Search Results
Results 151 - 200 of 1206
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Ardehali Reza R Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. - - 2011
The promise of pluripotent stem cells as a research and therapeutic tool is partly undermined by the technical challenges of generating and maintaining these cells in culture. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are exquisitely sensitive to culture conditions, and require constant signaling by growth factors and cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions ...
Lee Kwang Ho - - 2011
Here, we present a novel and simple process of spheroid formation and in situ encapsulation of the formed spheroid without intervention. A hemispherical polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micromold was employed for the formation of uniform sized spheroids and two types of nano-porous membrane were used for the control of the crosslinking agent. ...
Gline Stephanie E - - 2011
The super-phylum Lophotrochozoa contains the plurality of extant animal phyla and exhibits a corresponding diversity of adult body plans. Moreover, in contrast to Ecdysozoa and Deuterostomia, most lophotrochozoans exhibit a conserved pattern of stereotyped early divisions called spiral cleavage. In particular, bilateral mesoderm in most lophotrochozoan species arises from the ...
Pakes Nicholl K NK Centre for Biomedical Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, - - 2011
Bio-electrospraying (BES) and aerodynamically assisted bio-jetting (AABJ) have recently been established as important novel biospray technologies for directly manipulating living cells. To elucidate their potential in medical and clinical sciences, these bio-aerosol techniques have been subjected to increasingly rigorous investigations. In parallel to these studies, we wish to introduce these ...
Thoma Eva C - - 2011
The capability to form all cell types of the body is a unique feature of stem cells. However, many questions remain concerning the mechanisms regulating differentiation potential. The derivation of spermatogonial cell lines (SGs) from mouse and human, which can differentiate across germ-layer borders, suggested male germ cells as a ...
Jopling Chris - - 2011
The ultimate goal of regenerative medicine is to replace lost or damaged cells. This can potentially be accomplished using the processes of dedifferentiation, transdifferentiation or reprogramming. Recent advances have shown that the addition of a group of genes can not only restore pluripotency in a fully differentiated cell state (reprogramming) ...
Wu Pei-Hsun - - 2011
NAC1, a BTB/POZ family member, has been suggested to participate in maintaining the stemness of embryonic stem cells and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human cancer. In ovarian cancer, NAC1 upregulation is associated with disease aggressiveness and with the development of chemoresistance. Like other BTB/POZ proteins, NAC1 forms ...
Sepich Diane S - - 2011
During vertebrate gastrulation, convergence and extension cell movements are coordinated with the anteroposterior and mediolateral embryonic axes. Wnt planar cell polarity (Wnt/PCP) signaling polarizes the motile behaviors of cells with respect to the anteroposterior embryonic axis. Understanding how Wnt/PCP signaling mediates convergence and extension (C&E) movements requires analysis of the ...
Zernicka-Goetz Magdalena M Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, UK. - - 2011
In the mouse embryo, the first differences between cells that result in distinct lineages have long been thought to arise only as a consequence of differential cell positioning at relatively late preimplantation stages. Differences in Oct4 transcription factor kinetics between cells at the 4-8-cell stage are now shown to be ...
Trichas Georgios G Department of Physiology Anatomy & Genetics, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, United - - 2011
The anterior visceral endoderm (AVE), a signalling centre within the simple epithelium of the visceral endoderm (VE), is required for anterior-posterior axis specification in the mouse embryo. AVE cells migrate directionally within the VE, thereby properly positioning the future anterior of the embryo and orientating the primary body axis. AVE ...
Petkov Stoyan G - - 2011
Embryonic germ cells (EGC) are cultured pluripotent cells derived from primordial germ cells (PGC). This study explored the possibility of establishing porcine EGC from domestic breeds and Yucatan mini pigs using embryos at Days 17-24 of gestation. In vitro culture of PGC from both pooled and individual embryos resulted in ...
