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Costa-Borges Nuno - - 2011
Mouse recipient cytoplasts for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are routinely prepared by mechanical enucleation (ME), an invasive procedure that requires expensive equipment and considerable micromanipulation skills. Alternatively, oocytes can be enucleated using chemically-assisted (AE) or chemically-induced (IE) enucleation methods that are technically simple. In this study, we compared the ...
Jose Caroline - - 2011
We assessed the impact of ten mitoactive drugs on the viability and the proliferation of human cancer cells of variable origin and bioenergetics. A validated chemotherapeutic drug, doxorubicin, was used as a gold-standard for comparison. We also looked at the effect of these drugs on Rho(0) cells and on embryonic ...
Hinton Barry T - - 2011
It is very clear that the epididymis plays a crucial role in the maturation of spermatozoa, and without a fully developed and functional epididymis, male infertility will result. We are especially interested in understanding the mechanisms that regulate the development of this important organ because disruptions to epididymal function will ...
Parte Seema - - 2011
The present study was undertaken to detect, characterize, and study differentiation potential of stem cells in adult rabbit, sheep, monkey, and menopausal human ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). Two distinct populations of putative stem cells (PSCs) of variable size were detected in scraped OSE, one being smaller and other similar in ...
Liao Baojian - - 2011
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging critical regulators of cell function that frequently reside in clusters throughout the genome. They influence a myriad of cell functions, including the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, also termed reprogramming. Here, we have successfully delivered entire miRNA clusters into reprogramming fibroblasts using retroviral vectors. This ...
Hales Barbara F - - 2011
Embryo development requires a series of cell fate decisions; cell lineages are established early during development and must be "remembered" through multiple cell divisions. It is increasingly evident that epigenetic marks, DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNAs, have a critical role in this cell memory during development. During gametogenesis, ...
Koltunow Anna M G - - 2011
Asexual seed formation, or apomixis, in Hieracium subgenus Pilosella is controlled by two dominant, independent genetic loci, LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP). We examined apomixis mutants that had lost function in one or both loci to establish their developmental roles during seed formation. In apomicts, sexual ...
Julaton Vanessa T Angeles - - 2011
Human infertility is common and frequently linked to poor germ cell development. Yet, human germ cell development is poorly understood, at least in part due to the inaccessibility of germ cells to study especially during fetal development. Here, we explored the function of a highly conserved family of genes, the ...
Ridley Anne - - 2011
This paper caught my eye because it showed for the first time that cells really move by blebbing as a physiological process in vivo, and by doing so, it made the whole process of blebbing come to life. I had first come across apoptotic cell blebbing during my PhD research. I ...
Schier Alex - - 2011
The second sentence in the first issue of Developmental Cell states that the new journal's goal is to provide "a unique resource for scientists interested in the properties of individual cells and their regulation in a larger multicellular context." The paper by Yoo, Huttenlocher, and colleagues illustrates this credo beautifully. Using ...
Sun Qing-Yuan - - 2011
Comment on: Sun SC, et al. Cell Cycle 2010; 9:4552 - 4559.
Xu Xiaoming - - 2011
BACKGROUND The nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA) plays a central role in the assembly and maintenance of spindle poles. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) studies on non-human primates have shown that meiotic spindle removal during enucleation causes depletion of NuMA and the minus-end-directed motor protein (HSET) from the ooplasm, and this ...
Uemura Tadashi - - 2011
Preimplantation mouse embryos form two types of cells by the blastocyst stage: trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM). In spite of this being the earliest lineage specified in mammalian embryos, few critical molecular mechanisms had been elucidated to distinguish between two historical models: the inside-outside model and the polarity ...
Racowsky Catherine - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of collecting day 3 embryo morphology variables into the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System (SART CORS). DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: National database-SART CORS. PATIENT(S): Fresh autologous assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles from 2006-2007 in which embryos were transferred singly (n = 1,020) ...
Yamanaka Yojiro - - 2011
The first three cell lineages formed in the implanting mouse embryo are the epiblast (EPI), primitive endoderm (PE) and trophectoderm. The EPI and PE are the two lineages derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst, which give rise to the fetus and extraembryonic yolk sac, respectively. Previous ...
Wang Yang - - 2011
Reprogramming somatic cells to become induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by using defined factors represents an important breakthrough in biology and medicine, yet remains inefficient and poorly understood. We therefore devised synthetic factors by fusing the VP16 transactivation domain to OCT4 (also known as Pou5f1), NANOG and SOX2, respectively. These ...
Dang-Nguyen T Q - - 2011
The objective was to investigate development of single blastomeres derived from IVP two-cell porcine embryos. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in blastocyst rates among intact two-cell embryos (IN), zona-free two-cell embryos (ZF), and single blastomere (SB) groups (50.0 ± 9.7, 57.4 ± 5.7, and 45.1 ± 7.2%, respectively; ...
