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Results 201 - 250 of 1212
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Edel Michael J - - 2011
Embryonic stem cells (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) present a great opportunity to treat and model human disease as a cell replacement therapy. There is a growing pressure to understand better the signal transduction pathways regulating pluripotency and self-renewal of these special cells in order to deliver a ...
Lye Claire M - - 2011
During morphogenesis, tissues are shaped by cell behaviors such as apical cell constriction and cell intercalation, which are the result of cell intrinsic forces, but are also shaped passively by forces acting on the cells. The latter extrinsic forces can be produced either within the deforming tissue by the tissue-scale ...
Lane Simon I R - - 2011
Comment on: Teperek-Tkacz M, et al. Cell Cycle 2010; 9:4674-87.
Lindemann Charles B - - 2011
The cilia and flagella of eukaryotic cells are complex filamentous organelles that undulate rapidly and produce propulsive force against the fluids that surround the living cell. They provide a number of important functions in the life cycle of higher organisms including humans. A flagellum propels the spermatozoa to the site ...
Rebay Ilaria - - 2011
Once antibodies against a Drosophila protein have been produced and an antiserum is determined to have a high titer against the fusion protein used for immunization, the next step is to ask whether the antiserum recognizes the appropriate antigen in Drosophila tissues. This protocol describes staining of transfected S2 cells ...
Akagi S - - 2011
The efficiency of somatic cell cloning is very low, probably because of incomplete reprogramming of the somatic cell nucleus. In recent studies, it is suggested that transient exposure of donor somatic cells to mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) extract enhances pluripotency of the cells in vitro (Bru et al. 2008 ...
Du Lili - - 2011
Generating pluripotent stem cells directly from a patient's somatic cells is one of the major methods to avoid rejection in future regenerative medicine. It is reported that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are able to reprogram the nuclei of fully differentiated human somatic cells, apparently conferring on them a pluripotent ...
Okamoto Takashi - - 2011
In vitro fertilization (IVF) systems using isolated male and female gametes have been utilized to dissect fertilization-induced events in angiosperms, such as egg activation, zygote development, and early embryogenesis, since the female gametophytes of plants are deeply embedded within ovaries. A rice IVF system was established to take advantage of ...
Wang Hsien-Yu - - 2011
Recent advances in our understanding of cell signaling have revealed assemblies of signaling components often viewed in fluorescence microscopy as very large, irregular "punctae". These punctae are often dynamic in nature, appearing to act as mobile scaffolds that function in integrating protein-protein interactions from large arrays of signaling components. The ...
Kumburegama Shalika - - 2011
Gastrulation is a uniquely metazoan character, and its genesis was arguably the key step that enabled the remarkable diversification within this clade. The process of gastrulation involves two tightly coupled events during embryogenesis of most metazoans. Morphogenesis produces a distinct internal epithelial layer in the embryo, and this epithelium becomes ...
Kaedei Y - - 2011
Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is an invaluable tool for studying nucleous-cytoplasm interactions, and may provide an alternative for cloning endangered animals, whose oocytes are difficult to obtain. Using readily available oocytes from domestic/farm animals as recipients for iSCNT would greatly benefit ongoing research on somatic cell reprogramming. However, ...
Sanges Daniela - - 2011
Cell-cell fusion is a natural process that occurs not only during development, but as has emerged over the last few years, also with an important role in tissue regeneration. Interestingly, in-vitro studies have revealed that after fusion of two different cell types, the developmental potential of these cells can change. ...
Addison M K - - 2011
Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells that can self-replicate indefinitely. There is an interest in producing pluripotent cells by reprogramming somatic cells. Porcine, murine, and human somatic cells are able to reprogram after exposure to viral vectors expressing Sox2, Oct-4, Klf4, and c-Myc. Exposure of somatic cells to these epigenetic ...
Dahmann Christian - - 2011
The formation and maintenance of boundaries between neighbouring groups of embryonic cells is vital for development because groups of cells with distinct functions must often be kept physically separated. Furthermore, because cells at the boundary often take on important signalling functions by acting as organizing centres, boundary shape and integrity ...
Kubiak Jacek Z - - 2011
The understanding of cell cycle regulation benefited greatly from omic approaches. Because the cell cycle engine relies heavily on proteins, proteomic methods play a key role in identification of cell cycle players. The proteomic approach delivers an enormous volume of data, but it often lacks comprehensiveness. To ensure the comprehensiveness ...
Ozawa M - - 2011
The first distinct lineage differentiation in the mammalian embryo occurs at the blastocyst stage when blastomeres are segregated into inner cell mass (ICM) or trophectoderm (TE). Obtaining purified TE or ICM can be useful for understanding regulation of early development and differentiation. Although several methods have been reported to separate ...
Kumar D - - 2011
Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts and proliferate extensively while maintaining pluripotency. They can be used for the treatment of juvenile diabetes, Parkinson's disease, heart failure, and spinal cord injury. However, the use of embryos and tissue rejection remain concerns for ESC transplantation. ...
de Lartigue Jane - - 2011
In the Drosophila melanogaster syncytial blastoderm stage embryo anaphase B is initiated by a cell cycle switch in which the suppression of microtubule minus end depolymerization and spatial reorganization of the plus ends of outwardly sliding interpolar microtubules triggers spindle elongation. RNA interference in Drosophila cultured S2 cells may present ...
