells, but not in undifferentiated cells or cancer cells. In murine embryonic stem cells, Xenopus embryos ...
Nezos Andrianos - - 2011
Disease dissemination is the major cause of melanoma-related death. A crucial step in the metastatic process is the intravascular invasion and circulation of melanoma cells in the bloodstream with subsequent development of distant micrometastases that is initially clinically undetectable and will eventually progress into clinically apparent metastasis. Therefore, the use ...
Kumachev Alexander - - 2011
Elasticity of cellular microenvironments strongly influences cell motility, phagocytosis, growth and differentiation. Currently, the relationship between the cell behaviour and matrix stiffness is being studied for cells seeded on planar substrates, however in three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments cells may experience mechanical signalling that is distinct from that on a two-dimensional matrix. ...
Sangoi Ankur R - - 2011
Brachyury is recognized as a specific marker for notochord-derived tissues and neoplasms, and has become a defining immunohistochemical feature of chordoma. The main differential diagnostic consideration for chordoma is chondrosarcoma, which is known to lack brachyury expression. However, within the spectrum of genitourinary neoplasia, metastatic germ cell tumors and clear ...
Norman Leann - - 2011
Cell spreading is a critical component of numerous physiological phenomena including cancer metastasis, embryonic development, and mitosis. We have previously illustrated that cellular blebs appear after abrupt cell-substrate detachment and play a critical role in regulating membrane tension; however, the dynamics of bleb-substrate interactions during spreading remains unclear. Here we ...
Connaughton V P - - 2011
Zebrafish are an existing model for genetic and developmental studies due to their rapid external development and transparent embryos, which allow easy manipulation and observation of early developmental stages. The application of the zebrafish model to vision research has allowed for examination of retinal development and the characteristics of different ...
Gyamera-Acheampong Charles - - 2011
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 4 (PCSK4), also known as proprotein convertase 4 (PC4), is a serine endoproteinase primarily expressed in testicular germ cells and in sperm. Inactivation of its gene in mouse causes male infertility. From studies of the biosynthesis of PCSK3/furin, its closest relative, it has been inferred that ...
Quintana Elsa - - 2010
We investigated whether melanoma is hierarchically organized into phenotypically distinct subpopulations of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells or whether most melanoma cells retain tumorigenic capacity, irrespective of their phenotype. We found 28% of single melanoma cells obtained directly from patients formed tumors in NOD/SCID IL2Rγ(null) mice. All stage II, III, and ...
Hernández Daniel - - 2011
Versican is a hyaluronan-binding, extracellular chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan produced by several tumor types, including malignant melanoma, which exists as four different splice variants. The short V3 isoform contains the G1 and G3 terminal domains of versican that may potentially interact directly or indirectly with the hyaluronan receptor CD44 and the ...
O'Rourke Sean M - - 2010
Microtubules are polymers of tubulin heterodimers that exhibit dynamic instability: periods of growth followed by periods of shrinkage. However, the molecular regulation of dynamic instability remains elusive. Here, we show that EFA-6, a cortically-localized protein, limits the growth of microtubules near the cell cortex of early embryonic cells from Caenorhabditis ...
Kästle Marc - - 2011
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a potential tool in cancer treatment. Today this therapy is established among others for the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. However, the more dangerous skin cancer--the melanoma--still has to be removed by surgery. Therefore, we investigated the effects of PDT and additional administration of heme oxygenase ...
Costa-Borges Nuno - - 2011
Treatment of pre-activated oocytes with demecolcine (DEM) has been shown to induce the extrusion of all oocyte chromosomes within the second polar body (PB2). However, induced enucleation (IE) rates are generally low and the competence of these cytoplasts to support embryonic development following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is impaired. ...
Matoba Shogo - - 2010
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are undifferentiated germ cells in developing fetuses. As they give rise to definitive oocytes and spermatozoa that contribute to new life in the next generation, their development must be under strict control regarding genetic and epigenetic aspects. However, we do not know to what extent their ...
Kim J E - - 2010
Recent evidence suggests cathelicidin LL-37 to be a growth factor for various human cancers such as lung cancer, ovarian cancer and breast cancer. However, the effect of LL-37 against malignant skin cancer has not been reported. To investigate whether the human cathelicidin LL-37 is involved in the carcinogenesis of various ...
Triba M N - - 2010
The metabolomic profiles of B16 melanoma cells were investigated in vitro with high resolution-magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and OPLS multivariate statistical analyse. We compared the profiles for untreated melanoma B16-F10 cells and Ca(2+) chelating EGTA, doxorubicin or BP7033 bisphosphonate treated cells. The two last molecules are known ...
Chen Guangdi - - 2010
Cullin1 (Cul1) serves as a rigid scaffold in SCF (Skp1/Cullin/Rbx1/F-box protein) complex, the largest family of ubiquitin-protein E3 ligases, and aberrant expression of Cul1 is involved in dysfunction of SCF E3 ligases. Previously, we found that Cul1 expression is increased in early stages of melanoma. In the present study, we ...
Katsoulidis Efstratios E Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center and Division of Hematology Oncology, Northwestern University Medical School and Jesse Brown Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60611, - - 2010
IFNα exerts potent inhibitory activities against malignant melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo, but the mechanisms by which it generates its antitumor effects remain unknown. We examined the effects of interferon α (IFNα) on the expression of human members of the Schlafen (SLFN) family of genes, a group of ...
Zuckerman Jonathan E - - 2011
Systemically delivered small interfering RNA (siRNA) therapies for cancer have begun clinical development. The effects of siRNA-mediated knockdown of ribonucleotide reductase subunit-2 (RRM2), a rate-limiting enzyme in cell replication, were investigated in malignant melanoma, a cancer with a paucity of effective treatment options. A panel of human melanoma cell lines ...
Mattocks Michael - - 2010
Dying cells are common in adult neurogenic niches, but how these cells are cleared remains uncertain. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Sierra et al. (2010) show that unactivated microglia assume the role of waste managers to eliminate cellular debris from apoptosing newborn cells in the hippocampus.
Pirraco Ana - - 2010
In previous in vitro studies, we showed that imatinib abrogated platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) signaling, disrupting both breast cancer and smooth muscle cells (SMC). PDGF is also a powerful mitogen for neural crest origin cells like melanocytes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect ...
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