Cohen Dena E - - 2011
Regenerative medicine offers the hope that cells for disease research and therapy might be created from readily available sources. To fulfil this promise, the cells available need to be converted into the desired cell types. We review two main approaches to accomplishing this goal: in vitro directed differentiation, which is ...
Kim Jung Mo - - 2011
In general, the formation of embryoid bodies (EBs) is a commonly known method for initial induction of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into their derivatives in vitro. Despite the ability of EBs to mimic developmental processing, the specification and classifications of EBs are not yet well known. Because EBs show ...
Richard Jai Prakash - - 2011
Cells can change identity during normal development, in response to tissue damage or defined artificial treatments, or during disease processes such as cancer. Strikingly, not only the reprogramming of tissue cells to an embryonic stem cell-like state, but also the direct conversion from one cell type to another have been ...
Ramos Kenneth S - - 2011
L1 retroelements may play a central role in morphogenesis through epigenetic mechanisms involving recruitment of chromatin modifying protein complexes. Retroelements are repressed in terminally differentiated cells, and highly active in embryonic, undifferentiated, and transformed cells. It is not clear if the modulation of differentiation by L1 is a "cause" or ...
Kumar Amit - - 2011
Class I(A) phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are heterodimeric enzymes composed of a p85 regulatory and a p110 catalytic subunit that induce the formation of 3-polyphosphoinositides, which mediate cell survival, division, and migration. There are two ubiquitous PI3K isoforms p110α and p110β that have nonredundant functions in embryonic development and cell division. ...
Umanzor-Alvarez Jose - - 2011
Targeted delivery of materials to individual cells remains a challenge in nanoscience and nanomedicine. Near infrared (NIR) laser injection may be a promising alternative to manual injection (where the micropipet diameter limits targeting to small cells) or other laser techniques (such as picosecond green and UV lasers, which can be ...
Kinoshita Taisuke - - 2011
During cell division, one of the major features of somatic cell reprogramming by defined factors, cells are potentially exposed to DNA damage. Inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 raised reprogramming efficiency but resulted in an increased number of abnormal chromosomes in established iPS cells. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), which is ...
Takashima Shigeo S Department of Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, - - 2011
In this paper we have investigated the developmental-genetic steps that shape the entero-endocrine system of Drosophila melanogaster from the embryo to the adult. The process starts in the endoderm of the early embryo where precursors of endocrine cells and enterocytes of the larval midgut, as well as progenitors of the ...
Pennington Paul R - - 2011
Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) has been associated with both depression and Alzheimer disease (AD). Recently, carriers of AD-related presenilin-1 (PS-1) alleles have been found to be at higher risk for developing clinical depression. We chose to examine whether PS-1 could influence MAO-A function in vitro. Overexpression of selected AD-related PS-1 variants ...
Fulka Helena - - 2011
ESCs are most commonly derived from embryos originating from oocytes that reached metaphase II. We describe here a novel approach where ESCs with all pluripotency parameters were established from oocytes in which metaphase I was converted, from the cell cycle perspective, directly into metaphase II-like stage without the intervening anaphase ...
Tammi Raija H - - 2011
Hyaluronan, a ubiquitous high molecular mass glycosaminoglycan on cell surfaces and in extracellular matrices, has a number of specific signaling functions in cell-cell communication. Changes in its content, molecular mass and turnover rate are crucial for cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis, processes that control tissue remodeling during embryonic development, inflammation, ...
Chen Xiaoyan - - 2011
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can contribute to tumorigenesis by acting as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. The authors' previous studies on miR-34a showed that miRNA can influence the growth of uveal melanoma cells. In this study, they investigated the role of miR-137 in the pathogenesis of uveal melanoma. Real-time RT-PCR was ...
Su Weijun - - 2011
Human embryonic stem (hES) cells have a potential use for the repair and regeneration of injured tissues. However, teratoma formation can be a major obstacle for hES-mediated cell therapy. Therefore, tracking the fate and function of transplanted hES cells with noninvasive imaging could be valuable for a better understanding of ...
Pelosi Emanuele - - 2011
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have remarkable properties of pluripotency and self-renewal, along with the retention of chromosomal integrity. Germ cells function as a kind of "transgenerational stem cells," transmitting genetic information from one generation to the next. The formation of putative primordial germ cells (PGCs) and germ cells from mouse ...
Nagao Hiroko - - 2011
The Hedgehog pathway functions as an organizer in embryonic development. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog pathway has been reported in various types of malignant tumours. The GLI2 transcription factor is a key mediator of Hedgehog pathway but its contribution to neoplasia is poorly understood. To establish the role of GLI2 ...
Kumar Girish - - 2011
Cell locomotion plays a key role in embryonic morphogenesis, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. Here we show that intermittent control of cell shape using microarrays can be used to amplify the natural directional persistence of cells and guide their continuous migration along preset paths and directions. The key to this ...
Wu Hui-Ru - - 2011
The origin of germline cells was a crucial step in animal evolution. Therefore, in both developmental biology and evolutionary biology, the mechanisms of germline specification have been extensively studied over the past two centuries. However, in many animals, the process of germline specification remains unclear. Here, we show that in ...