Matsukawa K - - 2011
The cell cycle of donor cells and recipient cytoplasts are important factors affecting development of nuclear transferred (NT) embryos. We previously showed that bovine NT embryos using pre-activated cytoplasts and early G1 cells had a high in vitro developmental rate (SSR, 2008, 41st Annual Meeting). The objective of the present ...
Mapeka M H - - 2011
No studies have investigated the IVF rate of South African indigenous Kolbroek sperm cells following cryopreservation. The objective of this study was to test if frozen-thawed Kolbroek pig sperm cells could penetrate pig oocytes matured in vitro. Pig ovaries were collected from a local abattoir and cumulus-oocytes complexes were obtained ...
Guizzetti Marina - - 2011
Astrocytes, the most abundant cell type in the brain, proliferate during brain development. While it is generally accepted that mature astrocytes do not proliferate, neural stem cells, which have characteristics of astrocytes, retain the ability of self-renewal. Furthermore, astrocytes can regain their proliferative properties under pathological situations, such as reactive ...
Ideta A - - 2011
Embryo-maternal recognition is known to be mediated by the trophoblast and/or its secretory product during the preimplantation period. However, it was recently proposed that embryo-maternal recognition (along with the maternal immune system) could be activated by zona pellucida-degradation products including oligosaccharide chains from very early stage embryos (Fujiwara et al. ...
Feltrin C - - 2011
We have previously reported that zona pellucida (ZP) removal and cationic lipid-based transfection (lipofection) of 1-cell stage bovine embryos with siRNA or DNA did not affect development to the blastocyst (BL) stage (Bertolini et al. 2006 Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 18, 168-169). Moreover, approximately half of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transfected embryos ...
Kim S Y - - 2011
The direct conversion of differentiated cells into undifferentiated or pluripotent cells would present scientific and medical benefits because of the potential for customized transplantation therapy. Although somatic cell nuclear transfer is one powerful way to fully reprogram somatic cells into a pluripotent state with the aid of oocyte or egg ...
Gilchrist Robert B - - 2011
The last 5-10 years of research in ovarian and oocyte biology has delivered some major new advances in knowledge of the molecular and cellular processes regulating oocyte maturation and oocyte developmental competence. These new insights include, among others: (1) the knowledge that oocytes regulate granulosa and cumulus cell differentiation, ovulation ...
Jayagopal Ashwath - - 2011
To investigate the role of tight junction (TJ)-associated signaling pathways in the proliferation of uveal melanoma. Human uveal melanoma cell lines overexpressing the TJ molecule blood vessel epicardial substance (Bves) were generated. The effects of Bves overexpression on TJ protein expression, cell proliferation, and cell cycle distribution were quantified. In ...
Kresty Laura A - - 2011
Aberrant expression of small noncoding endogenous RNA molecules known as microRNAs (miRNAs) is documented to occur in multiple cancer types including esophageal adencarcinoma (EAC) and its only known precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE). Recent studies have linked dysregulation of specific miRNAs to histological grade, neoplastic progression and metastatic potential. Herein, we ...
Xu Chunxiang - - 2011
Hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) are implicated to have a role in many aspects of plant growth and development but there is limited knowledge about their localization and function during somatic embryogenesis of higher plants. In this study, the localization and function of hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins in embryogenic cells (ECs) and ...
Bichsel Candace - - 2011
Numerous Gram negative pathogens possess a type III secretion system (T3SS) which allows them to inject virulent proteins directly into the eukaryotic cell cytoplasm. Injection of these proteins is dependent on a variable secretion signal sequence. In this study, we utilized the N-terminal secretion signal sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin ...
Vaajasaari Hanna - - 2011
The production of functional retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells from human embryonic (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) in defined and xeno-free conditions is highly desirable, especially for their use in cell therapy for retinal diseases. In addition, differentiated RPE cells provide an individualized disease model and drug ...
Hewitt Kyle J - - 2011
Human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells offer a novel source of patient-specific cells for regenerative medicine. However, the biological potential of iPS-derived cells and their similarities to cells differentiated from human embryonic stem (hES) cells remain unclear. We derived fibroblast-like cells from two hiPS cell lines and show that their ...
Hong Sung-Kook - - 2011
Rhombomere boundaries form during hindbrain segmentation and are critical for maintaining segmental integrity and regulating migration in the hindbrain. Some genetic models affecting hindbrain boundary formation have been described, but involvement of components of the transcriptional mediator complex in boundary formation has not reported so far. The kto/med12 mutant zebrafish, ...
Luo Da-Ji - - 2011
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been performed extensively in fish since the 1960s with a generally low efficiency of approximately 1%. Little is known about somatic nuclear reprogramming in fish. Here, we utilized the zebrafish as a model to study reprogramming events of nuclei from tail, liver and kidney ...