Kim Hye Young - - 2011
Actomyosin networks linked to the micro-environment through the plasma membrane are thought to be key players in regulating cell behaviors within multicellular tissues, such as converging and extending mesoderm. Here, we observe the dynamics of actin contractions called 'punctuated actin contractions' in the mid-cell body of embryonic mesenchymal cells in ...
Plachta Nicolas - - 2011
Transcription factors are central to sustaining pluripotency, yet little is known about transcription factor dynamics in defining pluripotency in the early mammalian embryo. Here, we establish a fluorescence decay after photoactivation (FDAP) assay to quantitatively study the kinetic behaviour of Oct4, a key transcription factor controlling pre-implantation development in the ...
Xanthopoulou L - - 2011
Cleavage-stage embryos often have nuclear abnormalities, one of the most common being binucleate blastomeres, which may contain two diploid or two haploid nuclei. Biopsied cells from preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) cycles were studied to determine the relative frequency of binucleate cells with two haploid versus ...
Psathaki Olympia Ekaterini - - 2011
Germ cells are a unique population of cells responsible for transmitting genetic information from one generation to the next. Our understanding of the key mechanisms underlying germ cell development in vivo remains scarce due to insufficient amounts of cell materials available for conducting biological studies. The establishment of in vitro-differentiation ...
Tomii Ryo - - 2011
The aim of the present study was to optimize the conditions for in vitro development and postvitrification survival of somatic cell cloned feline embryos. To determine the effects of cell cycle synchronization of the nuclear donor cells, we cultured preadipocytes under serum starvation or conventional conditions. After two days in ...
Vicente-Salar Nestor - - 2011
Abstract Human embryonic stem cells can be differentiated into insulin-secreting cells by emulating in vitro the key processes that occur during embryonic development. However, the resulting cells are generally immature; thus, further research must be performed to identify the necessary factors to complete the differentiation. To this end, we cultured ...
Hai Tang - - 2011
Abstract Reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency can be achieved by nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes (SCNT). A key event of this process is the demethylation of the Oct4 gene and its temporally and spatially regulated expression. Different studies have shown that it occurs abnormally in some SCNT embryos. TSA ...
Zwollo Patty - - 2011
B cell developmental pathways in teleost fishes are poorly understood. In the absence of serological reagents, an alternative approach to dissecting teleost B cell development is to use transcription factors that are differentially expressed during B cell development. This review discusses the structure and function of six transcription factors that ...
Paul-Prasanth Bindhu - - 2011
Molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in artificially induced ovarian differentiation were analyzed by exposing embryos of medaka (Oryzias latipes) to a potent nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES). Embryos were exposed for short-exposure (SE) [from 0 to 8 d postfertilization (dpf)] and long-exposure (LE) periods (from 0 to 18/28 dpf) to 1 ...
Sanges Daniela - - 2011
Pluripotency can be defined as the ability of individual cells to initiate all of the lineages of the mature organism in response to signals from the environment. It has long been assumed that during development, pluripotency is progressively and irreversibly lost through a mechanism that requires strict coordination of the ...
Jin Daozhong - - 2011
Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) has been recently implicated as a critical player in multiple cancer tumorigeneses. However, the molecular mechanisms for its tumorigenic role are poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the effects of LCN2 on cell proliferation, autophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis in MEF cells. We observed that LCN2 deficiency significantly inhibited ...
Nowak-Imialek Monika - - 2011
The domesticated pig has emerged as an important tool for development of surgical techniques, advancement of xenotransplantation, creation of important disease models, and preclinical testing of novel cell therapies. However, germ line-competent pluripotent porcine stem cells have not yet been derived. This has been a major obstacle to genetic modification ...
Zhao Ping - - 2011
BACKGROUND In mammalian ovaries, diverse paracrine factors have been identified to mediate or modulate LH-induced changes during ovulation. Due to the difficulty in obtaining non-stimulated granulosa cells during IVF, little is known about the LH-induced paracrine factors in the human ovary. Based on earlier studies using murine ovarian cells showing ...