Sengupta Piali P Department of Biology and National Center for Behavioral Genomics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454, USA. - - 2011
Directed reprogramming of differentiated cells allows the generation of specific cell types for therapeutics and can provide unexpected insights into development. A recent study demonstrates that efficient reprogramming of Caenorhabditis elegans germ cells into neurons can be achieved by knocking down a histone chaperone gene and ectopic expression of a ...
Morris Samantha A - - 2011
In early mouse embryos the first cell-fate decision segregates two cell populations: the outer trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM). Cells are primarily directed to the ICM in two waves of asymmetric division at the 8-16-cell and 16-32-cell stage transition - the first and second waves, respectively. The ICM ...
Díaz-Prado Silvia - - 2011
The human amniotic membrane (HAM) is a highly abundant and readily available tissue. This amniotic tissue has considerable advantageous characteristics to be considered as an attractive material in the field of regenerative medicine. It has low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory properties and their cells can be isolated without the sacrifice of human ...
Sprunck Stefanie - - 2011
In flowering plants, the haploid gamete-forming generation comprises only a few cells and develops within the reproductive organs of the flower. The female gametophyte has become an attractive model system to study the genetic and molecular mechanisms involved in pattern formation and gamete specification. It originates from a single haploid ...
Mandenius Carl-Fredrik - - 2011
In this article, recent progress in cardiotoxicity testing based on the use of immortalized cell lines or human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derived cardiomyocytes in combination with state-of-the-art bioanalytical methods and sensors is reviewed. The focus is on hESC-derived cells and their refinement into competent testing cells, but the access ...
Fan Yong - - 2011
Derivation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from patient-specific cloned blastocysts by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) holds great promise in modern regenerative medicine and cell-based drug discovery. However, the efficiency of blastocyst formation after human SCNT is very low. It has been demonstrated that the developmental competence of SCNT embryos ...
Sharon Nadav - - 2011
The Spemann-Mangold organizer is the structure that provides the signals which initiate pattern formation in the developing vertebrate embryo, affecting the main body axes. Very little is known about axial induction in the gastrulating human embryo, as research is hindered by obvious ethical restrictions. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are ...
Rubin Brian P - - 2011
Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (eRMS) shows the most myodifferentiation among sarcomas, yet the precise cell of origin remains undefined. Using Ptch1, p53 and/or Rb1 conditional mouse models and controlling prenatal or postnatal myogenic cell of origin, we demonstrate that eRMS and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) lie in a continuum, with satellite cells ...
Calarco Joseph P - - 2011
The movement of mobile small RNA signals between cells has garnered much interest over the last few years, and has recently been extended to germ cells during gamete development. Focusing on plants, we review mobile RNA signals that arise following reprogramming in the germline, and their effect on transposable element ...
Geens Mieke - - 2011
To investigate the spontaneous germ cell differentiation capacity of VUB hESC lines, develop a protocol for the induction of germ cell differentiation using conditioned medium from Sertoli cells (SCCM) and compare it to existing protocols. hESC were allowed to differentiate spontaneously or after the addition of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) ...
Casanova Jesus C - - 2011
The apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is a specialized epithelium located at the distal edge of the limb bud that directs outgrowth along the proximodistal axis. Although the molecular basis for its function is well known, the cellular mechanisms that lead to its maturation are not fully understood. Here, we show ...
Wansleeben Carolien - - 2011
Directing the orientation of cells in three dimensions is a fundamental aspect of many of the processes underlying the generation of the appropriate shape and function of tissues and organs during embryonic development. In an epithelium, this requires not only the establishment of apicobasal polarity, but also cell arrangement in ...
Kapelle William S - - 2011
The closely related C. elegans MEG-1 and MEG-2 proteins localize to P granules during a brief period of embryogenesis when the germ lineage is being separated from the soma. Embryonic primordial germ cells still develop in the absence of MEG activity, but major defects emerge during larval stages when germ ...
Niehrs Christof - - 2011
A hallmark of embryonic development is the temporal-spatial continuum of cell-cell interactions, which gives rise to the trajectory of progressive cell differentiations. Despite the great reductionists' success in dissecting the mechanistic basis of developmental processes, the call for more holistic system theories never ceased during the last century. Various system ...
Hong So Gun - - 2011
SummarySomatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has emerged as an important tool for producing transgenic animals and deriving transgenic embryonic stem cells. The process of SCNT involves fusion of in vitro matured oocytes with somatic cells to make embryos that are transgenic when the nuclear donor somatic cells carry 'foreign' DNA ...
Jabbari Esmaiel - - 2011
Success of tissue engineered constructs in regenerative medicine is limited by the lack of cellmatrix interactions to guide devleopment of the seeded cells into the desired tissue. This review highlights the most exciting developments in bioconjugation of synthetic hydrogels targeted to tissue engineering. Application of conjugation techniques has resulted in ...
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