Saka Yasushi - - 2011
Genetically identical cells often show significant variation in gene expression profile and behaviour even in the same physiological condition. Notably, embryonic cells destined to the same tissue maintain a uniform transcriptional regulatory state and form a homogeneous cell group. One mechanism to keep the homogeneity within embryonic tissues is the ...
Zhou Xiang - - 2011
The Pik3c3 gene encodes an 887 amino acid lipid kinase, phosphoinositide-3-kinase class 3 (PIK3C3). PIK3C3 is known to regulate various intracellular membrane trafficking events. However, little is known about its functions during early embryogenesis in mammals. To investigate the function of PIK3C3 in vivo, we generated Pik3c3 null mice. We ...
Li Mo - - 2011
Recent development of a synthetic mRNA-based technology for efficient reprogramming to pluripotency and cell fate conversion without any modification to the genome has generated great interest among researchers and clinicians alike. It is hoped that this technology could contribute to unmet needs on several fronts of regenerative medicine, including mechanistic ...
Yu Junying - - 2011
Genetic reprogramming of human somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could offer replenishable cell sources for transplantation therapies. To fulfill their promises, human iPSCs will ideally be free of exogenous DNA (footprint-free), and be derived and cultured in chemically defined media free of feeder cells. Currently, methods are ...
Harness Julie V - - 2011
As human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines can be derived via multiple means, it is important to determine particular characteristics of individual lines that may dictate the applications to which they are best suited. The objective of this work was to determine points of equivalence and differences between conventionally-derived hESC ...
Ma Ligang - - 2011
Asymmetric zygotic division in higher plants results in the formation of an apical cell and a basal cell. These two embryonic cells possess distinct morphologies and cell developmental fates. It has been proposed that unevenly distributed cell fate determinants and/or distinct cell transcript profiles may be the underlying reason for ...
Gu Bin - - 2011
It has long been proposed that early embryos and reproductive organs exhibit similar gene expression profiles. However, whether this similarity is propagated to the protein level remains largely unknown. We have previously characterised the promiscuous expression pattern of cell surface proteins on mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. As cell surface ...
Bai C - - 2011
Using tissue explantation and cryopreservation biotechniques, a Jingning chicken embryonic fibroblast bank was successfully established, which includes 43 embryo samples and a stock of 178 cryovials, each one containing 3.0&times;106 cells. Most of the cells were apparently fibroblasts in their morphology, and the population doubling time (PDT) was about 48 ...
Sandersius Sebastian A - - 2011
Measurements on embryonic epithelial tissues in a diverse range of organisms have shown that the statistics of cell neighbor numbers are universal in tissues where cell proliferation is the primary cell activity. Highly simplified non-spatial models of proliferation are claimed to accurately reproduce these statistics. Using a systematic critical analysis, ...
Kallas Ade - - 2011
Nocodazole is a known destabiliser of microtubule dynamics and arrests cell-cycle at the G2/M phase. In the context of the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) it is important to understand how this arrest influences the pluripotency of cells. Here we report for the first time the changes in the expression ...
Ding Shengchao - - 2011
Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and converting one cell type to another (transdifferentiation) by manipulating the expression of a small number of genes highlight the progress of cellular reprogramming, which holds great promise for regenerative medicine. A key challenge is to find the recipes of perturbing genes to ...
Malicki Jarema - - 2011
The cilium, a previously little studied cell surface protrusion, has emerged as an important organelle in vertebrate cells. This tiny structure is essential for normal embryonic development, including the formation of left-right asymmetry, limb morphogenesis, and the differentiation of sensory cells. In the adult, cilia also function in a variety ...
Yajima Mamiko - - 2011
Many indirect developing animals create specialized multipotent cells in early development to construct the adult body and perhaps to hold the fate of the primordial germ cells. In sea urchin embryos, small micromeres formed at the fifth division appear to be such multipotent cells: they are relatively quiescent in embryos, ...
Habibi Roudkenar M - - 2011
One of the most common malignancies in women is breast cancer. Although several treatments for breast cancer are available, application of herbal medicine as a supplementary treatment is a new option to help curing the disease. In this study anticancer effects of Polygonum avicular herbal extract was investigated. Polygonum avicular ...
Ai Erkang E Laboratory of Genetics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of - - 2011
Cell polarity is a very well conserved process important for cell differentiation, cell migration, and embryonic development. After the establishment of distinct cortical domains, polarity cues have to be stabilized and maintained within a fluid and dynamic membrane to achieve proper cell asymmetry. Microtubules have long been thought to deliver ...
Vastag Livia L Carl Icahn Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of - - 2011
A rapid series of synchronous cell divisions initiates embryogenesis in many animal species, including the frog Xenopus laevis. After many of these cleavage cycles, the nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio increases sufficiently to somehow cause cell cycles to elongate and become asynchronous at the mid-blastula transition (MBT). We have discovered that ...
Yadav Ps - - 2010
Recent findings suggest that mammalian amniotic fluid (AF) is a source of multipotent stem cells (SCs), which can be used in regenerative medicine and assisted reproduction. We report the isolation, culture and characterization of amniotic fluid-derived cells from pregnant water buffalo uterus. These undifferentiated AF cells expanded without feeder layer ...
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