Johnson Andrew D AD School of Biology, Institute of Genetics, Queen's Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK. - - 2011
The germ line and soma together maintain genetic lineages from generation to generation: the germ line passes genetic information between generations; the soma is the vehicle for germ line transmission, and is shaped by natural selection. The germ line and somatic lineages arise simultaneously in early embryos, but how their ...
Kawamura Kaz - - 2011
The morphology of ascidian gonad is very similar among species. The testis consists of variable number of testicular follicles; the ovary consists of ovarian tubes that are thickened forming the germinal epithelium with stem cells for female germ cells with the exception of botryllid ascidians. Peculiar accessory cells that would ...
Fu Jiang - - 2011
We have previously demonstrated that Gpr177, the mouse orthologue of Drosophila Wls/Evi/Srt, is required for establishment of the anterior-posterior axis. The Gpr177 null phenotype is highly reminiscent to the loss of Wnt3, the earliest abnormality among all Wnt knockouts in mice. The expression of Gpr177 in various cell types and ...
Kawamura Kaz - - 2011
The morphology of ascidian gonad is very similar among species. The testis consists of variable number of testicular follicles; the ovary consists of ovarian tubes that are thickened forming the germinal epithelium with stem cells for female germ cells with the exception of botryllid ascidians. Peculiar accessory cells that would ...
Lewandoski Mark - - 2011
Outgrowth of the embryonic limb in vertebrates is driven by a proximodistal gradient of cell movement, with WNT and FGF activities controlling direction and velocity, respectively. A similar gradient, though without a directional bias, drives caudal body axis extension.
Fu Jiang - - 2011
We have previously demonstrated that Gpr177, the mouse orthologue of Drosophila Wls/Evi/Srt, is required for establishment of the anterior-posterior axis. The Gpr177 null phenotype is highly reminiscent to the loss of Wnt3, the earliest abnormality among all Wnt knockouts in mice. The expression of Gpr177 in various cell types and ...
Bao Lei - - 2011
Reprogramming of somatic cells in the enucleated egg made Dolly, the sheep, the first successfully cloned mammal in 1996. However, the mechanism of sheep somatic cell reprogramming has not yet been addressed. Moreover, sheep embryonic stem (ES) cells are still not available, which limits the generation of precise gene-modified sheep. ...
Wang Xin-Ding - - 2011
Understanding the fate and dynamics of cells during callus formation is essential to understanding totipotency and the mechanisms of somatic embryogenesis. Here, the fate of leaf explant cells during the development of embryogenic callus was investigated in the model legume Medicago truncatula. Callus development was examined from cultured leaf explants ...
Saito Yuri - - 2011
Anamorsin (AM) plays crucial roles in hematopoiesis and embryogenesis. AM deficient (AM KO) mice die during late gestation; AM KO embryos are anemic and very small compared to wild type (WT) embryos. To determine which signaling pathways AM utilizes for these functions, we used murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells generated ...
Roelen Bernard A J - - 2011
In the poem The Brewing of Soma by John G. Whittier, the rejuvenating powers attributed to the Soma potion may be in fact be no more than fool's gold. In contrast, the findings of Matoba and Ogura in the current issue of Biology of Reproduction allude to the importance of ...
Desmarais Joelle A - - 2011
Although putative horse embryonic stem (ES)-like cell lines have been obtained recently from in vivo-derived embryos, it is currently not known whether it is possible to obtain ES cell (ESC) lines from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetic (PA) embryos. Our aim is to establish culture conditions for the ...
Wu Edlyn - - 2011
In vitro recapitulation has recently led to significant advances in the understanding of the molecular functions of microRNAs. Cell-free systems allow a direct perspective on the different steps involved, and provide the experimenter with the opportunity to directly interfere with, or alter the implicated factors. In this chapter, we describe ...
Panda S K - - 2011
Despite recent successes in the birth of buffalo calves cloned through SCNT or hand-guided cloning (HGC), the cloning efficiency is very low in this species because of lack of information on factors that influence it. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of cytoplasmic volume on the ...
Mu Y S - - 2011
Data from mice showed that follistatin can block myostatin activity in vivo and follistatin overexpressed in transgenic mice can induce dramatic increases in muscle mass. In order to determine whether this effect of follistatin have the same results in swine, we design experiment to make a follistatin transgenic porcine by ...
Yuan Xu - - 2011
Recent advances in somatic cell reprogramming and directed differentiation make it possible to generate patient-specific pluripotent cells and further derive functional tissue-specific cells for biomedical research and future therapies. Chemical compounds targeting enzymes or signaling proteins are powerful tools to regulate and reveal complex cellular processes and have been identified ...
Camargo L S A - - 2011
The oocyte has important components for nuclear reprogramming and its cytoplasmic background may influence the somatic cell nuclear transfer success. The current study attempted to evaluate the competence of cytoplasm from oocytes recovered by repeated ovum pickup (OPU) in living cows (OPU group) or obtained from ovaries collected at slaughterhouse ...
d'Aquino Riccardo - - 2011
During human embryonic development, odontogenic tissues, deriving from the neural crest, remain undifferentiated until the adult age. This study was aimed at characterising the cells of the follicle enveloping the dental germ, due to its direct origin from neural crests. Sixty dental follicles were collected from patients aged 18 to ...
Ostrup O - - 2011
Ooplasm posses several, undefined factors allowing for reprogramming of somatic genome into pluripotent state. However, it is presently unknown if and to what extent the ooplasm is able to interact with a transferred somatic cell from another species in the context of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The 1-cell ...
Pribenszky Csaba - - 2011
The principal approach in in vitro embryo culture and manipulation has been a defensive one: procedures aim to satisfy passively the supposed or real physiological needs of gametes and embryos. Similarly, during cryopreservation the aim is to cause minimal damage to cells whilst attempting to obtain the highest achievable cell ...
Lee Y M - - 2011
Recent findings have shown that ovaries after birth have germ line stem cells, which were considered as an alternative for the production of an animal model. The present study was therefore aimed to characterise ovarian theca cells and generate oocyte-like cell masses in vitro in porcine. Theca cells isolated from ...
Edel Michael J - - 2011
Embryonic stem cells (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) present a great opportunity to treat and model human disease as a cell replacement therapy. There is a growing pressure to understand better the signal transduction pathways regulating pluripotency and self-renewal of these special cells in order to deliver a ...
Lye Claire M - - 2011
During morphogenesis, tissues are shaped by cell behaviors such as apical cell constriction and cell intercalation, which are the result of cell intrinsic forces, but are also shaped passively by forces acting on the cells. The latter extrinsic forces can be produced either within the deforming tissue by the tissue-scale ...
Lane Simon I R - - 2011
Comment on: Teperek-Tkacz M, et al. Cell Cycle 2010; 9:4674-87.
Lindemann Charles B - - 2011
The cilia and flagella of eukaryotic cells are complex filamentous organelles that undulate rapidly and produce propulsive force against the fluids that surround the living cell. They provide a number of important functions in the life cycle of higher organisms including humans. A flagellum propels the spermatozoa to the site ...
Rebay Ilaria - - 2011
Once antibodies against a Drosophila protein have been produced and an antiserum is determined to have a high titer against the fusion protein used for immunization, the next step is to ask whether the antiserum recognizes the appropriate antigen in Drosophila tissues. This protocol describes staining of transfected S2 cells ...
Akagi S - - 2011
The efficiency of somatic cell cloning is very low, probably because of incomplete reprogramming of the somatic cell nucleus. In recent studies, it is suggested that transient exposure of donor somatic cells to mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) extract enhances pluripotency of the cells in vitro (Bru et al. 2008 ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >